ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0553.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: mushroom; organic-debris; fruiting bodies; diversity; frequency
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:22:51 CEST)
A The present investigation was undertaken in foothill regions of Uttarakhand from July-2016 up to December-2018. A total of thirty four different sites ranging from the roadside areas, grasslands to forests were studied and Mushroom fruiting bodies were collected. A total of One Hundred sixty six fruiting counts were obtained and 68 mushroom genera belonging to 15 orders and 43 families were identified. During collection visits mushroom were apparent from organic debris of diversified habitats ranging from humid soil; grassland; leaf litter; living tree trunk; dead wood log of forest zone. Maximum fruiting bodies (75%) were obtained between July to September and minimum i.e. 6% between November – February. Among the collected mushroom Stereum rugosum, Crepidotus variabilis, Laccaria laccata, Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applantum, Cantharellus cibarius were more prevalent. Out of all collected mushroom sample the frequency of Mushroom belonging to order Agaricales was 45.18% followed by Polyporales i.e., 27.7%. The collected mushroom were cultured on PDA medium and their mycelial forms were preserved for further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Greenhouse; Environmental suitability; Mushroom pest; Black fungus gnats
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:44:47 CEST)
Lycoriella species (Sciaridae) are responsible for significant economic losses in greenhouse production (e.g. mushrooms, strawberry, and nurseries). Current distributions of species in the genus are restricted to cold-climate countries. Three species of Lycoriella are of particular economic concern in view of their ability to invade across the Northern Hemisphere. We used ecological niche models to determine the potential for range expansion under climate change future scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) in distributions of these species of Lycoriella. Stable suitability under climate change was a dominant theme in these species; however, potential range increases were noted for key countries (e.g. USA, Brazil, and China). Our results illustrate the potential for range expansion in these species in the Southern Hemisphere, including some of the highest greenhouse production areas in the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0326.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: DNA markers; edible mushroom; genome stability; protoplast regeneration
Online: 25 April 2018 (08:26:25 CEST)
A total of five protoclones were successfully cultured on PDA medium out of regenerated twenty two colonies of Termitomyces protoplast and further studied. Liquid MYG grown mycelial tissue is used for protoplast isolation by enzymatic digestionin a mixture containing Lysing enzyme 2% and Cellulase R10 2% in 0.6 M mannitol. The incubation conditions like temperature, shaking and time were standardized at 24ºC, 60 rpm and 10 hours, respectively for healthy protoplasts liberation. The purified protoplasts showed an average yield of 1.2 × 107 cells/gm tissue with 31.60 ± 9.31% regeneration efficiency on specific medium and 77.12 ± 2.72% viability by FDA test. Four ISSR primers were used in this study resulting a total of 27 reproducible bands with mean value of 6.75. They showed similar banding pattern in all the lines with zero percent polymorphism ranged from 280 bp–2700 bp. The amplified rRNA-ITS gene showed ~600 bp size in gel and found a single restriction site for enzyme HaeIII in all the protoclones and parent with similar fragment size in all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Flammulina velutipes; fermentation broth; umami taste; nutrients; electronic tongue; mushroom byproducts
Online: 4 May 2022 (14:14:18 CEST)
As one of the most appealing edible mushrooms, the quality of Flammulina velutipes can be affected by the cultivation substrate, which has an impact on the mushroom umami taste and nutrients. In our study, the effect of mushroom root fermentation broth (MRFB) based substrate on umami taste and nutrients of F. velutipes were evaluated; four proportions of MRFB was conducted (CK 0%, E1 6.7%, E2 13.4%, E3 20.1%). Results indicated that MRFB was an effective nutrient supplement for mushroom cultivation substrate. E2 and E3 showed higher crude fiber, crude fat, soluble protein, and soluble sugar. Compared to CK, the content of monosodium glutamate-like (MSG-like) amino acids, essential amino acids, total amino acids and total 5'-nucleotides in E2 and E3 were higher. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values in E1, E2 and E3 were 1.70, 2.43 and 1.56 times of CK, respectively. Higher umami, saltness and sweetness taste values were found in E2. Thereby, it signified that better umami and richer nutrients were achieved by using substrate with proper volume of MRFB, especially, E2 with 13.4% of MRFB. Overall, better mushroom quality could be derived from the application of MRFB in cultivation. MRFB was a favorable nutrient supplement for Flammulina velutipes cultivation substrate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0138.v1
Subject: Keywords: Agaricus Bisporus; Button Mushroom; Molecular docking; PyRx software; BIOVIA Discovery studio
Online: 8 September 2021 (10:14:03 CEST)
Agaricus bisporus is belonging to family agaricaceae, which is widely acceptable and mostly cultivated among the all mushrooms. It has great nutritional values and it is rich in proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers, minerals and amino acids. It is effective in antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. As it is effective in anticancer property, we check the effects of chemical constituents of Agaricus Bisporus on DNA damaging protein which results its activity PARP inhibiting or vise-versa. We choose the molecular docking technique to check the effects of different chemical constituents of Agaricus Bisporus on DNA damaging protein. For that different PARP inhibitory drugs taken as the standard. We perform the molecular docking of the chemical constituents of Agaricus Bisporus, using 4UND protein with the help of PyRx software and BIOVIA Discovery studio software. Along with that PARP inhibitor drugs also run against the same protein. The results of molecular docking shows the some of the constituents of Agaricus Bisporus has better binding affinity than the standard taken PARP inhibitor drugs. The ergosterol shows the better binding affinity than the niraparib and rucaparib on the same proteins. On other hands the naringenin, quercetin, anthocyanin, folate and myricetin shows the better results than the rucaparib. That means the ergosterol shows the better results as PARP inhibitor than the niraparib and rucaparib.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0502.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: mushroom; immune checkpoints; Axl receptor; lung cancer; dendritic cells; immune response.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:43:11 CEST)
Agaricus blazei Murrill or Himematsutake is an edible and medicinal mushroom. Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body extracts have anticancer properties, although the mechanism is unknown. Basic or organic solvents, which are hazardous for human health, are generally used to prepare Agaricus blazei Murrill's extracts. Inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl receptor is an effective therapy in cancer. This study assessed whether subcritical water extracts of the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium affect the expression of Axl and immune checkpoint molecules in lung cancer cells. We used A549 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the experiments. We prepared subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium. The subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium significantly inhibited the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl compared to saline-treated cells. Also, the hot water extract, subcritical water extract, and the hot water extraction residue subcritical water extract from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium significantly enhanced the expression of maturation markers in dendritic cells. These observations suggest that the subcritical water extract from Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium is a promising therapeutic tool for stimulating the immune response in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: aronia; ginseng; mushroom; pancreatectomy; type 2 diabetes; gut microbiome; insulin secretion
Online: 12 June 2018 (13:01:30 CEST)
The combination of freeze-dried aronia, red ginseng, ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom and natokinase (AGM; 3.4: 4.1: 2.4: 0.1) was examined to evaluate its effects on insulin resistance, insulin secretion and gut microbiome in a non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Pancreatectomized (Px) rats were provided high fat diets supplemented with either of 1) 0.5 g AGM (AGM-L), 2) 1 g AGM (AGM-H), 3) 1 g dextrin (control), or 4) 1g dextrin with 120 mg metformin (positive-control) per kg body weight for 12 weeks. AGM (1 g) contained 6.22 mg cyanidin-3-galactose, 2.5 mg ginsenoside Rg3 and 0.6 mg β-glucan. Px rats had decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femur and lean body mass in the hip and leg compared to the normal-control and AGM-L and AGM-H prevented the decrease. Visceral fat mass was lower in the control group than the normal-control group and its decrease was smaller by AGM-L and AGM-H. HOMA-IR was lower in descending order of the control, positive-control, AGM-L, AGM-H and normal-control groups. Glucose tolerance was deteriorated in the control group and it was improved by AGM-L and AGM-H more than in the positive-control group. Glucose tolerance is associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Insulin tolerance indicated insulin resistance was highly impaired in diabetic rats, but it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Insulin secretion capacity, measured by hyperglycemic clamp, was much lower in the control group than the normal-control group and it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Diabetes modulated the composition of gut microbiome and AMG prevented the modulation of gut microbiome. In conclusion, AGM improved glucose metabolism by potentiating insulin secretion and reducing insulin resistance in insulin deficient type 2 diabetic rats. The improvement of diabetic status alleviated body composition changes and prevented changes of gut microbiome composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0512.v1
Subject: Keywords: oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.); PARP protein; 4UND protein; molecular docking; PyRx; BIOVIA drug discovery
Online: 26 August 2021 (16:15:06 CEST)
Oyster mushroom( Pleurotus ostreatus) is belong to the group of healthy foods, as they contain high levels of proteins, vitamins and different classes of compounds, it is discovered that oyster mushrooms could play a key role in maintaining good health. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) Class Basidiomycetes and Family Agaricaceae are widely known as ‘dhingri’ in India. Pleurotus Ostreatus have several medicinal properties including ; anti-arthritic , antitumor, immune modulatory , antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antigenotoxic, hypo-cholesterolaemic, antihyperglycaemic antihypertensive, antiplatelet aggregating, antiviral and antimicrobial activities.. In this paper studied that effects of chemical constituents of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus sp.) on DNA damaging protein which analyzed its activity of PARP inhibiting or vice – versa.For this analysis we choose the molecular docking technique to check the effects of different chemical constituents of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus sp.) on DNA damaging protein and compare their results to PARP inhibitory drugs which taken as standard . We perform the molecular docking in between chemical constituents of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus sp.) and 4UND protein compare to performance of molecular docking in between standard PARP inhibitory drugs and 4UND protein with the help of PyRx and BIOVIA Discovery studio software.The analysis of molecular docking shows that some chemical constituents of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus sp.) having more binding affinity than standard PARP inhibitory drugs .The Rutin shows better binding affinity than PARP inhibitory drugs on the same protein.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: mushrooms; mushroom spent compost; renewable energy; biochar; biomass valorization; torrefaction; fuel properties; proximate analysis; carbon sequestration
Online: 20 June 2019 (03:40:36 CEST)
Mushroom production in Poland is an important and dynamically developing element of diverse agriculture. Mushroom spent compost (MSC) is major waste generated during production, i.e., MSC: mushrooms is ~5:1. To date, the main use of MSC is soil application as organic fertilizer. To date, several methods of MSC treatment have been researched and developed including production of compost, bioethanol, biogas, enzyme lactase, xylo-saccharides, and hydrogen. Torrefaction may be considered a novel approach for biomass valorization. Thus, we are pioneering the potential use of MSC valorization via torrefaction. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of MSC via thermal treatment – torrefaction (‘roasting’) to produce biochar with improved fuel properties. Here for the first time, we examined and summarized the MSC torrefaction thermogravimetric analyses, fuel properties data of raw biomass of MSC and biochars generated from MSC via torrefaction. The effects of torrefaction temperature (200~300 °C), process time (20~60 min), on fuel properties of the resulting biochars were summarized. The dataset contains results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as proximate analyses of MSC and generated biochars. The presented data are useful in determining MSC torrefaction reaction kinetics, activation energy and to further techno-economical modeling of the feasibility of MSC valorization via torrefaction. MSC torrefaction could be exploited as part of valorization resulting from a synergy between an intensive mushroom production with the efficient production of high-quality renewable fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0212.v1
Subject: Keywords: waste to energy; mushroom spent compost, renewable energy; biochar; biomass valorization; torrefaction; activation energy; fuel properties; proximate analysis; carbon sequestration
Online: 18 July 2019 (10:00:34 CEST)
Poland is the 3rdproducer of mushrooms in the world. Mushroom production in Poland accounts for nearly 25% of the total production in the EU, and it is still growing. One type of waste generated during mushroom production is mushroom spent compost (MSC), with a 5:1 (MSC: mushrooms) production rate. We investigated valorizing the MSC to produce fuel via torrefaction (‘roasting’, a.k.a. low-temperature pyrolysis). Specifically, we developed models for the MSC torrefaction kinetics using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and the effects of torrefaction temperature (200~300 °C) and process duration time (20~60 min) on the resulting biochar (fuel) properties. The estimated activation energy value of MSC torrefaction was 22.3 kJ.mol-1. The highest higher heating value(HHV) = 17.9 MJ.kg-1d.m. was found for 280 °C (60 min torrefaction time). The temperature of torrefaction significantly (p<0.05) increased the HHVfor constant process duration. The torrefaction duration time significantly (p<0.05) increased the HHVfor 220 °C and decreased HHVfor 300 °C. The highest mass yield 98.5% was found for 220 °C (60 min), while the highest energy yield was found for 280 °C (60 min). In addition, estimations of the value (€132.3·Mg-1d.m. or 27.7 €·Mg-1w.m) and quantity of resulting biochar (from torrefied MSC with 65.3% moisture content) were made based on the 280°C (60 min) torrefaction variant, assuming the price of commercially available coal fuel. We have shown a concept for an alternative utilization of abundant biowaste (MSC). The initial economic evaluation showed that MSC torrefaction might be profitable. This research provides a basis for alternative use of an abundant biowaste and can help charting improved, sustainable mushroom production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0374.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: particle-in-cell simulations; relativistic jets; the Weibel instability; kink-like instability; mushroom instability; global jets; helical magnetic fields; recollimation shocks
Online: 25 December 2018 (09:01:18 CET)
The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method has been developed in order to investigate microscopic phenomena, and with the advances of computing power, newly developed codes have been used for several fields such as astrophysical, magnetospheric, and solar plasmas. PIC applications have grown extensively with large computing powers available on supercomputers such as Pleiades and Blue Waters in the US. For astrophysical plasma research PIC methods have been utilized for several topics such as reconnection, pulsar dynamics, non-relativistic shocks, relativistic shocks, relativistic jets, etc. PIC simulations of relativistic jets have been reviewed with the emphasis on the physics involved in the simulations. This review summarizes PIC simulations, starting with the Weibel instability in slab models of jets, and then focuses on global jet evolution in helical magnetic field geometry. In particular we address kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and mushroom instabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0201.v1
Subject: Keywords: agricultural production; environmental parameters; mushroom growth pre-diction; machine learning; artificial neural networks (ANN); food produc-tion; food security; multi-layered perceptron (MLP); radial basis function (RBF)
Online: 20 August 2019 (06:20:32 CEST)
Recent advancements of computer and electronic systems have motivated the extensive use of intelligent systems for automation of agricultural industries. In this study, the temperature variation of the mushroom growing room is modeled through using a multi-layered perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function networks. Modeling has been done based on the independent parameters including ambient temperature, water temperature, fresh air and circulation air dampers, and water tap. According to the obtained results from the networks, the best network for MLP is found to be the second repetition with 12 neurons in the hidden layer and 20 neurons in the hidden layer for radial basis function networks. The obtained results from comparative parameters for two networks showed the highest correlation coefficient (0.966), the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.787) and the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) (0.02746) for radial basis function. Therefore, the neural networks with radial basis function was selected as the optimal predictor for the behavior of the system.