Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pesticide regulation; pesticide exposure; pesticide policy; non-occupational pesticide exposure; human health; pesticide pollution
Online: 4 December 2020 (15:09:18 CET)
Pesticides have a vital contribution to the agricultural industry in Australia. However, pesticide applications may not always selective to its target organism. Exposure to pesticide has been associated with negative impacts to human health. One of the ways to reduce pesticide risk to the population and the environment is through government regulations. To put Australia pesticide regulations into perspective, comparisons were made between Australia and other nation’s pesticides regulations. The EU pesticide regulatory system was chosen for comparison with the Australian’s in the aspect of protecting the population from pesticide exposure. The comparison showed that the assessment to authorize a pesticide in Australia is based on the risk while in the EU, the assessment is based on the hazard of the pesticide. A registered active substance in Australia can be authorized for use indefinitely unless it is nominated for reconsideration while the period of registration of an active substance in the EU lasts for 10 years. In addition, no routine systematic chemical residue surveys are conducted in Australia for food commodities. The results highlight areas for improvement in the Australian pesticide regulatory system from the perspective of controlling undue exposure among the general population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0162.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Agroecology; Apoidea; Landscape; Pesticide; Sacrifice zones
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:33:00 CEST)
Industrial agriculture (IA) is the predominant model of food production since the Green Revolution in the 1950s. IA has been recognized among the main drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change and native pollinator decline. This is controversial, given that native agricultural pollinators are an important resource biota already contributing to crop yield, especially in areas defined as "world biodiversity hotspots” (WBH). These areas often overlap with agricultural zones hosting a significant proportion of cultivated land, mainly through intensive agricultural practices. Pollinator biodiversity and pollination services in these places are currently under threat due to the negative consequences of IA. The dual role of insects as key players allowing the maintenance of the natural ecosystem, as well as main crop pollinators, is particularly exacerbated and urgently requires conservation actions in WBH and food-producing zones. Here we summarize the known negative effects of IA on pollinator biodiversity and illustrate these problems by considering the case of Chile. Food exports represent a considerable part of the economy in this OECD “developing country” in the “Global South”, and a large part of its surface has been highlighted as a unique WBH. This area is currently being replaced by IA businesses at a fast pace, threatening local biodiversity. We present agroecological strategies for sustainable food production and pollinator conservation in food-producing WBHs like Chile. These alternatives recognize native pollinators as internal inputs that cannot be replaced by IA technological packages or external inputs and support the development of agroecological and biodiversity restoration practices to protect their existing biodiversity. We suggest a strategy that integrates four fundamental pillars for producing food in a sustainable way, recognizing biodiversity and local cultural heritage: 1) Share the land, restore and protect; 2) Ecological intensification; 3) Localized knowledge, research and technological development; and 4) Territorial planning and implementation of socio-agroecological policies. We suggest that this approach does not need greater modification of native pollination services that sustain the world with food and basic subsistence goods, but a paradigm change where the interdependency of nature and human wellbeing are recognized for ensuring the present and future of the world’s food security and sovereignty as well as considering the reduction of consumerism and food waste.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0088.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pesticide dissipation; risk assessment; environmental fate
Online: 28 August 2017 (16:51:22 CEST)
Data relating to the rate at which pesticide active substances dissipate on or within various plant matrices are important for a range of different risk assessments; however, despite the importance of this data, dissipation rates are not included in the most common online data resources. Databases have been collated in the past, but these tend not to be maintained or regularly updated. The purpose of the exercise described herein was to collate a new database in a format compatible with the main online pesticide database resource (the Pesticide Properties Database, PPDB), to validate this database in line with the Pesticide Properties Database protocols and thus ensure that the data is maintained and updated in future. Data was collated using a systematic review approach using several scientific databases. Collated literature was subjected to a quality assessment, and then data was extracted into an MS Excel spreadsheet. The outcome of the study is a database based on data collated from 1390 published articles covering over 400 pesticides and over 200 crops across a wide variety of different matrices (leaves, fruits, seeds etc.) for pesticide residues on the crop surface, as well as residues absorbed within the plant material. This data is now fully incorporated into the PPDB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0449.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: organophosphate pesticide; removal; adsorption; kinetics; textural properties
Online: 24 November 2022 (03:19:52 CET)
Due to the accumulation of pesticides in the environment, the development of efficient strategies for their removal is of utmost importance. Activated carbons are currently seen as excellent candidates for adsorptive pesticide removal based on several beneficial properties, like a large surface area, developed porosity, and low price. However, a deep link between materials' properties and performance is still elusive. Here we focus on the kinetics of three organophosphate pesticides removal, aliphatic dimethoate and malathion and aromatic chlorpyrifos, using a series of carefully prepared activated carbon fibers. Used adsorbents have a wide range of specific surface areas, pore size distributions, and elemental content, allowing the establishment of the link between physicochemical properties and their performance as adsorbents. We use data analysis tools to link these properties and discuss their different roles in the removal of three structurally different yet extremely dangerous pesticides. The obtained results can guide the synthesis of novel adsorbents or rationally select adsorbents for specific target pollutants based on the physicochemical properties of adsorbents and the chemical structure of pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0515.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: organophosphate; pesticide; pH stability; toxicity; Apis mellifera
Online: 27 August 2021 (10:49:28 CEST)
Organophosphate pesticides are used in large quantities. However, they exhibit toxic effects on non-target organisms. Dimethoate and its oxo-analog omethoate inhibit acetylcholinesterase and are toxic for mammals. Moreover, they show extreme toxicity for bees. Once in the environment, they undergo chemical transformations and decomposition. We show that dime-thoate and omethoate decompose rapidly in alkaline aqueous solutions (half-lives 5.7 and 0.89 days) but are highly stable in acidic solutions (half-lives 124 and 104 days). These differences are explained using quantum chemical calculations, indicating that a weaker P–S bond in omethoate is more susceptible to hydrolysis, particularly at a high pH. The toxicity of these pesticides solutions decreases over time, indicating that no or very little highly toxic omethoate is formed during hydrolysis. Presented data can be used to predict dimethoate and omethoate concentrations in contaminated water depending on pH. Presented results suggest that alkaline hydrolysis of organophosphates has an advantage over other techniques for their removal since there is no risk of omethoate accumulation and increased toxicity of contaminated water.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0167.v1
Subject: Keywords: Organophosphate Pesticides, Pesticide Toxicology, Human Health, Environment
Online: 6 August 2020 (12:22:38 CEST)
Organophosphate pesticides (also known OPPs) have for many years been the choice candidate globally for pest control. OPPs have for over 80 years, been used in gardens, fields and greenhouses as crop protection agents, and even in homes as insecticides and mosquito abatement. Thus, year after year and with the repeated application of organophosphate agents, many problems have appeared as a result of excessive use of pesticides. The adverse effects of pesticides are well documented in human health, environment, pesticide residue in crops, soil and water contaminated by these pesticides. Therefore, it is necessary to shed more light on the risks associated with the irresponsible usage of organophosphate pesticides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0070.v1
Online: 5 April 2018 (14:49:08 CEST)
Rapid sampling and multicomponent analysis are vital in the analysis of pesticide residue detection. In this work, we proposed a SERS platform to simultaneously detect three kinds of pesticides on apple peels by a straightforward “press and peel off” method. The flexible Au/dragonfly wing (Au/DW) substrate was obtained from sputtering Au nanoislands on dragonfly wing bioscaffold arrays by a simple DC magnetron sputtering system. The high-performance substrate exhibited a low limit of detection (LOD) to 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) (10-9 M), outstanding reproducibility (less than 12.15%), good stability and suitability in multifold pesticide residues detection. Considering its excellent sample collection efficiency, the Au/DW substrate was employed to solve critical pesticide residues problems for detection of acephate (APT), cypermethrin (CPT), tsumacide (MTMC) and their multiple components on apple peels. The results show that the LOD was 10-3 ng/cm2 for APT obtained on the apple surface with a calculation equation of y=0.26x+6.68 and a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.970. Additionally, the LOD values for CPT and MTMC were 10-3 ng/cm2 and 10-4 ng/cm2, respectively. The finding in this work may provide a promising biomimetic SERS platform for on-spot detection of other organic pollutants in the food industry and the environmental protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0439.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: acetylcholine binding protein; acetylcholinesterase; green pesticide, molecular docking
Online: 26 August 2022 (03:21:21 CEST)
2-Methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one was prepared by reaction of anthranilic acid, acetic anhydride and ammonium acetate. The reaction of 2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one with N-aryl-2-chloroacetamides in acetone in the presence of potassium carbonate gave nine N-aryl-2-(2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HR-MS spectral data. These synthesized compounds containing the 2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one moiety exhibited excellent activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae with LC50 values in the range of 2.085-4.201 μg/mL after 72 h exposure. Interestingly, these compounds did not exhibit toxicity to the non-target organism Diplonychus rusticus. In silico molecular docking revealed acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to be potential molecular targets. These data indicated the larvicidal potential and environmental friendliness of these N-aryl-2-(2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetamide derivatives.
Online: 3 September 2021 (17:16:15 CEST)
A convenient and fast multiresidue method for the efficient identification and quantification of 72 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes in red and white grape wines have been developed. The analysis was based on gas chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric determination (GC–MS/MS). An optimization strategy involved the selection of MWCNTs amount and cleanup procedure cycle times for m-PFC was performed to achieve ideal recoveries and reduce sample matrix compounds in the final extracts. The optimized procedure obtained consistent recoveries between 70.2 and 108.8% (70.2% and 108.8% for white wine, 72.3% and 106.0% for red wine) , with relative standard deviations (RSDs) generally lower than 8.3% at three spiking levels of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg. Linearity was studied in the range between 0.005 and 0.2 mg/kg using pesticide standards prepared both in pure solvent and in the presence of matrix, showing coefficients of determination (R2) higher than 0.985 for all the pesticides. To improve accuracy, matrix matched calibration curves were used for calculating the quantification results. Finally, the method was used successfully in detecting pesticide residues in commercial gape wines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0084.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: mixture toxicity; concentration addition; pesticide; pharmaceuticals; Aliivibrio fischeri
Online: 6 December 2018 (11:08:43 CET)
This work introduced the potential synergistic toxicity of binary mixtures of pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which have been substantially detected in major river basins in South Korea. Different dose-response curve functions were employed in each experimental toxicity dataset for Aliivibrio fischeri. We tested the toxicity of 30 binary mixtures at two effect concentrations: high effect concentration [EC50] and low effect concentration [EC10] ranges. Thus, the toxicological interactions were evaluated at 60 effected concentration data points in total and based on model deviation ratios (MDRs) between predicted and observed toxicity values (e.g., three types of combined effects: synergistic (MDR > 2), additive (0.5 ≤ MDR ≤ 2), and antagonistic (MDR < 0.5)). From the 60 data points, MDRs could not be applied to 17 points, since their toxicities could not be measured. The result showed 48 %-additive (n = 20), 40 %-antagonistic (n = 17), and 12 %-synergistic (n = 6) toxicity effects from 43 binaries (excluding the 17 combinations without MDRs). In this study, EC10 ratio mixtures at a low overall effect range showed a general tendency to have more synergistic effects than the EC50 ratio mixtures at a high effect range. We also found an inversion phenomenon, which detected three binaries of the combination of synergism at low concentrations and additive antagonism at high concentrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: pollutants; microplastics; heavy metals; PAH; pesticide residues; medical waste
Online: 21 April 2022 (10:53:10 CEST)
A quality marine ecosystem if it is free from GTP contaminants. Accuracy and caution are needed in the exploitation of marine resources as marine tourism destinations so that in the future, there will be no ecological hazards that cause chain effects, not only on aquatic ecosystems but also on humans. This article identifies exposure to GTP (MP, PAH, PR, HM, MW) in marine ecosystems in the MTA area and BCI waters. The combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods uses a combination of analytical instruments and mathematical formulas. The search results show the average total abundance of MP in seawater and fish samples (5.47 units/m3) and (7.03 units/m3), respectively, while in sediment and sponge samples (8.18 units/m3) and (8.32 units/m3). Based on the analysis of the polymer structure, it was identified that the dominant light group MP (PE, PP and PS), followed by PA and PC. Several PAH pollutants were identified in the samples, especially NL types found in all samples, followed by PN and AZ. BCI sea waters are suspected to be exposed to MW and PR. Pollutants of Pb+2 and Cu+2 around BCI were successfully calculated with average concentrations in seawater 0.164 mg/L and 0.294 mg/L, respectively, while in fish, 1.8110 µg/g and 2,452 µg/g, respectively. Based on these findings, the BCI area is not recommended as a marine tourism destination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: vineyard; pesticide application; variable rate application; unmanned aerial vehicle
Online: 26 November 2019 (03:54:47 CET)
Canopy characteristics are crucial for accurately and safely determining the pesticide quantity and volume of water used for spray applications in vineyards. The inevitably high degree of intra-plot variability makes it difficult to develop a global solution for the optimal volume application rate. Here, the design procedure of, and the results obtained from, a variable rate application (VRA) sprayer are presented. Prescription maps were generated after detailed canopy characterization, using a multispectral camera embedded on an unmanned aerial vehicle, throughout the entire growing season in Torrelavit (Barcelona) in four vineyard plots of Chardonnay (2.35 ha), Merlot (2.97 ha), and Cabernet Sauvignonn (4.67 ha). The maps were obtained by merging multispectral images with information provided by DOSAVIÑA®, a decision support system, to determine the optimal volume rate. They were then uploaded to the VRA prototype, obtaining actual variable application maps after the application processes were complete. The prototype had an adequate spray distribution quality and exhibited similar results in terms of biological efficacy on powdery mildew compared to conventional (and constant) application volumes. The VRA results demonstrated an accurate and reasonable pesticide distribution, with potential for reduced disease damage even in cases with reduced amounts of plant protection products and water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0262.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: tomato pest; Tuta absoluta; bioassay; pesticide resistance; LD50; CYP450s
Online: 15 August 2018 (04:24:01 CEST)
In 2016 northern Nigeria experienced a devastating infestation by the tomato leaf miner, leading to soaring in prices of tomato across the country. Unfortunately, information on the bionomics and resistance status of this pest is lacking in northern Nigeria, hampering appropriate control measures. Here, we identified to species level, and using conventional and synergist bioassays characterised pesticides resistance profile of a field population of a tomato leaf miner from northern Nigeria. Highest resistance was obtained with λ-cyhalothrin (Type II pyrethroid) with a low mortality (18.52% at 56hr) and LD50 of 7461.474ppm. Resistance was also established toward propoxur and chlorpyrifos-methyl with average mortalities each of 56% and LD50s of 1023.51ppm and 106.351ppm, respectively. Highest susceptibility was seen with abamectin with mortality of 86% and LD50 of 0.034ppm. Pre-exposure to piperonyl butoxide significantly recovered λ–cyhalothrin susceptibility (mortality = 90% and LD50 = 0.92ppm) implicating the P450 monoxygenases in the resistance. No significant changes in mortalities were obtained on pre-exposure to diethyl maleate and triphenyl-phosphate- inhibitors of glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases, respectively. The finding of resistance to these agricultural pesticides will sensitize stakeholders across Nigeria to take action to manage the resistance at an early stage before it gets out of hand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0177.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: non-target action; soil microbiome; pesticide contamination; fungicide; soil quality
Online: 13 September 2022 (11:00:07 CEST)
Pesticides are widely used in agriculture as a pest control strategy. Despite the benefits of pesticides on crop yields, the persistence of chemical residues in soil have an unintended impact on non-targeted microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the combined fungicide (difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, and kresoxim-methyl) on fungal and bacterial communities of Phaeozem. In the fungicide-treated soil, the Shannon index of both fungal and bacterial communities was decreased, while Chao1 index did not differ compared to the control soil. Among bacterial taxa, the relative abundance of Athrobacter, Sphingomicrobium, and Sphingomonas increased in fungicide-treated soil due to their ability to utilize fungicides and other toxic compounds. Rhizopus and plant-beneficial Chaetomium were the dominant fungal genera, which increased 2-4 times in the fungicide-treated soil, while the relative abundance of Mortierella and Talaromyces decreased. Fusarium acuminatum was the most abundant phytopathogenic fungus that causes root rot disease of wheat, but applied fungicide treatment decreased their diversity in the soil 2 times, which is consistent on the observed plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0252.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: dried fish; Puntius sophore; organochlorine pesticide residues; gas chromatography; microbiological quality
Online: 14 September 2018 (04:51:38 CEST)
The present study was carried out at the north-eastern part of Bangladesh to investigate organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues and microbiological quality of dried barb (Puntius sophore). Samples were collected from both producers and retailers from December 2016 to April 2017. A control sample was also prepared with the same raw fish used by the producers in the laboratory to compare the result. Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) was used to detect and quantify OCP residues. Around 22 % (6) samples out of 27 were found contaminated with OCP residues. Among these six adulterated samples, four were from retailers and two from producers. Only Aldrin was detected in four samples and rest two samples were detected with both Aldrin + Dieldrin and Aldrin + Endrin. Aldrin was found between 0.332 to 0.967 ppm, Dieldrin 0.762 ppm, and Endrin 0.828 ppm. All these values were much higher than the Maximum Residual Limit (MRL) 0.1 ppm. Aerobic Plate Count (APC) of producer samples were ranged between log5.3 ± 0.02 to log5.4 ± 0.03, log6.2 ± 0.02 to log6.4 ± 0.02 for retailer samples and log5.0 ± 0.03 to log5.2 ± 0.04 for control samples. While fungal count was ranged between log3.2 ± 0.04 to log3.5 ± 0.04, log3.4 ± 0.04 to log3.6 ± 0.03 and log2.2 ± 0.05 to log2.5 ± 0.03 for producer, retailer and control samples respectively. All the producer and retailer samples and one-third of the control samples were found contaminated with Escherichia coli. Whereas, Salmonella sp. was detected as 13.3% in producer samples, 20% in retailer samples except for the control. In case of Vibrio sp., maximum count was found for retailer samples (13.3%), whereas, producer and control samples showed no detection. The finding of the present study revealed the presence of pesticides and poor microbiological quality of dried barb are alarming for the consumers of Bangladesh and which may cause chronic disease and potential long-term risk for human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Aflatoxin treated corn; Aspergillus flavus; atoxigenic aflatoxin; bee community; biological pesticide; saprophytic soil fungus
Online: 12 March 2020 (14:18:11 CET)
A saprophytic soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, produces aflatoxin (toxigenic strains) in the kernels of corn (Zea mays L.) and seeds of many other crops. Many strains of A. flavus do not produce toxigenic aflatoxin, and soil application of these atoxigenic strains is a suppressive control tactic to assist in controlling toxigenic conspecifics. Effects of atoxigenic A. flavus applications on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and other bees are unknown, and basic information on bee occurrences in corn fields treated with and without this biological pesticide is needed to inform integrated pest management in corn. Fields with atoxigenic A. flavus applications were compared to nearby control fields in three counties in corn production regions in eastern Texas. In each corn field, twenty bee bowl traps were deployed along four equal transects located between corn rows, with contents of the bowls (i.e. bees) retrieved after 24 hours. Eleven bee genera from four families were collected from corn fields, with only two honey bees collected and zero honey bees observed in transects. The sweat bee genus Agapostemon (primarily composed of the Texas-striped sweat bee A. texanus) was most abundant in corn fields (44% of the total number of bees collected) followed by long-horned bees (Melissodes spp., 24%). The southernmost county (i.e. San Patricio) produced over 80% of the total number of bees collected. Bee communities occurring in corn production fields with applications of atoxigenic A. flavus applications were not significantly different from nearby control fields. While little is known of bee resource use in corn production systems in Texas, the abundant yet variable bee communities across latitudes in this study suggests a need to investigate the influence of farming practices on bee resources in regional corn production systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: suicide rate; suicide by pesticide; occupational group; suicide prevention; south korea; population-based study
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:46:54 CET)
Suicide is a major public health concern in South Korea, and self-poisoning by pesticides is one of the common methods of suicide. Pesticide ban policies have been successful for suicide prevention; however, no studies have shown their effect according to occupational groups. The present study analyzed suicide and suicide by pesticide rates among South Korean workers age 15-64 in 2003-2017, their associations with occupational groups, and the impact of three major economic indices on these factors. Workers in the agriculture, forestry, and fishery industries have relative risks of 5.62 (95% CI: 5.54-5.69) for suicide overall and 25.49 (95% CI: 24.46-26.57) for suicide by pesticide. The real gross domestic product (RGDP) has a positive association with suicide overall only in the last five-year period investigated in this study, and the unemployment rate consistently has a positive association. The economic status and policy for suicide prevention affect suicide and suicide by pesticide rates differently among occupational groups and different time periods. Policy addressing suicidal risk for different occupational groups should be of concern in South Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0037.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Varroa mite, Pesticide Residues, Ppathogens, Apis mellifera, Migratory Hives, Sinai Virus, Lotmaria passim, Apocephalus borealis
Online: 5 May 2021 (11:54:37 CEST)
A two-year study was conducted in Maine wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) on the health of migratory honey bee colonies in 2014 and 2015. In each year 3-5 colonies were monitored at each of 9 wild blueberry field locations during bloom (mid-May until mid-June). Colony health was measured by assessing percent worker and sealed brood rate of change from the beginning of bloom until the end of bloom. Potential factors that might affect colony health were queen failure or supersedure; pes-ticide residues on trapped pollen, wax comb, and bee bread; and parasites and pathogens. We found that Varroa mite and pesti-cide residues on trapped pollen were significant predictors of colony health as measured by the percent rate of change of sealed brood during bloom. These two factors explained 71% of the variance in colony health over the two years. Pesticide exposure was different in each year as were pathogen prevalence and incidence. We detected high prevalence and abundance of two recently discovered pathogens and one recently discovered parasite, the trypanosome Lotmaria passim Schwartz, the Sinai virus, and the phorid fly, Apocephalus borealis Brues.