Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Possible Role of the Antibiotic-Modified Microbiome in the Development of Hematological Malignancies in European Countries

Version 1 : Received: 11 January 2022 / Approved: 12 January 2022 / Online: 12 January 2022 (12:53:22 CET)

How to cite: Ternák, G.; Berényi, K.; Németh, B.; Szenczi, Á.; Kiss, I. Possible Role of the Antibiotic-Modified Microbiome in the Development of Hematological Malignancies in European Countries. Preprints 2022, 2022010162 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202201.0162.v1). Ternák, G.; Berényi, K.; Németh, B.; Szenczi, Á.; Kiss, I. Possible Role of the Antibiotic-Modified Microbiome in the Development of Hematological Malignancies in European Countries. Preprints 2022, 2022010162 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202201.0162.v1).

Abstract

Hematological malignancies are considered the fifth most common cancer in the world. Several risk factors and probable etiological agents have been suspected in the pathomechanism of those malignancies as infections, chemicals, irradiation, etc., and recently, the contribution of the altered gut flora, dysbiosis, was identified also as a possible additional factor to the existing ones. Host, and external factors, like antibiotics, which were identified as a major disruptor of the "normal" gut flora, influence the composition of the microbiome. Considering the several-fold differences in antibiotic consumption patterns and the incidence of hematological malignancies in European countries, the hypothesis was raised that the dominant consumption of certain antibiotic classes might influence the incidence of different hematological malignancies through the modification of gut flora. Comparisons were performed between the average antibiotic consumption databases reported yearly by ECDC (2009-2019) and the incidence rate of Hodkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia (LEU) estimated for 2020 in 30 European countries. Applying Spearman calculations, significant positive correlation has been found between the incidence of HL and tetracycline (J01A) consumption (r = 0.399, p = 0,029), NHL and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.580, p = 0,001), MM and tetracycline (r = 0.492, p = 0.006), penicillin (J01C) (r = 0.366, p = 0.047), narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.574, p = 0.001), while strong, significant negative correlation has been recorded between NHL and cephalosporin (r = -0,460, p = 0,011), and quinolone (r = -0,380, p = 0,038). The incidence of LEU did not show any positive or negative association with any antibiotic classes. It is concluded that certain antibiotic classes, in addition to other putative factors, might promote or inhibit the development of different hematological malignancies.

Keywords

antibiotic cnsumtion; microbiome; hematological malignancies; Hodgkin-lymphoma (HL); Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NH); multiplex myeloma (MM); leukemia (LEU)

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Pathology & Pathobiology

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