Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Pretreatment Serum Levels of IL-1 Receptor Antagonist and IL-4 are Predictors of Overall Survival in Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated with Bortezomib

Version 1 : Received: 25 November 2021 / Approved: 26 November 2021 / Online: 26 November 2021 (10:31:50 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Mikulski, D.; Robak, P.; Perdas, E.; Węgłowska, E.; Łosiewicz, A.; Dróżdż, I.; Jarych, D.; Misiewicz, M.; Szemraj, J.; Fendler, W.; Robak, T. Pretreatment Serum Levels of IL-1 Receptor Antagonist and IL-4 Are Predictors of Overall Survival in Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated with Bortezomib. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 112. Mikulski, D.; Robak, P.; Perdas, E.; Węgłowska, E.; Łosiewicz, A.; Dróżdż, I.; Jarych, D.; Misiewicz, M.; Szemraj, J.; Fendler, W.; Robak, T. Pretreatment Serum Levels of IL-1 Receptor Antagonist and IL-4 Are Predictors of Overall Survival in Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated with Bortezomib. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 112.

Journal reference: J. Clin. Med. 2021, 11, 112
DOI: 10.3390/jcm11010112

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow with an elevation in monoclonal paraprotein, renal impairment, hypercalcemia, lytic bony lesions, and anemia. Immune cells and associated cytokines play a significant role in MM growth, progression, and dissemination. While some cytokines and their clinical significance are well described in MM biology, others remain relatively unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of pretreatment serum levels of 27 selected cytokines on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MM patients before first-line therapy with bortezomib-based regimens. Serum cytokine levels were assayed with a Bio-Rad Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine 27-Plex Assay on the MAGPIX Multiplex Reader and the Bio-Plex® 200 System (Bio-Rad) including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, Eotaxin, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF-α, and VEGF. A total of 61 MM patients were examined. Most patients received a bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) chemotherapy regimen. In the final multivariate model, IL-13 cytokine level (HR 0.1411, 95% CI: 0.0240-0.8291, p = 0.0302), and ASCT (HR 0.3722, 95% CI: 0.1826-0.7585, p=0.0065) significantly impacted PFS. Furthermore, ASCT (HR 0.142, 95% CI: 0.046-0.438, p=0.0007), presence of bone disease at diagnosis (HR 3.826, 95% CI: 1.471-9.949, p=0.0059) and two cytokine levels- IL-1Ra (HR 1.017, 95% CI: 1.004-1.030, p= 0.0091) and IL-4 (HR 0.161, 95% CI: 0.037-0.698, p = 0.0147) were independent predictors of OS. Three clusters of MM patients were identified with different cytokine profiles. In conclusion, serum pretreatment levels of IL-13 and IL-4 are predictors of better PFS and OS, respectively, whereas IL-1Ra pretreatment levels negatively impact OS in MM patients treated with bortezomib-based chemotherapy. Cytokine signature profile may have a potential influence on the outcome of patients treated with bortezomib.

Keywords

bortezomib; IL-13; IL-1Ra; IL-4; multiple myeloma; OS; PFS

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Oncology & Oncogenics

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