HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT, laser therapy; musculoskeletal system, rehabilitation
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:39:40 CET)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a well investigated and widely used treatment modality for a number of musculoskeletal disorders. A limitation of ESWT is its potential painfulness at higher, clinically relevant energy flux density (EFD), which may limit its applicability and, thus, effectiveness. Various studies in the literature demonstrated that neither application of a higher number of extracorporeal shock waves with lower EFD nor use of local anesthesia may solve this problem. Based on the results of several other studies in the literature it is hypothesized here that in patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders that can be treated with ESWT, pretreatment with a pulsed, high power laser with a wavelength of 904 or 905 nanometers (hereafter: "laser pretreatment") does not only allow to apply higher EFDs in subsequent ESWT but actually results in faster and/or better treatment outcome than ESWT without laser pretreatment. Accordingly, it is hypothesized here that combining ESWT with laser pretreatment leads to synergistic effects and, thus, is superior to either treatment modality alone. Confirming this hypothesis in preclinical and clinical research may raise significance and increase the use of ESWT in physical and rehabilitation medicine, with immediate benefit for patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; shortness of breath; chest pain; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT
Online: 5 March 2021 (17:02:02 CET)
Many patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suffer from shortness of breath and severe chest pain. Here we report successful therapy of a patient with diagnosis of COVID-19, severe chest pain and significant shortness of breath, using radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT). The latter started seven days after beginning of symptoms and drug therapy without success, and involved daily application of 15.000 to 20.000 radial extracorporeal shock waves over the intercostal muscles as well as the paravertebral muscles of the thoracic and lumbar spine, diaphragm and flanks. Immediately after the first rESWT session the patient experienced significant pain relief and improvement of breathing. Four days later the pain had completely subsided and breathing was largely normalized. This type of noninvasive, non-pharmacologic treatment could help many COVID-19 patients or patients who still suffer from breathing problems weeks after having been infected with SARS-CoV-2, giving them back quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT; focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy; fESWT; mechanisms of action; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT; systematic review
Online: 14 April 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a safe and effective treatment option for various pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. Many studies addressed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of ESWT. However, no uniform concept could be established in this matter until now. We performed a systematic review of the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) reported in the literature. The key results were as follows: (i) compared to the effects of many other forms of therapy, the clinical benefit of ESWT does not appear to be based on a single mechanism; (ii) different tissues respond to the same mechanical stimulus in different ways; (iii) just because a mechanism of action of ESWT was described in a study does not automatically mean that this mechanism was relevant to the observed clinical effect; (iv) focused ESWs and radial ESWs seem to act in a similar way; and (v) even the most sophisticated research into the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to ESWs cannot substitute clinical research in order to determine the optimum intensity, treatment frequency and localization of ESWT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0054.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: acute hamstring muscle complex injury; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT, RSWT; soccer medicine
Online: 14 July 2019 (09:01:08 CEST)
Background: Acute injuries of the hamstring muscle complex (HMC) Type 3b (interfascicle / bundle-tear) are frequently observed in various sports disciplines both in elite and recreational sport. The treatment of choice of acute HMC injuries Type 3b is a progressive physiotherapeutic exercise program. Besides this, there is currently only insufficient scientific evidence to support other treatment methods, including local infiltrations and injections of platelet-rich-plasma. Very recently it was demonstrated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may accelerate regeneration after acute skeletal muscle injury. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that the combination of radial ESWT (rESWT) and a specific rehabilitation program (RP) is effective and safe in treatment of acute HMC injury Type 3b in athletes, and is statistically significantly more effective than the combination of sham-rESWT and RP. Methods/Design: We will perform a double blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial at the clinic KinEf Kinesiología Deportiva, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Fourty patients with acute HMC injury Type 3b will be randomly allocated to receive either rESWT (nine rESWT sessions; three sessions per week; 2500 radial extracorporeal shock waves (rESWs) per session; energy density depending on what the patient tolerates) or sham-rESWT. In addition, all patients will receive a specific rehabilitation program that will last for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the individual time (days) necessary to return to play. Secondary outcomes will include the presence or absence of reinjury during a time period of six months after inclusion into the study. Discussion: Because of the lack of adequate treatment options for acute HMC injury Type 3b in athletes and particularly the high reinjury rate, we hypothesize that the results of this trial will be of importance and have impact on clinical practice. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03473899. Registered March 22, 2018.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Charlson comorbidity index; age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index
Online: 10 September 2018 (10:12:11 CEST)
Background: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) has gradually come to be regarded as an effective therapy, but the hospital mortality rate after ECPR is still high and unpredictable. The present study tested whether age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) can be used as an objective selection criterion to ensure the most efficient utilization of medical resources. Methods: Adult patients (age ³ 18 years) receiving ECPR at our institution between 2006 and 2015 were included. Data regarding ECPR events and ACCI characteristics were collected immediately after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) setup. Adverse events during hospitalization were also prospectively collected. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge. The second endpoint was short-term (2-year) follow-up outcome. Results: A total of 461 patients included in the study were grouped into low ACCI (ACCI 0–3) (240, 52.1%) and high ACCI (ACCI 4–13) (221, 47.9%) groups. The median ACCI was 2 (IQR: 1–3) and 5 (IQR: 4–7) for the low and high ACCI groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-to-ECMO duration was comparable between the groups (42.1 ± 25.6 and 41.3 ± 20.7 min in the low and high ACCI groups, respectively; P = 0.754). Regarding hospital survival rate, 256 patients (55.5%) died on ECMO support. A total of 205 patients (44.5%) were successfully weaned off ECMO, but only 138 patients (29.9%) survived to hospital discharge (32.1% and 27.6% in low and high ACCI group, P = 0.291). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed CPR-to-ECMO duration and CPR cause of septic shock as significant risk factors for hospital survival after ECPR (P = 0.043 and 0.014, respectively), whereas age and ACCI were not (P = 0.334 and 0.164, respectively). The 2-year survival rate after hospital discharge for the 138 hospital survivors was 96% and 74% in the low and high ACCI groups, respectively (P = 0.002.)Conclusions: High ACCI before ECPR does not predict poor outcome of hospital survival. Therefore, ECPR should not be rejected solely due to high ACCI. However, high ACCI in hospital survivors is associated with a higher 2-year mortality rate than low ACCI, and patients with high ACCI should be closely followed up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; cannula-associated arterial thrombosis; flow rate.
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:33:01 CET)
Introduction: Hemostatic dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to blood-circuit interaction and the consequences of shear stress by flow rates lead to rapid activation of the coagulation cascade and thrombus formation in the ECMO system and blood vessels. In this study, we aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors for cannula-associated arterial thrombosis (CaAT) post-decannulation. Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing arterial cannula removal following ECMO. We evaluated the incidence of CaAT and compared clinical characteristics, pre-ECMO severity, and daily hemostasis parameters in patients with and without CaAT. Multivariate analysis revealed the risk factors for CaAT. Results: Forty-seven patients requiring venoarterial ECMO or hybrid methods were recruited to be screened for thrombosis. The median SOFA score was 11 (8-13). CaAT occurred in 29 patients (61.7%), with thrombosis in the superficial femoral artery accounting for 51.7%. Limb ischemia complications in the group with CaAT was 17.2%. In multivariate analysis, an ECMO flow rate of 100 mL/min was determined to be the independent factor for CaAT with an OR of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73–0.95, p=0.008). Conclusion: In patients successfully weaned from ECMO, the incidence of CaAT was 61.7%. Our study found that a low-flow rate of ECMO was an independent risk factor for CaAT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intensive Care Units; Workforce; Mechanical Ventilation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:34:14 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the number of nurses who independently care for pa-tients with severe respiratory failure receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) or veno-venous ex-tracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Additionally, the study analyzed the actual role of nurses in the treatment of patients with MV and VV-ECMO. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using postal surveys. The study included 725 Japanese intensive care units (ICUs). Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Among the 725 ICUs, we obtained 302 re-sponses (41.7%) and analyzed 282 responses. The median number of nurses per bed was 3.25. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with MV was 60% [IQR: 42.3-77.3]. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with VV-ECMO was 46.9 (35.7-63.3%) in the ICU experiencing VV-ECMO use. Concerning task-sharing, 33.8% of ICUs and nurses did not facilitate weaning from MV. Nurses always ti-trated sedatives in 44.5% of ICUs. Conclusion: Nurse staffing might be inadequate in all ICUs, es-pecially for severe respiratory failure. The proportion of competent nurses for caring for severe respiratory failure in ICUs should be considered when determining the work force of nurses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0725.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; meconium aspiration syndrome; neonate; Hub and Spoke; outcomes
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:29:49 CET)
The neonatal Hub and Spoke (HandS) ECMO approach provides emergent ECMO implantation to support neonates in severe cardio-respiratory life-threatening conditions at secondary (Spoke) centers, and a safe transfer to the ECMO center (Hub). We report a retrospective review of 11 neonates fom January 2014 to January 2020, presenting with life-threatening conditions and treated by HandS ECMO team in Spoke hospitals. Protocols and checklists were arranged by a local group of ECMO experts and shared with all the hospitals located in North-Eastern Italy. At the emergent call, all patients were cared for at the Spoke hospitals, receiving maximal respiratory and cardiovascular support (including high frequency oscillatory ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, and major inotropic intravenous infusion). All but 3 patients were affected by life-threatening meconium aspiration syndrome. Median duration of ECMO support and hospitalization were 4 days (range 2-32) and 30 days ( range 8-50), respectively. All but 2 patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, were weaned off ECMO and discharged home without complications. At a median follow up of 14.4 months (1.3-74.8), all survivors were alive and in good clinical conditions, without medications, and normal somatic growth. All but one had normal neuropsychological development. We conclude that HandS ECMO model for treating neonates in life-threatening conditions is effective and successful. A specialized multidisciplinary team and common organizational protocols shared between Hub and Spoke centers are the key-points for success. While excellent results occur with MAS (100% survival), treatment was not successful in CDH, in which other that HandS ECMO issues are implied. Lessons learned from our experience are presented and discussed in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: mechanical circulatory support; heart transplantation; survival curve; ventricular assist device; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:39:13 CEST)
BACKGROUND: The number of waitlisted patients requiring mechanical circulatory support (MCS) as a bridge to heart transplantation is increasing. The data concerning the results of double-bridge strategy are limited. We sought to investigate the post-transplant outcomes across the different bridge strategies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a heart transplantation database from Jan 2009 to Jan 2019. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and ventricular assist devices (VAD) were the MCS that we investigated. The pre- and post-transplant characteristics and variables of patients bridged with the different types of MCS were collected. The post-transplant survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 251 heart transplants were reviewed; 115 without MCS and 136 with MCS. The patients were divided to five groups: Group 1 (no MCS): n=115; Group 2 (IABP): n=15; Group 3 (ECMO): n=33; Group 4 (ECMO-VAD): double-bridge (n=59); Group 5 (VAD): n=29. Survival analysis demonstrated that the 3-year post-transplant survival rates were significantly different among the groups (Log-rank p < 0.001). There was no difference in survival between group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 1(no MCS)1 (p = 0.136), or between group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 5(VAD) (p = 0.994). Group 3(ECMO) had significantly inferior 3-year survival than group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 5(VAD). CONCLUSION: Double bridge may not lead to worse mid-term results in patients who could receive a transplantation. Initial stabilization with ECMO for critical patients before implantation of VAD might be considered as a strategy for obtaining an optimal post-transplant outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Postoperative atrial fibrillation; cardiac surgery; conventional extracorporeal circulation; circulating ferritin levels; POAF onset biomarker
Online: 27 October 2022 (05:53:09 CEST)
Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery in conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC), with an incidence of 15-50%. The POAF pathophysiology is not known, and no blood biomarkers exist. However, an association between increased ferritin levels and increased AF risk, has been demonstrated. Based on such evidence, here, we evaluated the effectiveness of ferritin and other haemato-chemical parameters as a POAF onset biomarker in subjected to cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 90 patients (mean age= 66.9±2.8 years; 40 men and 20 females) with diverse heart pathologies and subjected to cardiothoracic surgery. Their blood samples were collected and used to determine haemato-chemical parameters. The tree test approach was used to detect the best data-driven ferritin cuff-off value (=141 ng/ml) to predict POAF risk. Results: The data obtained demonstrated significant higher concentrations, absolute values, and percentages, of ferritin, RDW, PLTs, in POAF patients. However, the ferritin resulted to be the independent factor associated with the onset POAF risk. Thus, we detected the ferritin cut-off value, which, when ≥ 141 ng/ml identifies the subjects at the highest POAF risk. Conclusions: Ferritin values≥ 141 ng/ml might be used as predictive POAF biomarker.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; transpulmonary thermodilution; high volume hemofiltration; Andes Hantavirus
Online: 5 July 2020 (05:24:11 CEST)
Background: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a high lethality. About two-thirds of the severe cases may be rescued by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, about half of the patients supported by ECMO suffer major complications. High volume hemofiltration (HVHF) is a depurative extracorporeal support that provides homeostatic balance allowing hemodynamic stabilization in some critically ill patients. Methods: We implemented HVHF prior to ECMO consideration in the last five severe HCPS patients requiring mechanical ventilation and vasoactive drugs admitted to our intensive care unit. Patients were considered HVHF-responders if ECMO was avoided and nonresponders if ECMO support was needed. Results: The first two patients required ECMO, while the last three did not. Patients had a maximum serum lactate of 8.4 [4.3-14] mMol/L and a lowest cardiac index of 1.76 [1.45-2.9] L/min/m2. Nonresponders were connected later to HVHF, displayed progressive tachycardia and decreasing stroke volume. The opposite was true for HVHF-responders who also received targeted-HVHF compounded by aggressive hyperoncotic albumin, sodium bicarbonate and calcium supplementation plus ultrafiltration to avoid fluid overload. All patients survived, but one of the ECMO patients suffered a vascular complication. Conclusion: HVHF may contribute to support severe HCPS patients avoiding the need for ECMO in some of them. Early connection and targeted-HVHF may increase the chance of success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3; osteoarthritis; extracorporeal shockwave therapy; 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathway; two dimensional electrophoresis
Online: 1 September 2016 (10:47:39 CEST)
Dysregulation of cartilage homeostasis and the changes in the density and the architecture of the subchondral bone were postulated as a potent mechanically pathological activity contributing to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a new, none invasive and effective method in the treatment of animal OA model. In the current study, we demonstrated that shockwave induced the expression of protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (Pdia-3) which is a multifunctional protein hypothesized to be a significant mediator for 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) signaling pathway using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Histological analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were verified and observed that the expression of Pdia-3 at 2 weeks was significantly higher than that of any other group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks post-shockwave treatment in early OA knee of rat. The other factors of the 1α,25(OH)2D3 rapid membrane signaling pathway including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 (ERK1), osteopontin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13) were measured and significantly increased by qPCR at 2 weeks post-shockwave treatment in early OA knee. Our proteomic data revealed significant Pdia-3 expression in microenvironments of joint tissue that could be actively responded to ESWT, which may potentially regulate biological function of chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the treatment of OA knee.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: ECMO; ECLS; ECCO2R; ARDS; respiratory failure, LTx, DIN EN ISO 7199; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, animal model
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:16:25 CET)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an established rescue therapy for patients with chronic respiratory failure waiting for lung transplantation (LTx). The therapy inherent immobilization may result in fatigue, consecutive deteriorated prognosis and even lost eligibility for transplantation. We conducted a feasibility study on a novel system designed for the deployment of a mobile ECMO device, enabling physical exercise of awake patients prior to LTx. The system comprises a novel mobile oxygenator with a directly connected blood pump, a double lumen cannula, gas blender and supply, as well as control, and energy management. In-vitro experiments included tests regarding performance, efficiency, and blood damage. A reduced system was tested in vivo for feasibility using a novel large animal model. Six anesthetized pigs were first positioned in supine position, followed by a 45° angle, simulating an upright position of the patients. We monitored performance and vital parameters. All in-vitro experiments showed good performance for the respective subsystems and the integrated system. The acute invivo trials of 8h duration confirmed the results. The novel mobile ECMO-system enables adequate oxygenation and decarboxylation sufficient for, e.g., physical exercise of designated LTx-recipients. These results are promising and suggest further preclinical studies on safety and efficacy to facilitate translation into clinical application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0242.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: nerve repair; median nerve; rat; autologous nerve graft; muscle-in-vein conduit; extracorporeal shock wave therapy; grasping test; gait analysis; CatWalk, nerve regeneration
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:17:43 CEST)
Investigations reporting positive effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) on nerve regeneration are limited to the rat sciatic nerve model. The effects of ESWT on muscle-in-vein conduits (MVCs) have also not been investigated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ESWT after repair of the rat median nerve with either autografts (ANGs) or MVCs. In male Lewis rats, a 7-mm segment of the right median nerve was reconstructed either with an ANG or MVC. For each reconstructive technique, one group of animals received one application of ESWT while the other rats served as controls. Animals were observed for 12 weeks and nerve regeneration was assessed via computerized gait analysis, the grasping test, electrophysiological evaluations and histological quantification of axons, blood vessels and lymphatic vasculature. Here we provide for the first time a comprehensive analysis of ESWT effects on nerve regeneration in a rat model of median nerve injury. Furthermore, this study is among the first reporting the quantification of lymphatic vessels following peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction in vivo. While we found no significant direct positive effects of ESWT on peripheral nerve regeneration, results following nerve repair with MVCs were significantly inferior to those after ANG repair.