ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0288.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Export product diversification; Services export diversification; Financial Openness; Developed and Developing countries.
Online: 9 November 2020 (23:22:34 CET)
This paper investigates empirically the effect of export diversification (i.e., both export product diversification and services export diversification) on financial openness, using a sample of 119 countries (including both developed and developing countries) over the period 1985-2014. Based on the Blundell and Bond's two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments, the analysis has revealed that both export product diversification and services export diversification influence positively financial openness. However, this outcome hides differentiated effects across countries in the full sample. Specially, countries with a very high real per capita income experience a positive effect of export concentration on financial openness, while for countries with a relatively lower per capita income, it is rather export diversification that drives positively financial openness. Interestingly, the effect of export diversification on financial openness depends on the size of external shocks that affect domestic economies, as well as countries' economic growth performance. Overall, these findings add to the empirical literature on the effect of international trade on financial openness by showing that both export product diversification and services export diversification matter for financial openness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0237.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: crop diversification; resilience; water management; water efficiency
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:54:43 CEST)
The specialisation and intensification in agriculture have increased the productivity but have also led to the spread of monocultural systems, simplifying production and reducing genetic diversity. The purpose of this study was to propose crop diversification as a tool to increase biodiversity and achieve sustainable and resilient intensive agriculture, particularly in areas with water scarcity. In this paper, a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was applied to evaluate the environmental and economic sustainability of a differentiated system of cultivation (pomegranate, almond and olive), according to modern intensive and superintensive cropping systems. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pomegranate cultivation generated the highest environmental load, followed by almond and olive. From the financial analysis, it emerged that almond is the most profitable, followed by pomegranate and olive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agricultural diversification; risk management; regret; portfolio; scenario
Online: 10 January 2019 (04:42:17 CET)
Diversification is an important strategy for managing risk in agricultural systems. Risk analysis can help to support farmers’ diversification strategies, but existing analytical methods are complicated and little used. The minimum regret model helps to fill this gap. It provides a simple, transparent calculation procedure that can be executed with existing spreadsheet software. Regret is an important heuristic in the behavioural sciences and regret-based models are used in finance. The article presents the model with a numerical example. It also presents a framework to compare minimum regret portfolios with two limit cases (maximum utility and minimax regret). A case study illustrates the use of the model and the comparative framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0159.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Lettuce-Broccoli intercropping; organic agriculture; diversification practices; agroecology.
Online: 4 December 2023 (07:45:39 CET)
Diversification in agroecosystems can increase the sustainability of agricultural production and reduce input dependence in agroecological transitions. This study evaluated the effects of intercropping and the introduction of flowering (aromatic) plant strips on the ratio of land use efficiency and crop damage for broccoli and lettuce association. Two experiments were conducted in 2022 and 2023 in experimental plots in southwestern Colombia. Crop association alone did not impact crop yield; the production was higher in the lettuce monoculture. However, in the presence of flowering plant strips, the land use equivalent ratio (LER) is >1 in the two years of study, with a high yield for broccoli. Regarding the damage by the silverback moth Plutella xilostella L on broccoli, no differences were found between crops established with or without flower strips. Similarly, flower strips did not affect the incidence of lettuce rot caused by Sclerotinia spp. In summary, our results support the idea that farmers can introduce flower strips into their horticultural fields to improve the eco-productive efficiency of their farms and reduce dependence on external polluting inputs. However, further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0676.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Aid for Trade; Export product diversification; Manufactured exports.
Online: 26 November 2020 (16:43:23 CET)
This article has explored whether Aid for Trade (AfT) flows that accrue to recipient-countries depend on the latter's level of export product concentration. The analysis covers a sample of 133 countries over the period 2002-2017. The findings indicate that least developed countries (LDCs) receive higher AfT flows when they experience a rise in the level of export product concentration, while NonLDCs enjoy higher AfT flows when they diversify export products. Interestingly, higher amounts of AfT accrue to countries that diversify their export product basket towards manufacturing products, although different result patterns appear for the components of manufactured exports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0603.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Export Product diversification; Poverty; Non-resource tax revenue.
Online: 25 September 2020 (10:59:19 CEST)
The current paper has examined the effect of both export product diversification and poverty on non-resource tax revenue in developing countries. The analysis has used an unbalanced panel dataset of 111 countries over the period 1980-2014. Based on the Blundell and Bond two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments technique, the empirical analysis has shown interesting findings. Export product concentration and poverty influence negatively non-resource tax revenue over the full sample, but this effect varies across countries in the sample. Furthermore, the effect of export product diversification on non-resource tax revenue performance depends on the level of poverty. It appears that export product diversification influences positively non-resource tax revenue performance in countries that experience lower poverty rates. From a policy perspective, these findings show that policies in favour of diversifying export product baskets and reducing poverty would contribute to enhancing non-resource tax revenue performance in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1291.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Dairy products; Farming diversification; Musculoskeletal disorders; Pain; Risk analysis
Online: 19 October 2023 (16:45:14 CEST)
Background. In a changing European agricultural context, diversification of dairy farms is gaining attention. This study seeks to (1) assess musculoskeletal pain prevalence associated with tasks such as butter, yogurt, and cheese production; and (2) analyze associated risks. Methods. Observing 31 mostly female workers, it utilized the ERGOROM questionnaire, a methodology adapted from the Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité, and Key Indicator Method forms. Results. Findings revealed that tasks like load carrying (42% of workers), manual work (17%), and awkward postures (14%) resulted in musculoskeletal pain, predominantly in the lower back (65%), neck (39%), and dominant upper limb areas (shoulder: 61%, elbow: 26%, and wrist: 65%). While psychosocial risks remained low, concerns arose from workload, hygiene standards, and resource unpredictability. Conclusions. As dairy farming evolves from artisanal to semi-industrial, the study emphasizes the importance of ergonomic adaptations to protect farmer health and prevent musculoskeletal disorders during diversification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Grain legumes; crop diversification; sustainable intensification; Growing Degree Days
Online: 15 December 2021 (08:21:42 CET)
In the Global North, there is an increasing interest in pulses both for their beneficial effects in cropping systems and for human health. However, despite these advantages, the acreage dedi-cated to pulses has been declining and their diversity reduced, particularly in European temperate regions, due to several social and economic factors. This decline has stimulated a political debate in the EU on the development of plant proteins. By contrast, in the Global South, a large panel of minor pulses is still cropped in regional patterns of production and consumption. The aim of this paper is to investigate the for cultivation of potential minor pulses in European temperate regions as a complement to common pulses. Our assumption is that some of these crops could adapt to different pedo-climatic conditions, given their physiological adaptation capacity, and that these pulses might be of interest for the development of innovative local food chains in an EU policy context targeting protein autonomy. The research is based on a systematic review of 269 papers retrieved in the Scopus database (1974–2019), which allowed us to identify 41 pulses as candidate species with a protein content higher than 20% that are already consumed as food. For each spe-cies, the main agronomic (e.g. temperature or water requirements) and nutritional characteristics (e.g. proteins or antinutritional contents) were identified in their growing regions. Following their agronomic characteristics, the candidate crops were confronted with variability in the annual growing conditions for spring crops in European temperate areas to determine the earliest poten-tial sowing and latest harvest dates. Subsequently, the potential sum of temperatures was calcu-lated with the Agri4cast database to establish the potential climatic suitability. For the first time, 21 minor pulses were selected to be grown in these temperate areas and appear worthy of inves-tigation in terms of yield potential, nutritional characteristics or best management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0818.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Management; Financial Performance; Corporate Diversification; Capital Structure; Conglomerate; Business Model
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:17:06 CEST)
Since the early 21st century, the globalization trend and technological innovations have changed the ways and speed of market growth. Rapid market expansion and the pressure for firms to achieve sustainable business growth via mergers and acquisitions have become the norms for acquiring the necessary competencies, expanding market shares and business integrations. This study explains the factors that correlate to the IJM's financial performance based on the market dynamics in recent years. This case study is a qualitative approach employing systematic review and content analysis. As a result, firms begin to diversify or venture into the business segments that might be related to or complement their core businesses, intentionally or unintentionally, which eventually evolved into the conglomerate form. This case study provides a financial performance analysis of IJM Corporation Berhad's success and challenges from its conglomerate business model. The fact that a well-diversified firm will have better risk management in the event of an economic downturn is also a primary driver for firms to embark on a corporate diversification strategy. This case study reveals IJM's conglomerate model has been successful during its rapid business growth; however, it has shown signs of diminishing in recent years.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue virus; complete genome; Cosmopolitan genotype; Senegal; 2018; Regional diversification
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:56:19 CET)
To assess the genetic diversity of circulating dengue virus 2 in Senegal in 2018 we performed molecular characterization by complete genome sequencing and performing phylogenetic analysis. Sequenced strains belong to Cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 we observed intra-genotype variability leading to a divergence in two clades with differential geographic distribution. We report two variants namely; the “Northern variant” harbouring three nonsynonymous mutations (V1183M, R1405K, P2266T) located respectively on NS2A, NS2B and NS4A and the “Western variant” with two nonsynonymous mutations (V1185E, V3214E) located respectively in the NS2A gene and the NS5 gene. Findings calls for in depth in vitro and functional study to elucidate the impact of observed mutations on viral fitness, spread, epidemiology and disease outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0437.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Mixed farming; Household resilience; livelihood insecurity; Diversification; structural equation model
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:51:04 CET)
Poor households are more likely less resilient under climate change, risks of productive assets, social-related shocks, and decline of land productivity. The ability to deal with household resilience against poverty under the uncertain condition of risk is limited in the highlands of Ethiopia. The study aims to identify determinants of household resilience to livelihood insecurity under the crop-livestock mixed farming systems in Goncha district, Northwest highlands of Ethiopia. Primary data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews among 280 households using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test and structural equation modeling were used to analyse the data. The results disclosed that sustainable management of the farming systems, cultivation of more fertile farmland, saving performance, diversification of income-earning activities, intensification of livestock husbandry practices, access to irrigation, and familiarity with practical technologies were found to be significant determinants at p<0.001 to household resilience of smallholder farmers. Social network development and tree plantation were explained household resilience to livelihood insecurity at P<0.01 and P<0.1 significant levels, respectively. The study concluded that scaling up sustainable management of the farming system and practical technologies, enhancing saving behavior, promoting income diversification, and intensifying agroforestry are significant for household resilience to livelihood insecurity of smallholders across agro-ecologies.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: EigenAnt; parameter impact analysis; intensification and diversification balance; routing networks
Online: 17 June 2019 (04:06:33 CEST)
The EigenAnt algorithm has been proposed to find the shortest path between two nodes with a proof of convergence. Two novel features are noticeable in EigenAnt compared to the conventional ant colony optimization algorithms. Pheromone evaporation in the EigenAnt algorithm is done locally for the selected path and it does not use heuristic information in its selection phase. On the other hand, a simple version of ant colony optimization that also does not use heuristic information has been used for analyzing convergence, considering parameter impact analysis, in the problem of finding the shortest path for 1-node binary chain problems. In this paper, we propose to improve the EigenAnt algorithm by adding additional parameters in such a way as to be able to take advantage of the analysis developed for the simple ant colony optimization algorithm. We demonstrate through our analysis that since the Improved EigenAnt algorithm has one parameter more than ant colony optimization algorithms, tuning of convergence speed is decoupled from tuning of convergence features in the algorithm. Thus, IEigenAnt, which can be interpreted as having two uncorrelated intensification and diversification components, makes it possible to achieve a balance between intensification and diversification. In order to illustrate the advantages of this decoupling, we present experimental results for the routing network problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1984.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: factor utilization; infrastructure; industrial policy; institutional capacity; enterprise architecture; diversification levers
Online: 31 October 2023 (06:37:52 CET)
This article postulates that, in principle, it is possible (1) to develop linkages between the extractive sector and other economic sectors; (2) for such linkages to contribute to economic diversification; and (3) for economic diversification to potentially drive positive economic transformation. We argue that achieving this three-stepped pathway is impossible without also achieving some level of political and social transformation. Empirically, many resource-rich countries have failed to develop linkages. Or, if they have, the linkages built remain limited to the development of supply chains serving the extractive sector, contributing little to economic diversification. In this article, we refer to limited linkages and dependence on exporting unprocessed minerals as the centripetal force of the extractive sector. This implies that capital investments and economic activities are concentrated around the extractive sector. We propose an alternative theoretical model that strives to foster the centrifugal force of the extractive sector – a term we use to capture the three-stepped pathway. This model is underpinned by multiple factors and their interactions, which are within the purview of the complex state and market relationship (posing as a challenge) and the role of minerals in the global transformation towards a clean energy system (posing as an opportunity).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0440.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: livelihood diversification; entropy index; capital; rice farming households; Partial Least Squares
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:39:11 CEST)
Rice farming households having limited capital do various combinations of the capital to get diversified livelihoods in continuing their lives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the household capital of rice farmers on livelihood diversification in Indramayu District. Survey method with data sources from 214 rice farming households taken by proportional simple random sampling technique. Data analysis used the partial least square method. The results found that the household capital of rice farmers has a positive and significant effect on the livelihood diversification. Government policy recommendations were determined in order of priority are physical capital with the help of agricultural tools and machinery, natural capital by anticipating climate change, financial capital by increasing support for capital sources, social capital by social networks, and human capital by improving farming skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: anuran; competition; disruptive selection; diversification; fear; phenotypic plasticity; resource polymorphism; specialization
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:07 CET)
Disruptive selection arises when extreme phenotypes have a fitness advantage compared to more intermediate phenotypes. Theory and evidence suggest that intraspecific resource competition is a key driver of disruptive selection. However, while competition can be indirect (exploitative) or direct (interference), the role of interference competition in disruptive selection has not been tested, and most models of disruptive selection assume exploitative competition. We experimentally investigated whether the type of competition affects the outcome of competitive interactions using a system where disruptive selection is common: Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles develop into alternative resource-use phenotypes: carnivores, which consume fairy shrimp and other tadpoles, and omnivores, which feed on algae and detritus. Tadpoles intermediate in phenotype have low fitness when competition is intense, as they are outcompeted by the specialized tadpoles. Our experiments revealed that the presence of carnivores significantly decreased foraging behavior in intermediate tadpoles, and that intermediate tadpoles had significantly lower growth rates in interference competition treatments with carnivores but not with omnivores. Interference competition may therefore be important in driving disruptive selection. As carnivore tadpoles are also cannibalistic, the ‘fear’ effect may have a greater impact on intermediate tadpoles than exploitative competition alone, similarly to non-consumptive effects in predator-prey or intraguild relationships.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0213.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: crop diversification; C3 xerophtyes; food security; underutilized crops; drought adaptation strategies
Online: 12 January 2021 (10:19:08 CET)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an underexploited and under-researched crop species with potential to contribute to crop diversification in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. The species is commonly cultivated in the drier parts of Southern Africa, mainly by smallholder farmers who maintain a wide range of landraces. Understanding the molecular and morpho-physiological basis for drought adaptation of Citron watermelon in these dry environments can aid in screening local germplasm, identification of suitable traits for crop improvement and improving food system resilience among smallholder farmers by adding to crop diversification. This paper reviews literature on drought adaptation of C. lanatus spp. (C3 xerophytes), using the systematic review approach. The review discusses; (i) the potential role of citron watermelon in adding to crop diversification, (ii) alternative food uses and potential by-products that can be processed from citron watermelon and (iii) the role of Sub-Saharan farmers as key actors in conserving citron watermelon germplasm and biodiversity. Finally, the review provides a summary of significant findings and identifies critical knowledge gaps for further research.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0504.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Income diversification; idiosyncratic risk; emerging economies; Ridge/Lasso/ Elastics net regression
Online: 20 November 2018 (15:29:13 CET)
Modern portfolio theory claims that diversification into non-correlated or negatively correlated activities reduces the overall risk of a portfolio. Considering the total income of a bank as a portfolio of interest income and non-interest income, this paper investigates how the variability of interest income and non- interest income, and covariance between interest income and non-interest income influence the various risk factors of banks. We set out a study in the Indian context. We have extracted data for the period 2005-2017 and employed an extended version of Ridge, Lasso and Elastics Net regression to take care of multi-collinearly in our data. We have considered 10-fold cross-validation techniques to get optimal values of tuning parameters for Ridge, Lasso, and Elastics Net regression (which is a convex combination of ridge and the LASSO). We have compared different regression techniques by comparing RMSE and R2. We observe that non-interest income is positively correlated with interest income in the Indian context, but it does stabilize variance, idiosyncratic risk & market risk (Beta) of Indian Banks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2106.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Caribbean mangroves; origin; evolution; turnover; diversification; fossil pollen; Eocene; Oligocene; Miocene; Pliocene
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:11:44 CET)
Recently, the evolutionary history of the Caribbean mangroves has been reconsidered using partial palynological databases organized by the time intervals of interest, namely Late Cretaceous to Eocene for the origin, Eocene-Oligocene transition for major turnover and Neogene to Quaternary for diversification. These discussions have been published in a set of sequential papers but the raw information remains unknown. This paper reviews all the information available and provides the first comprehensive and updated compilation of the abovementioned partial databases. This compilation is called CARMA-F (CARibbean MAngroves-Fossil) and includes nearly 90 localities from the present and past Caribbean coasts, ranging from the Late Cretaceous to the Pliocene. Details on the Quaternary localities (CARMA-Q) will be published later. CARMA-F lists and illustrates the fossil pollen from past mangrove taxa and their extant representatives, and includes a map of the studied localities and a conventional spreadsheet with the raw data. The compilation is the most complete available for the study of the origin, evolution and diversification of Caribbean mangroves, and is open to modifications for adapting it to the particular interests of each researcher.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Sustainable intensification; crop diversification; COVID-19; food security; nutrition security; water security
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:21:33 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely impacting food and nutrition security and requires urgent attention from policymakers. Sustainable intensification of agriculture is one strategy that attempts to increase food production without adversely impacting the environment, by shifting from water-intensive crops to other climate-resistant and nutritious crops. This paper focuses on the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh by studying the impact of shifting 20% of the area under paddy and cotton cultivation to other crops like millets and pulses. Using FAO’s CROPWAT model, along with monsoon forecasts and detailed agricultural data, we simulate the crop water requirements across the study area. We simulate a business-as-usual base case and compare it to multiple crop diversification strategies using various parameters – food, calories, protein production, as well as groundwater and energy consumption. Results from this study indicate that reduced paddy cultivation decreases groundwater and energy consumption by around 9-10%., and a calorie deficit between 4-8% - making up this calorie deficit requires a 20-30% improvement in the yields of millets and pulses. We also propose policy interventions to incentivize the cultivation of nutritious and climate-resistant crops as a sustainable strategy towards strengthening food and nutrition security while lowering the environmental footprint of food production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: herbicide resistance; crop diversification; intercropping; crop rotation; cover crops; sustainable; weeds; climate change
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:23:08 CEST)
Weeds are among the major constraints to any crop production system, reducing productivity and profitability. Herbicides are among the most effective methods to control weeds, and reliance on herbicides for weed control has increased significantly with the advent of herbicide-resistant crops. Unfortunately, over-reliance on herbicides leads to environmental-health issues and herbicide-resistant weeds, causing human-health and ecological concerns. Crop diversification can help manage weeds sustainably in major crop production systems. It acts as an organizing principle under which technological innovations and ecological insights can be combined to manage weeds sustainably. Diversified cropping can be defined as the conscious inclusion of functional biodiversity at temporal and/or spatial levels to improve the productivity and stability of ecosystem services. Crop diversification helps to reduce weed density by negatively impacting weed seed germination and weed growth. Additionally, diversified farming systems are more resilient to climate change than monoculture systems and provide better crop yield. However, there are a few challenges to adopting a diversified cropping system, which ranges from technology innovations, government policies, farm-level decisions, climate change, and market conditions. In this review, we discuss how crop diversification supports sustainable weed management, the challenges associated with it, and the future of weed management with respect to the diversification concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0253.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Trade, competitiveness, export, index, assessment, method, data, revealed, comparative advantage, development, diversification, centralization
Online: 15 June 2018 (12:27:03 CEST)
The competitiveness of domestic products at the regional or global market is one of the cornerstones of a country’s internationalcompetitiveness. In this regard, the assessment and analysis of the competitiveness of a country’s international trade becomes an important issue. Thus, development and diversification of the export potential of the country is viewed as one of the most important directions of the international trade policy of the given country. Therefore, another important task is the specialization of the country in the most efficient and competitive segments of the economy. The above-mentioned circumstances embody the fact, that the role of quantitative assessment of potential competitive advantages is important, as it allows determining to what extent certain factors influence on the formation of export capacity in the country. The main objective of the study is to determine the role of export competitiveness in the process of competitive advantages formation of a country. This study mainly focuses on quantitative analysis based on the calculation of Balassa index, determining the extent to which a country has a comparative advantage in producing and exporting certain goods. The study presents the example of the Republic of Armenia, the study covers the period between 2002- 2016. Based on the index calculation, it can be determined whether the country has "revealed" comparative advantage or not. The practical significance of the study lies in the fact that its main findings and conclusions arising from it can be used in assessing the export competitiveness of not only Armenia, but also for other countries or groups of countries.The outcomes and implication of the research can be used to improve the competitiveness of goods and services in the global market.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0260.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Market Connectedness; Volatility Spillovers; Bibliometric analysis; Meta-analysis; Content analysis; Asymmetric information; Portfolio diversification
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:43:59 CEST)
Evaluation of market connectedness and asymmetric volatility spillover has recently seen a surge in financial risk analytics and portfolio diversification. We carried out a meta-literature review on connectedness and spillovers, providing solid insight into the research field and robust guidelines for future investigation. The review consists of a quantitative bibliometric analysis of 594 papers and a qualitative content analysis of 77 papers covering 1991 to 2021. The results of the meta-citation analysis shows that Diebold's Spillover index (2007) is the predominant method in most works as far as market connectedness and spillover is concerned. With an extensive review, we answered the following objectives (1) Analyze the most influential authors, journals, and publications, (2) Understand the research streams and most studied streams, (3) Understand the theme structure and thematic evolution, and keyword trends, (4) Examine the pattern of collaboration, and most productive affiliations, (5) Explore future research directions and untapped areas. The content analysis revealed the following important research streams in the current literature (1) Asymmetries in the market connectedness, (2) Influence of Macro Factors in the market connectedness and spillover, (3) the Role of Oil in market spillovers and hedging portfolios, (4) Dynamic cross-market connectedness and spillovers. The ongoing financial turmoil and market advancements make market connectedness a vital research topic; thus, our work would significantly contribute to macroeconomic policymakers, researchers and hedging investors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: virus density distribution; genotype; virus infection; immune response; resistance to treatment; nonlocal interaction; quasispecies diversification
Online: 4 December 2019 (03:59:20 CET)
The work is devoted to the investigation of virus quasispecies evolution and diversification due to mutations, competition for host cells, and cross-reactive immune responses. The model consists of a nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation for the virus density depending on the genotype considered as a continuous variable and on time. This equation contains two integral terms corresponding to the nonlocal effects of virus interaction with host cells and with immune cells. In the model, a virus strain is represented by a localized solution concentrated around some given genotype. Emergence of new strains corresponds to a periodic wave propagating in the space of genotypes. The conditions of appearance of such waves and their dynamics are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0031.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Solvency II; Standard Formula; Risk Measure; Diversification; Aggregation; Monotony; Homogeneity; Subadditivity; Euler's Principle; Capital Allocation
Online: 1 March 2017 (08:53:59 CET)
The core of risk aggregation in the Solvency II Standard Formula is the so-called square root formula. We argue that it should be seen as a means for the aggregation of different risks to an overall risk rather than being associated with variance-covariance based risk analysis. Considering the Solvency II Standard Formula from the viewpoint of linear geometry, we immediately find that it defines a norm and therefore provides a homogeneous and sub-additive tool for risk aggregation. Hence Euler's Principle for the reallocation of risk capital applies and yields explicit formulas for capital allocation in the framework given by the Solvency II Standard Formula. This gives rise to the definition of diversification functions, which we define as monotone, subadditive, and homogeneous functions on a convex cone. Diversification functions constitute a class of models for the study of the aggregation of risk, and diversification. The aggregation of risk measures using a diversification function preserves the respective properties of these risk measures. Examples of diversification functions are given by seminorms, which are monotone on the convex cone of non-negative vectors. Each Lp norm has this property, and any scalar product given by a non-negative positive semidefinite matrix does as well. In particular, the Standard Formula is a diversification function and hence a risk measure that preserves homogeneity, subadditivity, and convexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010011
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: economic sustainability; energy technology complexes; regulating combined resources; degree of diversification; approximation of functions of abrupt development
Online: 13 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
The imperfection of theoretical and methodological approaches to regulate the jump process transition when combining differentiated energy resources is a pressing issue. The goal of this paper is to develop a theory and a method to regulate the integration-balancing processes of combining diversified resources. The concept of combining integration and balancing models has been substantiated by methods of transforming multidimensional space and approximating generalized functions that represent jump-like processes. Theoretical and operational-regulatory models of economic sustainability have been developed, substantiating new concepts, patterns, properties, dependencies and indicators of the dynamics of the processes of combination; the optimality conditions for the number of approximations of generalized functions, interpreting the effects of control functions of combining resources, are determined. New methods for solving problems have been developed: the organization of the energy technology complex of facilities for enhanced resource diversification and the Center for Sustainability, improving the quality of managing dynamic processes in terms of combining and diversifying resources.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: foodshed; archipelago; city-region; food modelling; food self-sufficiency; self-reliance; food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:36:05 CET)
Regionalization of food systems for shortening supply chains and developing local agriculture to feed city-regions presents particular challenges for food planning and policy. Existing foodshed approaches enable to assess the theoretical capacity of food self-sufficiency of a specific region, but they struggle to consider the diversity of existing crops in a way that could be usable for informing decisions and support urban food strategies. Most studies are based on the definition of the area required to meet local consumption, obtaining a map represented as an isotropic circle around the city, without considering the site-specific pedoclimatic, geographical and socio-economic conditions, which are essential for the development of local food supply chains. In this study we propose a first stage to fill this gap by combining the Metropolitan Foodshed and Self-sufficiency Scenario (MFSS) model, which already considers regional yields and specific land use covers, with spatially explicit data on cropping pattern, soil and topography. We use European-wide available data and apply the methodology in the city-region of Avignon (France), initially considering a foodshed with a radius of 30 Km. Our results show that even though a theoretical high potential self-sufficiency could be achieved for the whole food commodities consumed (>80%), when considering the specific pedological conditions of the area, this could be suitable only for domestic plant-based products, whereas for animal products an expansion of the initial foodshed to a radius of 100Km was required to provide >70% of self-sufficiency. We conclude that it is necessary to shift the analysis from the size assessment to the commodity-group specific spatial configuration of the foodshed based on biophysical and socio-economic features, and discuss avenues for further researches enabling to develop a foodshed assessment as a complex of complementary pieces: the foodshed archipelago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0230.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Poverty; Foreign direct investment inflows; Human capital; Trade openness; Export product diversification; Economic growth; Labour productivity; Financial development; Infrastructure development.
Online: 6 November 2020 (09:03:02 CET)
The present paper investigates the effect of poverty on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in developing countries. It complements the important extant literature on the effect of FDI inflows on poverty by examining the issue the other way around. The analysis is conducted using a sample of 117 countries over the period 1980-2017, and the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) technique. It has relied on two indicators of poverty, namely poverty headcount ratio and poverty gap. Findings indicate that over the full sample, poverty influences negatively FDI inflows, including through its adverse effect on human capital (that is, both education and health). Unsurprisingly, low-income countries (considered as poorest countries in the full sample) experience a higher negative effect of poverty on FDI inflows than other countries. On another note, participation in international trade matters for the effect of poverty on FDI inflows. In fact, an increase in poverty levels results in lower FDI inflows in countries that experience low workers' productivity, a less developed financial sector, and a low level of infrastructure development. Furthermore, the effect of poverty on FDI inflows does not depend on the prevailing economic growth rate. Finally, the analysis has revealed the existence of a non-linear effect of poverty on FDI inflows for the poverty headcount indicator, but not for the poverty gap indicator. The non-linear effect of poverty headcount on FDI inflows is such that a rise in poverty headcount ratio results in lower FDI inflows, but an additional increase in poverty more than further discourages FDI inflows. The conclusion discusses the implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: foodshed archipelago; proximity food supply chains; spatial signature; city-region; food self-sufficiency; regional food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system; food policy
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:37:50 CET)
: Foodshed approaches allow the assessment of the theoretical food self-sufficiency capacity of a specific region based on biophysical conditions. Recent analyses show that the focus needs to be shifted from foodshed size portrayed as an isotropic circle to a commodity-group-specific spatial configuration of the foodshed that takes into account the socio-economic and biophysical conditions essential to the development of local food supply chains. We focus on a specific animal product (beef) and use an innovative modeling approach based on spatial analysis to detect the areas of the foodshed dedicated to beef feeding (forage, pasture, and grassland), considering the foodshed as a complex of complementary areas called an archipelago. We use available statistical data including a census to address the city-region of Avignon (France) covering a 100 km radius. Our results show that the factors driving the use of short supply chains for beef feeding areas are the foodshed archipelago’s number of patches, the connectivity between them, and the rugosity of the boundaries. In addition, our beef self-sufficiency assessment results differ depending on geographical context. For instance, being located within the perimeters of a nature park seems to help orient beef production towards short supply chains. We discuss possible leverage for public action to reconnect beef production areas to consumption areas (the city) via short supply chains (e.g. green, home-grown school food programs) so as to increase local food security through increased local food self-sufficiency.