ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0612.v1
Online: 27 August 2020 (10:40:50 CEST)
Despite the availability of therapeutic treatments, multiple myeloma is an incurable haematological disorder. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of CXorf48 as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma. Based on a previously identified HLA-A*24:02-restiricted epitope from this novel cancer/testis antigen, we characterized the activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific to this antigen against myeloma cells and evaluated the effects of demethylating agents in increasing antigen expression and enhancing the cytotoxic activity of CTLs. CXorf48 expression was examined by RT-PCR using nine myeloma cell lines. Cell lines with low CXorf48 expression were treated by demethylating agents (DMAs), 5-azacytidine (5-aza), and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) to evaluate gene expression using quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, CXorf48-specific CTLs were induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A*24:02-positive healthy donors to evaluate antigen recognition using ELISpot and 51Cr cytotoxicity assays. CXorf48 was widely expressed in myeloma cells and gene expression was significantly increased by DMAs. Furthermore, CXorf48-specific CTLs recognized DMA-treated myeloma cells. These findings suggest that CXorf48 is a useful target for immunotherapy, such as vaccination, in combination with demethylating agents for the treatment of patients with myeloma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Multiple myeloma; myeloma bone disease; pathophysiology; osteolysis; imaging; zoledronic acid; denosumab; vertebral augmentation; rehabilitation; exercise
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:19:18 CEST)
The lytic bone disease is a hallmark of multiple myeloma, being present in about 80% of patients with newly diagnosed MM, and in more during the disease course. The myeloma associated bone disease (MBD) severely affects the morbidity and quality of life of the patients. MBD defines treatment demanding MM. In recent years, knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology has increased, and novel imaging technologies, medical and non-pharmaceutical treatments have improved. In this review, we highlight the major achievements in understanding, diagnosing and treating MBD. For diagnosing MBD, low-dose whole-body CT is now recommended over conventional skeletal survey, but also more advanced functional imaging modalities, such as diffusion-weighted MRI and PET/CT are increasingly important in the assessment and monitoring of MBD. Bisphosphonates have, for many years, played a key role in management of MBD, but denosumab is now an alternative to bisphosphonates, especially in patients with renal impairment. Radiotherapy is used for uncontrolled pain, for impeding fractures and in treatment of impeding or symptomatic spinal cord compression. Cement augmentation has been shown to reduce pain from vertebral compression fractures. Cautious exercise programs are safe and feasible and may have the potential to improve the status of patients with MM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: alkylator; myeloma; melflufen; melphalan; bendamustine; cyclophosphamide
Online: 4 March 2021 (10:02:33 CET)
A large number of novel treatments for myeloma have been developed and approved, however alkylating drugs continue to be part of standard regimens, additionally, novel alkylators are currently being developed. We performed a non-systematized literary search for relevant papers and communications at large conferences, as well as exploiting the authors knowledge of the field to review the history, current use and novel concepts around traditional alkylators cyclophosphamide, bendamustine and melphalan and current data on the newly developed pro-drug melflufen. Even in the era of targeted treatment and personalized medicine, alkylating drugs continue to be part of standard-of-care in myeloma, and new alkylators are coming to the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: 2,5-Dihydroxyacetophenone; multiple myeloma; MAPK; apoptosis
Online: 29 June 2017 (08:40:36 CEST)
2,5-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) is an active compound obtained from Radix Rehmanniae Preparata, which is widely used as a herbal medicine in many Asian countries. DHAP has been found to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and neuroprotective qualities. For the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects of DHAP on multiple myeloma cells. It was discovered that DHAP downregulated the expression of oncogenic gene products like Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Survivin, Cyclin D1, IAP-1, Cyclin E, COX-2, and MMP-9, and upregulated the expression of Bax and p21 proteins, consistent with the induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U266 cells. DHAP inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, as characterized by the cleavage of PARP and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to the modulation of the angiogenesis, proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of tumors. We therefore attempted to determine the effect of DHAP on MAPK signaling pathways, and discovered that DHAP treatment induced a sustained activation of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPKs. DHAP also potentiated the pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of bortezomib in U266 cells. Our results suggest that DHAP can be an effective therapeutic agent to target multiple myeloma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; STAT3; S3I-1757; nanoparticle; CD38
Online: 11 January 2019 (15:40:51 CET)
STAT3 is an oncoprotein which has been shown to contribute to drug resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). Nonetheless, the clinical utility of STAT3 inhibitors in treating MM has been limited, partly related to some of their pharmacologic properties. To overcome these challenges, our group had previously packaged STAT3 inhibitors using a novel formulation of nanoparticles (NP) and found encouraging results. In this study, we aimed to further improve the pharmacologic properties of these NP by decorating them with monoclonal anti-CD38 antibodies. NP loaded with S3I-1757 (a STAT3 inhibitor), labeled as S3I-NP, were generated. S3I-NP decorated with anti-CD38 (labeled as CD38-S3I-NP) were found to have a similar nanoparticular size, drug encapsulation and loading as S3I-NP. The release of S3I-1757 at 24 hours was also similar between the two formulations. Using Cy5.5 labeling of the NP, we found that the decoration of anti-CD38 on these NP significantly increased the cellular uptake by two MM cell lines (p<0.001). Accordingly, CD38-S3I-NP showed a significantly lower inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) compared to S3I-NP in two IL6-stimulated MM cell lines (p<0.001). In a xenograft mouse model, CD38-S3I-NP significantly reduced the tumor size by 4 folds compared to S3I-NP on day 12 after drug administration (p=0.006). The efficacy of CD38-S3I-NP in suppressing STAT3 phosphorylation in the xenografts was confirmed by using immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. In conclusion, our study suggests that the decoration of anti-CD38 on NP loaded with STAT3 inhibitors can further improve their therapeutic effects against MM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: long noncoding RNA; PVT1; MYC; bromodomain; multiple myeloma
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:31:37 CEST)
Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are deregulated in human cancers and are associated with disease progression. Plasmacytoma Variant Translocation 1 (PVT1), an lncRNA, is located adjacent to MYC, linked to multiple myeloma (MM). PVT1 is expressed in MM and is associated with carcinogenesis, however, its role and regulation machinery remain uncertain. We examined PVT1/MYC expression through real time PCR in plasma cells purified from 59 MGUS and 140 MM patients. MM cell lines KMS11, KMS12PE, OPM2, and RPMI8226 were treated with JQ1, a MYC superenhancer inhibitor, or MYC inhibitor 10058-F4. The expression levels of PVT1 and MYC were significantly higher in MM than in MGUS (p < 0.0001), and showed positive correlation with disease progression (r = 0.394, p < 0.0001). JQ1 inhibited cell proliferation and decreased the expression levels of MYC and PVT1. However, 10054-F4 did not alter the expression level of PVT1. The positive correlation between MYC and PVT1 in patients, synchronous downregulation of MYC and PVT1 by JQ1, and no effect of MYC inhibitor on PVT1 expression suggest that the expression of these two genes is coregulated by a superenhancer. Cooperative effects between these two genes may contribute to MM pathogenesis and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0151.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 3D culture; multiple myeloma; STAT; bortezomib; CETSA; stattic
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:32:11 CEST)
Malignant cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) models have been found to be phenotypically and biochemically different from their counterparts cultured conventionally. Since most of these studies employed solid tumor types, how 3D culture affects multiple myeloma (MM) cells is not well understood. Here, we compared MM cells (U266 and RPMI8226) in a 3D culture model with those in conventional culture. While the conventionally cultured cells were present in single cells or small clusters, MM-3D cells grew in large spheroids. We discovered that STAT3 was the pathway that was more activated in 3D in both cell lines. The active form of STAT3 (phospho-STAT3 or pSTAT3), which was absent in MM cells cultured conventionally, became detectable after 1-2 days in 3D culture. This elevated pSTAT3 level was dependent on the 3D environment, since it disappeared after transferring to conventional culture. STAT3 inhibition using a pharmacological agent, Stattic, significantly decreased the cell viability of MM cells and sensitized them to bortezomib in 3D culture. Using an oligonucleotide array, we found that 3D culture significantly increased the expression of several known STAT3 downstream genes implicated in oncogenesis. Since most primary MM tumors are naturally STAT3-active, studies of MM in 3D culture can generate results that are more representative of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: complication; dexamethasone; IMiD; infection; lenalidomide; multiple myeloma; neutropenia; Rd
Online: 1 September 2022 (09:46:28 CEST)
Lenalidomide-based regimens are effective treatment options for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). However, they are associated with an increased risk of infectious complications. This study examines the clinical factors influencing the occurrence of infection in MM patients treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd). A retrospective analysis of all patients who received the Rd regimen between 2017-2021 at our institution was performed. The study group consisted of 174 patients and the median age was 65 years. Most patients (n=110, 63.2%) received the Rd treatment in second-line treatment. The majority of patients (64.3%) received bortezomib-based regimens in the first line of treatment. The median progression-free survival was 12.6 (95% CI: 9.5 – 16.2) months, and the median overall survival was 22.3 (95% CI: 15.9 – 28.6) months. The overall response rate was 64.1%, 12.7% of patients achieved complete response and 20.4% had a very good partial response. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, hypoalbuminemia (OR 4.2, 95%CI:1.6-11.2, p= 0.0039), autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) before Rd (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.0- 6.7, p= 0.048) and anemia grade ≥3 (OR 5.0, 95%CI: 1.8-14.0, p= 0.002) were independent factors related to the occurrence of infections. In conclusion, in this large cohort of RRMM patients, AHSCT before Rd regimen therapy, hypoalbuminemia and anemia during treatment were identified as three independent factors influencing the frequency of infections during Rd therapy. Patients with established risk factors may benefit from optimal supportive therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: bortezomib; cMAF; MAFb; multiple myeloma; POMP; prognosis; PFS; survival; OS
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:43:42 CEST)
While multiple myeloma (MM) treatment with proteasome inhibitors and other agents yields encouraging results, primary and secondary resistance remains an emerging problem. An important factor in such treatment resistance is the overexpression of several proteins. The present study comprehensively evaluates the expression of POMP, PSMB5, NRF2, XBP1, cMAF and MAFb proteins in plasma cells isolated from the bone marrow of 39 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proteins were selected on the basis of previous laboratory and clinical studies in bortezomib treated MM patients. It was found that the expression of the investigated proteins did not significantly differ between bortezomib-sensitive and bortezomib-refractory patients. However, the expression of some proteins correlated with overall survival (OS); this was significantly shorter in patients with higher POMP expression (HR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.0, p = 0.0277) and longer in those with higher MAFB expression (HR 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.80, p = 0.0147). Our results indicate that high expression of POMP and MAFB in MM plasma cells may serve as predictors of OS in MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of these factors in effective strategies for improving anti-myeloma therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; computed tomography; artificial intelligence; radiomics; prognosis; imaging; diagnosis
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:17:03 CET)
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common type of hematological disease and, although it is rare among patients under 40 years of age, its incidence rises in elderly subject. MM manifestations are usually known with the abbreviation CRAB (hyperCalcemia, Renal failure, Anaemia, and lytic Bone lesions). In particular, the extent of the bone disease is negatively related to a decreased patients’ quality of life and, in general, bone disease in MM increases both morbidity and mortality. The detection of lytic bone lesions on imaging, especially CT and MRI, is becoming crucial from the clinical viewpoint to separate asymptomatic from symptomatic MM patients and the detection of focal lytic lesion in these imaging data is becoming relevant even when no clinical symptoms are present. Therefore, radiology is pivotal in the staging and accurate management of patients with MM even in early phases of the disease. In this review we describe the opportunities offered by quantitative imaging and radiomics in multiple myeloma. At present time there is still high variability in the choice between various imaging methods to study MM patients and high variability in image interpretation with suboptimal agreement among readers even in tertiary centres. Therefore, the potential of medical imaging for patients affected by MM is still to be completely unveiled. In the next years, new insights to study MM with medical imaging will derive from artificial intelligence (AI) and radiomics usage in different bone lesions and from the wide implementations of quantitative methods to report CT and MRI. Eventually, medical imaging data can be integrated with the patient's outcomes with the purpose to find radiological biomarkers for predicting the disease prognostic flow and its therapeutic response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; angiogenesis; extramedullary disease; drug resistance; bone marrow microenvironment.
Online: 16 June 2019 (10:05:40 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically heterogenous disease that includes a subgroup of 10-15% of patients facing dismal survival despite most intensive treatment. The aim of this review article is to provide an integrated clinical and biological overview on the high-risk MM discussing the novel therapeutic perspectives aimed to target the neoplastic clone and its microenvironment. The dissection of the molecular determinants of the aggressive phenotypes and drug resistance can foster a better tailored clinical management of high-risk profile and refractoriness to therapy. Among the current clinical difficulties in MM, patient’s management manipulating the tumor niche represents a major challenge given the limited knowledge about the MM-milieu interaction. The angiogenesis and bystander infiltrate constitute pivotal mechanisms of mutual collaboration between MM and the non-tumoral counterpart. Immuno-modulatory and anti-angiogenic therapy hold great efficacy but variable and unpredictable responses in high-risk MM. Therefore, it would be worth to better select the population and the MM stage that could profit to a dual immune/vasculogenesis targeting. The comprehensive knowledge of the genetic heterogeneity and MM high-risk ecosystem enforce a systematic bench-to-bedside approach. Despite significant improvements in the biology knowledge, MM is still a chronic and incurable neoplasia and therapeutic options able to overcome the relapsing/refractory behavior represent an unmet clinical need. Here, we corroborate previous biological findings providing a synthetic outlook of novel druggable targets. We also summarize the existing multi-omics-based risk profiling tools, in order to better personalize the patient-oriented clinical management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: bortezomib; IL-13; IL-1Ra; IL-4; multiple myeloma; OS; PFS
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:31:50 CET)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow with an elevation in monoclonal paraprotein, renal impairment, hypercalcemia, lytic bony lesions, and anemia. Immune cells and associated cytokines play a significant role in MM growth, progression, and dissemination. While some cytokines and their clinical significance are well described in MM biology, others remain relatively unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of pretreatment serum levels of 27 selected cytokines on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MM patients before first-line therapy with bortezomib-based regimens. Serum cytokine levels were assayed with a Bio-Rad Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine 27-Plex Assay on the MAGPIX Multiplex Reader and the Bio-Plex® 200 System (Bio-Rad) including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, Eotaxin, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF-α, and VEGF. A total of 61 MM patients were examined. Most patients received a bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) chemotherapy regimen. In the final multivariate model, IL-13 cytokine level (HR 0.1411, 95% CI: 0.0240-0.8291, p = 0.0302), and ASCT (HR 0.3722, 95% CI: 0.1826-0.7585, p=0.0065) significantly impacted PFS. Furthermore, ASCT (HR 0.142, 95% CI: 0.046-0.438, p=0.0007), presence of bone disease at diagnosis (HR 3.826, 95% CI: 1.471-9.949, p=0.0059) and two cytokine levels- IL-1Ra (HR 1.017, 95% CI: 1.004-1.030, p= 0.0091) and IL-4 (HR 0.161, 95% CI: 0.037-0.698, p = 0.0147) were independent predictors of OS. Three clusters of MM patients were identified with different cytokine profiles. In conclusion, serum pretreatment levels of IL-13 and IL-4 are predictors of better PFS and OS, respectively, whereas IL-1Ra pretreatment levels negatively impact OS in MM patients treated with bortezomib-based chemotherapy. Cytokine signature profile may have a potential influence on the outcome of patients treated with bortezomib.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: biology; drug resistance; gene expression profiling; mRNA; multiple myeloma; prognosis; treatment
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:20:44 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically complex disease that results from a multistep transformation of normal to malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and heterogeneous evolution of MM remain largely unknown. A fundamental step needed to understand the oncogenesis of MM and its response to therapy is the identification of driver mutations. The introduction of gene expression profiling (GEP) in MM was an important step in elucidating the molecular heterogeneity of MM and its clinical relevance. Since some mutations in myeloma occur in non-coding regions, studies based on the analysis of mRNA provide more comprehensive information on the oncogenic pathways and mechanisms relevant to MM biology. In this review, we discuss the role of gene expression profiling in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma together with the clinical manifestation of the disease, as well as its impact on treatment decisions and future directions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0212.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: BCMA; CAR T cell; Multiple Myeloma; Refractory/Relapsed; ADCs; Bispecific Antibody
Online: 13 September 2021 (12:36:12 CEST)
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is one of the incurable types of cancer in plasma cells. While immense progress has been made in the treatment of this malignancy, a large percentage of patients were unable to adapt to such therapy. Additionally, these therapies might be associated with significant diseases and are not always tolerated well in all patients. Since cancer in plasma cells has no cure, patients develop resistance to treatments, resulting in R/R MM. BCMA is primarily produced on mature B cells. Its up-regulation and activation are associated with multiple myeloma in both murine and human models, indicating that this might be an effective therapeutic target for this type of malignancy. Additionally, BCMA's predictive value, association with effective clinical trials, and capacity to be utilized in previously difficult to observe patient populations, imply that it might be used as a biomarker for multiple myeloma. Numerous kinds of BCMA-targeting medicines have demonstrated antimyeloma efficacy in individuals with refractory/relapsed MM, including CAR T-cell treatments, ADCs, bispecific antibody constructs. Among these medications, CART cell-mediated BCMA therapy has shown significant outcomes in multiple myeloma clinical trials. This review article outlines CAR T cell mediated BCMA medicines have the efficiency to change the therapeutic pattern for multiple myeloma significantly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma; overall survival; CAR-T; non CAR-T agents
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:16:01 CEST)
In recent years, new treatments have been studied for relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), including two CAR-T products and a variety of non CAR-T agents. Since direct comparisons between these innovative treatments are not available, indirect comparisons can be of interest. Reconstruction of individual patient data from Kaplan-Meier graphs (Shiny method) has been employed in numerous reports that have validated its performance. In the present review, we evaluated six treatments proposed for RRMM including two CAR-T products (ciltacabtagene autoleucel and idecabtagene vicleucel) and four treatments not based on a CAR-T (melflufen plus dexamethasone, isatuximab plus dexamethasone, selinexor, and belantamab). The end-point was overall survival (OS); the Shiny method was used to generate reconstructed survival curves. Our results showed statistically significant differences in OS across these treatments. Compared with pharmacological treatments, CAR-T products significantly prolonged OS with an improvement of remarkable clinical relevance. In particular, ciltacabtagene autoleucel showed better OS than idecabtagene vicleucel. As regards non CAR-T treatments, the ranking in OS was headed by isatuximab plus dexamethasone, followed by belantamab, selinexor, and melflufen plus dexamethasone. In conclusion, while the Shiny method has confirmed its validity in reconstructing individual patient data, our indirect comparisons have offered some original clues to better interpret the information on OS published in these studies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Antibody-mediated rejection; Crossmatch; Daratumumab; End-stage renal disease; Flow cytometry; HLA; Multiple myeloma; Transplantation
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:48:27 CEST)
We report the first case of Daratumumab interference of allogeneic crossmatch tests repeatedly causing aberrant false-positive results, which inadvertently delayed transplant for a waitlisted renal patient with multiple myeloma. Daratumumab is an IgG1κ human monoclonal antibody commonly used to treat multiple myeloma, characterized by cancerous plasma cells and often leads to renal failure requiring kidney transplant, by depleting CD38-expressing plasma cells. In this case study, the patient had end-stage renal disease secondary to multiple myeloma and was continuously receiving Daratumumab infusions. The patient did not have any detectable antibodies to human leukocyte antigens but repeatedly had unexpected positive crossmatch by the flow cytometry-based method with 26 of the 27 potential deceased organ donors, implying donor-recipient immunological incompatibility. However, further review and analysis suggested that the positive crossmatches were likely false-positive as a result of interference from Daratumumab binding to donor cell surface CD38 as opposed to the presence of donor-specific antibodies. The observed intensity of the false-positive crossmatches was also highly variable, potentially due to donor- and/or cell-dependent expression of CD38. The variability of CD38 expression was, therefore, for the first time, characterized on the T and B cells isolated from various tissues and peripheral blood of 78 individuals. Overall, T cells were found to have a lower CD38 expression profile than the B cells, and no significant difference was observed between deceased and living individuals. Finally, we show that a simple cell treatment by dithiothreitol can effectively mitigate Daratumumab interference thus preserving the utility of pre-transplant crossmatch in multiple myeloma patients awaiting kidney transplant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; early mortality; blood plasma; circulating miRNA; hematological malignancies; molecular biomarker; multiparametric model; prognosissurvival
Online: 4 July 2022 (05:59:59 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Despite the progress made in treatment, some MM patients still die within the first year of diagnosis. Numerous studies investigating microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns suggest they may be good prognostic markers. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the expression of selected miRNAs in the serum of MM patients subsequently treated with bortezomib-based regimens and determine their potential to predict early mortality. The study was conducted in 69 prospectively-recruited patients with newly-diagnosed MM admitted to the Department of Hematology of the Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Lodz (Poland) between 2017 and 2021. Among them, 17 patients experienced death within 12 months of diagnosis. The expression of 31 selected miRNAs was determined using miRCURY LNA miRNA Custom PCR Panel. The obtained clinical data included patient characteristics on diagnosis, treatment regimen, response to treatment, and follow-up. Differential expression analysis found two miRNAs to be significantly downregulated in the early mortality group: hsa-miR-328-3p (fold change- FC: 0.72, p=0.0342) and hsa-miR-409-3p (FC: 0.49, p=0.0357). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the early mortality rate. The final model consisted of hsa-miR-409-3p, hsa-miR-328-3p, age and R-ISS 3. It yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.863 (95%CI: 0.761-0.965) with 88.2% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity. Further external validation of our model is necessary to confirm its clinical value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0300.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: CAR T; Targeted Radionuclide Therapy; TRT; Mathematical Model; Multiple Myeloma; Immunotherapy; Daratumumab; CS1; Combination Therapy
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:32:33 CEST)
Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) has recently seen a surge in popularity, with the use of radionuclides conjugated to small molecules and antibodies. Similarly, immunotherapy also has shown promising results – an example being chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells therapy in hematologic malignancies. Moreover, TRT and CAR T therapies possess unique features that require special consideration when determining how to dose, time, and sequence combination treatments, including the distribution of TRT dose in the body, the decay rate of the radionuclide, and the proliferation and persistence of the CAR-T cells. These characteristics complicate additive or synergistic effects of combination therapies and warrant a mathematical treatment which includes these dynamics in relation to the proliferation and clearance rates of the target tumor cells. Here we combine two previously published mathematical models in a multiple myeloma setting to explore the effects of dose, timing, and sequencing of TRT and CAR-T cell based therapies. We find that for a fixed TRT and CAR-T cell dose, the tumor proliferation rate is the most important parameter in determining the best timing of TRT and CAR T therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: antibiotic cnsumtion; microbiome; hematological malignancies; Hodgkin-lymphoma (HL); Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NH); multiplex myeloma (MM); leukemia (LEU)
Online: 12 January 2022 (12:53:22 CET)
Hematological malignancies are considered the fifth most common cancer in the world. Several risk factors and probable etiological agents have been suspected in the pathomechanism of those malignancies as infections, chemicals, irradiation, etc., and recently, the contribution of the altered gut flora, dysbiosis, was identified also as a possible additional factor to the existing ones. Host, and external factors, like antibiotics, which were identified as a major disruptor of the "normal" gut flora, influence the composition of the microbiome. Considering the several-fold differences in antibiotic consumption patterns and the incidence of hematological malignancies in European countries, the hypothesis was raised that the dominant consumption of certain antibiotic classes might influence the incidence of different hematological malignancies through the modification of gut flora. Comparisons were performed between the average antibiotic consumption databases reported yearly by ECDC (2009-2019) and the incidence rate of Hodkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia (LEU) estimated for 2020 in 30 European countries. Applying Spearman calculations, significant positive correlation has been found between the incidence of HL and tetracycline (J01A) consumption (r = 0.399, p = 0,029), NHL and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.580, p = 0,001), MM and tetracycline (r = 0.492, p = 0.006), penicillin (J01C) (r = 0.366, p = 0.047), narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.574, p = 0.001), while strong, significant negative correlation has been recorded between NHL and cephalosporin (r = -0,460, p = 0,011), and quinolone (r = -0,380, p = 0,038). The incidence of LEU did not show any positive or negative association with any antibiotic classes. It is concluded that certain antibiotic classes, in addition to other putative factors, might promote or inhibit the development of different hematological malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0287.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ABCB1; bortezomib; CXCR4; gene expression; MAF; MARCKS; multiple myeloma; mRNA; POMP; PSMB5; refractory; RPL5; TXN; XBP1; sensitive
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Proteasome inhibitors, like bortezomib, play a key role in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM); however, most patients eventually relapse and eventually show multiple drug resistance, and the molecular mechanisms of this resistance remain unclear. The present study examines the expression of previously-described genes that may influence resistance to bortezomib treatment at the mRNA level (ABCB1, CXCR4, MAF, MARCKS, POMP, PSMB5, RPL5, TXN and XBP1). mRNA expression was determined in 73 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens (30 bortzomib-sensitive and 43 bortezomib-refractory patients) and 11 healthy controls. RPL5 was significantly down-regulated in multiple myeloma patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, POMP was significantly up-regulated in MM patients refractory to bortezomib-based treatment. In multivariate analysis, high expression of PSMB5 and CXCR and autologous stem cell transplantation were independent predictors of progression-free survival, and high expression of POMP and RPL5 was associated with shorter overall survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0577.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: myeloma; daratumumab; elotuzumab; isatuximab; CD38; JNJ- 63723283; denosumab; checkpoint inhibitors; BCMA; bispecific T-cell engager; antibody-drug conjugates
Online: 24 October 2018 (12:11:23 CEST)
The past two decades have seen a revolution in multiple myeloma (MM) therapy with the introduction of several small molecules, mostly orally effective, whose mechanisms are based on proteasome inhibition, histone deacetylase (HDAC) blockade, and immunomodulation. Immunotherapeutic approaches to MM treatment using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), while long in development, began to reap success with the identification of CD38 and SLAMF7 as suitable targets for development, culminating in the 2015 FDA approval of daratumumab and elotuzumab, respectively. This review highlights additional mAbs now in the developmental pipeline. Isatuximab, another anti-CD38 mAb, currently is under study in four phase III trials and may offer certain advantages over daratumumab. Several antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) in the early stages of development are described, including JNJ-63723283, which has attained FDA breakthrough status for MM. Other mAbs described in this review include denosumab, recently approved for myeloma-associated bone loss, and checkpoint inhibitors, although the future status of the latter combined with immunomodulators has been clouded by unacceptably high death rates that caused the FDA to issue clinical holds on several of these trials. Also highlighted are therapies based on the B Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA), another very promising target for anti-myeloma development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: myeloma; BCMA; bispecific T-cell engager; antibody-drug conjugates; chimeric antigen receptor T-cells; belantamab mafodotin; idecabtagene vicleucel; JNJ-68284528
Online: 3 July 2020 (07:30:57 CEST)
During the past two decades there has been a major shift in the choice of agents to treat multiple myeloma, whether newly diagnosed or in the relapsed/refractory stage. The introduction of new drug classes, such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulators, and anti-CD38 and anti-SLAMF7 monoclonal antibodies, coupled with autologous stem cell transplantation, have approximately doubled the disease’s five-year survival rate. However, this positive news is tempered by the realization that these measures are not curative and patients eventually relapse and/or become resistant to the drug’s effects. Thus, there is a need to discover newer myeloma-driving molecular markers and develop innovative drugs designed to precisely regulate the actions of such putative targets. B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), which is found almost exclusively on the surfaces of malignant plasma cells to the exclusion of other cell types, including their normal counterparts, has emerged as a specific target of interest in this regard. Immunotherapeutic agents have been at the forefront of research designed to block BCMA activity. These agents encompass monoclonal antibodies, such as the drug conjugate belantamab mafodotin; bispecific T-cell engager strategies exemplified by AMG 420; and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapeutics that include idecabtagene vicleucel (bb2121) and JNJ-68284528.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0366.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cell-free DNA; liquid biopsy; cancer; next-generation sequencing (NGS); minimal residual disease; measurable residual disease; molecular residual disease (MRD); leukemia; lymphoma; myeloma; myeloproliferative neoplasms; myelodysplastic syndrome
Online: 25 January 2022 (08:13:24 CET)
The study of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and other peripheral blood components (known as “liquid biopsies”) is promising and has been investigated especially in solid tumors. Nevertheless, it is increasingly showing greater utility in the diagnosis, prognosis, and response to treatment of hematological malignancies; in the future, it could prevent invasive techniques, such as bone marrow (BM) biopsy. Most of the studies about this topic have been focused on B cell lymphoid malignancies; some of them have shown that cfDNA can be used as a novel way for diagnosis and minimal residual monitoring in B cell lymphomas, using techniques such as next-generation sequencing (NGS). In myelodysplastic syndromes, multiple myeloma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, liquid biopsies may allow for an interesting genomic representation of the tumor clones affecting different lesions (spatial heterogeneity). In acute leukemias, it can be helpful in the monitoring of early treatment response and the prediction of treatment failure. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the evaluation of cfDNA permits the definition of clonal evolution and drug resistance in real-time. However, there are limitations such as the difficulty in obtaining sufficient circulating tumor DNA for achieving a high sensitivity to assess minimal residual disease or the lack of standardization of the method and clinical studies to confirm its prognostic impact. This review focuses on clinical applications of cfDNA on minimal residual disease in hematological malignancies.