ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0208.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Disease; fibroid; micronutrients; inflammation; antioxidants; cytokines; diets
Online: 15 June 2022 (02:24:41 CEST)
Uterine fibroid (UF) is a tumour in some parts of the uterus, which introduces health challenges or death due to failed surgery among women globally. This study was designed to ascertain the involvement of micro-nutrients, inflammation, and antioxidant enzymes in the UF development to gain further insights and provide a strategy for managing the disease. One hundred ninety reproductive-aged women were recruited and classified equally into case and control subjects. The supernatant obtained from excised tissues from the fibroid and the normal samples from the adjacent myometrium were assessed for the selected biochemical parameters with standard methods. The levels of vitamin A and sodium between 26-35 years; vitamins D, E, zinc, and selenium between 46-55 years; and vitamin E at 56 years and above significantly decreased (p<0.05). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) level significantly increased (P < 0.05) among the case between 36-45 years. An increase in the activity of glutathione-s-transferase and the reduction in glutathione peroxidase activity and vitamin A level in the uterus between 26-45 years were the most pronounced significant findings (p<0.05) recorded. Prolonged vitamin A deficiency coupled with excess sodium salts facilitating inflammation induced by IL-2 are critical factors for UF development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: household food waste; diets; food choices; dietary patterns
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:53:01 CEST)
Starting from an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, and USA), this research explores the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits in a cross-country comparative perspective. 8,000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were built on the work of Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international observatory of social, behavioral and lifestyles dynamics behind household food waste. Relationship between per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (Traditional, Healthy and Sustainable, Vegetarian, Smart, Confused) was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results show that Smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, UK and USA. Vegetarian diets are associated to lower food waste values in China, Germany, UK and USA but not in Italy, Russia and Spain. Since the share of population adopting a Smart diet is on average 2.7% of the sample, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on this specific type of consumers, often associated to larger amounts of food waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0251.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: eIF2α; eIF2α-kinases; diets; stressors; Rachycentron canadum; cobia cells
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:39:48 CET)
The present study investigates the response of the marine fish cobia, Rachycentron canadum, to stressors as measured by phosphorylation of the α-subunit of the translational initiation factor, eIF2. eIF2α is the target of phosphorylation by a family of kinases that respond to a range of physiological stressors. Phosphorylation of eIF2α not only inhibits overall protein synthesis, but allows cells to reprogram gene expression to adapt to, and recover from, stress. The deduced coding sequence of cobia eIF2α has 94 % identity to both zebrafish (Danio rerio) and human eIF2α sequences with identical phosphorylation and kinase docking sites. The present study uses a cobia cell line, Cm cells, derived from muscle, as well as cobia larvae to investigate the response of cobia eIF2α to various stressors. In Cm cells, phosphorylation of eIF2α is increased by nutrient deficiency, leucinol, and ER stress, consistent with the activation of the eIF2 kinases, GCN2, and PERK. In cobia juveniles, diet and water temperature affect the phosphorylation state of eIF2α. We conclude that evaluation of eIF2α phosphorylation could function as an early marker to evaluate diet, aquaculture stressors and disease in cobia and may be of particular use in the optimization of conditions for raising cobia larvae and juveniles.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Food; feeding; diets; macro-micronutrients; feeding behavior; pellet-animal performances
Online: 8 February 2021 (14:10:19 CET)
A number of studies have investigated different crustacean food stuffs, feeding methods, 18 and feeding behavior, but little attention has been given to the interaction between these aspects in 19 crustaceans. The aim of the present review is to update knowledge, and examine challenges and 20 opportunities in the development of formulated diets, as pelleted feed, which is vital for developing 21 better quality of seed or broodstock in hatcheries, and adaptation of hatchery product to the aqua- 22 culture environment, and production systems.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: renal diets; fiber; renal nutrition; chronic kidney disease; gut microbiota
Online: 26 August 2019 (12:23:22 CEST)
Nutrition is crucial for the management of patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) to slow down disease progression and to correct symptoms. The mainstay of the nutritional approach to renal patients is protein restriction coupled with adequate energy supply to prevent malnutrition. However, other aspects of renal diets, including fiber content, can be beneficial. This paper summarizes the latest literature on the role of different types of dietary fiber in CKD, with special attention to intestinal microbiota and the potential protective role of renal diets. Fibers have been identified based on aqueous solubility, but other features, such as viscosity, fermentability, and bulking effect in the colon should be considered. A proper amount of fiber should be recommended not only in the general population but also in CKD patients, to achieve an adequate composition and metabolism of intestinal microbiota and to reduce the risks connected with obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0794.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Ketogenic Diets; Ketosis; Ketones; Consensus Statement; Position Paper; Headache; Migraine; Cluster Headache
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:38:37 CEST)
Headaches are among the most prevalent and disabling disorders and there are several patients’ unmet needs in current pharmacological options, while a growing interest is focusing on nutritional approaches as non-pharmacological treatments. Among these, the most promising seems to be the ketogenic diet (KD). Exactly 100 years ago, KD was used to treat pediatric forms of drug-resistant epilepsy, but progressively applications of this diet also involved adults and other neurological disorders. Evidence of KD effectiveness in migraine comes from 1928, but in the last years different groups of research and clinicians paid attention to this therapeutic option to treat patients with drug resistant migraine and cluster headache, and/or comorbid with metabolic syndrome. Here we describe all the existing evidence on the potential benefits of KDs in headaches, explore in deep all the potential mechanisms of action involved in the efficacy, and synthesize results of working meetings of an Italian panel of experts on this topic. Aim of the working group is the creation of a consensus on indications and clinical practice to treat with KDs patients with headache. The results here we present are the base for further improvement in the knowledge and application of KDs in the treatment of headaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0394.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: animal growth performance; carcass traits; economic returns; Nguni cattle heifers; spineless cactus diets
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:17:32 CEST)
In an attempt to improve free-range beef cattle herds and explore the economic viability of utilizing Opuntia ficus-indica (spineless cactus) cladodes as supplementary feed, we investigated the impact of cactus diets on animal growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nguni cattle heifers. Four dietary treatments were randomly assigned to 32 heifers aged 24-months, weighing on average 172.2±27.1 kg, with each dietary treatment replicated to 8 individually penned heifers for 90 days. The dietary treatments were control diet (pasture-based energy + protein sources), 10% cactus diet, 20% cactus diet and commercial diet (crop-based energy and commercial protein source). The heifers fed commercial and control diets attained significantly (P < 0.05) higher dry matter intake, average daily gains, fat thickness, carcass conformation scores and lower feed conversion ratio than those fed cactus diets. However, the final body weight gains, slaughter and carcass weights, rib-eye muscle area and meat pH45 min and 24h were comparable (P > 0.05) between heifers fed cactus diets and those fed commercial and control diets. The 10 and 20% cactus diets had greater gross margins (P < 0.05) of R278.6 and R296.9, respectively than the other diets, due largely to reduced total variable costs. The comparability of carcass traits of heifers fed cactus diets and those fed non-cactus diets as well as higher economic returns from cactus inclusion warrants the use of cactus diets, particularly during drought when commercial feed prices rise.