ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0645.v1
Online: 29 October 2018 (02:15:33 CET)
Evolution of cooperation has traditionally been studied by assuming that individuals adopt either of two pure strategies, to cooperate or defect. Recent work have considered continuous cooperative investments, turning full cooperation and full defection into two opposing ends of a spectrum and sometimes allowing for the emergence of the traditionally-studied pure strategies through evolutionary diversification. These studies have typically assumed a well-mixed population in which individuals are encountered with equal probability, Here, we allow for the possibility of assortative interactions by assuming that, with specified probabilities, an individual interacts with one or more other individuals of the same strategy. A closely related assumption has previously been made in evolutionary game theory and has been interpreted in terms of relatedness. We systematically study the effect of relatedness and find, among other conclusions, that the scope for evolutionary branching is reduced by either higher average degree of, or higher uncertainty in, relatedness with interaction partners. We also determine how different types of non-linear dependencies of benefits and costs constrain the types of evolutionary outcomes that can occur. While our results overall corroborate the conclusions of earlier studies, that higher relatedness promotes the evolution of cooperation, our investigation gives a comprehensive picture of how relatedness affects the evolution of cooperation with continuous investments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0270.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: wood-based sector, intersectoral cooperation, intermunicipal cooperation, Poland, partnership, new institutional economy
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:38:25 CEST)
Intersectoral and intermunicipal cooperation are still underdeveloped spheres of public and economic development policies. Academic discussions are invariably focused on pro-competitive activities, the economic efficiency of which is not always sufficient. In this paper the authors attempt to identify factors leading to cooperation between local government authorities and economic entities, focusing on examples from the forest and wood-based sector in Poland. These processes are analysed in the framework of the New Institutional Economy, both in the theoretical and practical context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0189.v1
Online: 11 July 2018 (04:59:48 CEST)
This paper studies the spatial joint evolution of cooperative behavior and a partially assortative matching institution that protects cooperators. We consider cooperation as characterized by a cultural trait transmitted via an endogenous socialization mechanism a la Bisin and Verdier (2001) and we assume that such trait can diffuse randomly in space due to some spatial noise in the socialization mechanism. Using mathematical techniques from reaction-diffusion equations theory, we show that, under some conditions, an initially localized domain of preferences for cooperation can invade the whole population and characterize the asymptotic speed of diffusion. We consider first thecase with exogenous assortativeness, and then endogeneize the degree of social segmentation in matching, assuming that it is collectively set at each point of time and space by the local community. We show how relatively low cost segmenting institutions can appear in new places thanks to the spatial random diffusion of cooperation, helping a localized cultural cluster of cooperation to invade the whole population. The endogenous assortative matching institution follows a life cycle process : appearing, growing and then disappearing once a culture of cooperation is suffciently established in the local population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0086.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: ecological firewalls; synthetic microbiomes; mutualism; cooperation
Online: 4 March 2022 (21:50:53 CET)
While rapidly becoming a main thread in the development of new therapies, the rise of synthetic biology is also tied to concerns about the potential impact on ecosystems. That is particularly relevant in the of deployment in natural habitats, including the human microbiome. These concerns have boosted the analysis of diverse strategies of containment, from engineered cell death to xenobiology to the creation of Xeno nucleic acids. However, little attention has been paid to the potential containment implicit in nonlinear ecological interactions and the lessons provided by the population dynamics models used in community ecology. If we consider synthetic strains as some class of "species" embedded within an ecological context, it is possible to show that some network interaction patterns and their associated nonlinear responses can offer a reliable source of containment. Here we present and discuss some simple examples of these "ecological firewalls" that could help provide a self-regulating biocontainment. Our firewall designs can help to ensure that engineered organisms have a limited spread while, when required, preventing their extinction. The basic synthetic designs and their dynamical behaviour are presented, each one inspired in a given ecological class of interaction. Their possible applications are discussed and the broader connection with invasion ecology outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: interpersonal trust; sustainable organizations; competences; relations; cooperation
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:00:45 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to examine if there are links between interpersonal trust and competences, relations and cooperation in Polish telecom companies. It examines what factors affect trust in coworkers and managers in sustainable organizations. The paper surveys a sample of 175 employees of telecom companies in Poland by means of a questionnaire. The results indicate that the competences, relations and cooperation are related to interpersonal trust. Regression analysis showed that the competences and relations predict a significant variance in trust amongst coworkers. Additionally, cooperation contributes to prediction of trust in mangers. Given the importance of trust in sustainable organizations, a better comprehension of what factors are related to team confidence provides valuable information for stakeholders. The results provide valuable clues how to improve interpersonal trust in sustainable organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: social relationships; matriliny; patriliny; cooperation; evolution; behavioral ecology
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:36:42 CEST)
Although cooperative social networks are considered key to human evolution, emphasis has most often been placed on the functions of male cooperative networks. As a result, gender differences in social networks are under-studied and remain incompletely theorized. Variation in kinship systems may be leveraged to test and generate hypotheses that explain the causes and effects of variation in gendered social networks. Specifically, by linking socio-ecological drivers to variation in kinship systems, human behavioral ecology provides a framework to anticipate and explain divergent patterns in gendered social networks within different kinship ecologies. In this paper, we test the ‘universal gender differences’ hypothesis positing gender-specific network structures against the ‘gender reversal’ hypothesis that women’s social networks in matriliny will more closely resemble those of men’s in patriliny. We compare these hypotheses using tools from social network analyses and data on men’s and women’s social networks in matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo communities. In support of the gender reversal hypothesis, we find that women’s networks in matriliny are more similar to men’s in patriliny. Specifically, women in matriliny have higher edge density than do men, and women have higher measures of degree centralization than do men in matriliny whereas patrilineal men have higher measures of centrality than do women. Additionally, we find that geographic proximity and relatedness together predict women’s friendships in patriliny whereas relatedness predominates in matriliny. Finally, we find that friendship predicts ties in other domains of cooperation and social support. These results support the idea that the socio-ecological factors that result in different kinship systems also impact the ways that men and women operate within these systems, underscoring the importance of human flexibility in family making, and challenging the predominant narrative of universal gender differences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0554.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cooperation; Aggregative mulicellularity; Social Conflicts; Evolution; Dictyostelium discoideum
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:15:54 CET)
The ’social amoeba’ Dictyostelium discoideum, where aggregation of genet- ically heterogeneous cells produces functional collective structures, epitomizes social conflicts associated with multicellular organization. ’Cheater’ populations that have a higher chance – quantified by a positive spore bias – of surviving to the next generation are selectively advantaged. Their spread is thus expected to undermine collective functions over evolutionary times. In this review, we discuss the two main approaches adopted to conceptualize social conflicts in Dictyostelium discoideum: describing spore bias as a property of cell popula- tions (strains), or as a result of individual cell choices during the developmental process. These two points of view are often held equivalent and used inter- changeably. While the population-level view allows for more direct evolutionary inference, however, the cell-level interpretation reveals that such evolutionary predictions may be modified if developmental mechanisms, such as dependence on the environment and intrinsic unpredictability of cell fate choices, are taken into account. We conclude by proposing a set of open questions that in our opinion lie at the core of a multi-scale description of aggregative life cycles, where the formulation of predictive evolutionary models would include cell-level mechanisms responsible for spore bias alongside population-level descriptors of multicellular organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0172.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: blockchain; healthcare supply chain management; logistics cooperation; big data
Online: 19 January 2022 (12:09:00 CET)
This study emphasizes the necessity of introducing a blockchain-based joint logistics system to strengthen the competency of medical supply chain management (SCM) and tries to develop a healthcare supply chain management (HSCM) competency measurement item through an analytic hierarchy process. The variables needed for using blockchain-based joint logistics are the performance expectations, effort expectations, promotion conditions, and social impact of the UTAUT model, and the HSCM competency results in increased reliability and transparency, enhanced SCM, and enhanced scalability. Word cloud results, analyzing the most important considerations to realize work efficiency among medical industry-related agencies, mentioned numerous words, including sudden situations, delivery, technology trust, information sharing, effectiveness, urgency, etc. This might imply the need to establish a system that can respond immediately to emergency situations during holidays. It could also suggest the importance of real-time information sharing to increase the efficiency of inventory management. Therefore, there is a need of a business model that can increase the visibility of real-time medical SCM through big data analysis. By analyzing the importance of securing reliability based on the blockchain technology in the establishment of a supply chain network for HSCM competency, we reveal that joint logistics can be achieved and synergistic effects can be created by implementing the integrated database to secure HSCM competency. Strengthening partnerships, such as joint logistics, will eventually lead to HSCM competency. In particular, HSCM should seek ways to upgrade its competitive capabilities through big data analysis based on the establishment of a joint logistics system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Technological Cooperation Networks; Biotechnology Sector; Bibliometrics; Social Network Analysis.
Online: 4 March 2021 (16:51:51 CET)
The present study aims to analyze scientific production about technological cooperation networks in biotechnology sector, based on bibliometrics network analysis. We used the Gephi software to identify groups of partnerships, proving that the cooperation relationship is a practice used, re-sulting technological development. Findings identify that in the path for new resources that com-plement skills and competences universities are an important player in this cooperative ecosystem, and The United States is a large hub, with an extensive network of global cooperation. A strong role of its researchers in the publication of scientific articles in cooperation is highlighted. This study contributes to the advancement of the discussion about cooperative networks, as well as to the development of policies aimed at the biotechnology sector advancements
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0023.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cooperation; conditioned media; TGF-β1; intratumour heterogeneity; metastasis; EMT; invasion
Online: 14 November 2022 (10:58:41 CET)
Intratumour heterogeneity is often associated with poor response to treatment and bad prognosis. In addition to constitutive genetic/epigenetic sources, phenotypic and functional heterogeneity can reflect cell plasticity due to changes in gene expression patterns induced by signals from the tumour microenvironment or other cells. Positive interactions between cancer clones can increase their fitness and contribute to tumour growth, resistance to drugs and metastasis. Consequently, understanding the pathways involved in such behaviours is of great significance for cancer treatment. To explore if and how genetically distant clones can synergistically enhance each other's metastatic potential, this study used three (two breast and one lung) cancer cell lines with different aggressiveness levels. We found that (i) the conditioned media from the breast and lung aggressive lines induce mesenchymal features and increase the migration and invasion potential of the poorly metastatic breast line, and (ii) in both cases, this interclonal communication is based on the same soluble factor – namely, the tumour growth factor TGF-β1. Furthermore, when the two breast lines are mixed and co-cultured, the invasive potential of both lines is enhanced, and this outcome is dependent on the recruitment of the less aggressive clone into expressing a malignant phenotype. Based on our findings, we propose a two-tier model whereby highly metastatic clones can recruit weakly metastatic clones into acquiring an invasive phenotype, which in turn augments the invasion ability of the former (i.e., a “help me help you” strategy) through shared proteases and/or ECM remodelling. We suggest that such synergistic cooperation can easily emerge via cross-talk involving metastatic clones able to constitutively secrete signalling molecules that induce and maintain their own malignant state (i.e., autocrine/cell-autonomous signalling) and clones that have the ability to respond to those signals (i.e., paracrine/non-cell-autonomous signalling) and express a metastatic phenotype. Taking into account the lack of therapies to directly affect the metastatic process, interfering with such cooperative behaviours that tumour cells engage in during the early steps in the metastatic cascade could provide an additional strategy to increase patient survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Transformation; sustainability; negotiation; German Energiewende; complexity; decisions; phases of processes; cooperation
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:12:28 CET)
Conventional academic debate on sustainability and transformation has begun to be disputed by researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders from the private sector. The complexity of linking sustainability with transformation necessitates the development of new ways of understanding and explaining actors, processes, issues, structures, and outcomes related to transformation to sustainability (T2S). A persistent problem in understanding and managing the T2S is the implied notion of a monolithic transformation to achieve sustainability. This notion underestimates the diversity of actors as well as the historical contexts of transformations. At the same time, achieving T2S is highly dependent on technical solutions as well as policies that can stir needed behavioural change, whereas these technical solutions and policies are not always socially acceptable or politically implementable. Therefore, achieving T2S also calls for evaluating normative foundations of policies and actions needed to advance T2S. This article argues that T2S is composed of different phases, each of which having a different set of actors, resources and audience. This article explains how collective decision can be achieved through multiple levels and types of negotiations that occur in an orchestrated manner. To understand this, this article introduces a theoretical model as an analytical framework to structure how T2S unfolds. This model uses insights from negotiation studies to focus on the actors’ perspectives on T2S. It proposes the division of the transformation process into phases – entry point, learning, sequencing, disrupting and fortifying. Using the Germany’s energy transition (Energiewende), each of these phases is analysed to determine the “quality” of cooperation that can help fulfil the tasks required to master the so-called “cognitive games” of T2S (ripeness game, power game, bargaining game, policy game, scaling game). Moreover, insights are presented to explain how the designated milestone can be achieved that indicates the advancing to the next phase and eventually entrench the transformation process. The lessons and findings resulting from the analysis of the phases of T2S suggest that there is also the need to revisit underlying assumptions on negotiations, sustainability and transformation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0106.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: virus evolution; cheat; cooperation; social evolution; defective interfering genome; satellite virus
Online: 22 April 2020 (06:02:05 CEST)
The success of many viruses depends upon cooperative interactions between viral genomes. For example, viruses that coinfect the same cell can share essential gene products, such as replicase, the enzyme that replicates the viral genome. However, when cooperation occurs, there is the potential for ‘cheats’ to exploit that cooperation. We suggest that: (1) the biology of viruses makes viral cooperation particularly susceptible to cheating; (2) cheats are common across a wide range of viruses, including viral entities that are already well studied, such as defective interfering genomes, and satellite viruses. Consequently, evolutionary theory developed to explain cheating offers a conceptual framework for understanding and manipulating viral dynamics. At the same time, viruses offer unique opportunities to study how cheats evolve, because cheating is relatively common in viruses, compared with taxa where cooperation is more usually studied, such as animals.
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Infection Control; Epidemic Surveillance; International Cooperation
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:30:01 CET)
The disease COVID-19 is highly infectious, and infectious in asymptomatic incubation period. The national epidemic development has been effectively controlled and continues improving, especially in areas outside Hubei province. Such periodical results were achieved by the joint efforts of the whole society, including not only the hard work and dedication of the front-line medical workers but also the active cooperation of the general public. The strict epidemic prevention and control measurements have brought remarkable control results. In the present study, the basic infection number of the coronavirus R0 (basic replication number of the infection) before and after prevention and control measurements was simulated to elaborate the measurements of the Chinese government on epidemic prevention and control, providing reference for the people around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: pay load adapter; robotic arm; no-cooperation spacecraft; suitable docking port
Online: 18 September 2017 (07:39:03 CEST)
In this work is represented conceptual model of robot-manipulator for capture and holding no-cooperation client spacecraft, which has Payload Adapter interface PAS 1666 S, PAS 1194 C, PAS 1666 MVS, PAS 1184 VS, when there are dynamic errors of linear and angular position of client spacecraft in the interval +/-5 deg. per minute and +/-0.1 meters per minute respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Energy diplomacy; Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area; ASEAN Power Grid; Regional cooperation
Online: 28 January 2023 (07:51:01 CET)
From the standpoint of Neoliberal Institutionalism, this study explores Malaysia's participation in activities that make energy the topic and/or object of foreign policies, whether through bilateral or multilateral engagements. This research, which aims to evaluate the relevance of energy in Malaysia's economy and diplomacy and to explain Malaysia's reason for its involvement in these cooperations, is necessary because of Malaysia's growing involvement in the global energy market. Information for this study was gathered from a variety of government sources, interviews, published statistical data, and previous studies. The study demonstrates how vital energy is to Malaysia's economy. The Lao PDR-Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore Power Integration Project (LTMS-PIP) initiative, in which Malaysia is participating, is evidence of the viability of multilateral power commerce in the area. The Peninsula Gas Utilisation (PGU) pipeline in Peninsular Malaysia and the Four-Fuel Diversification Policy 1981 (4FDP 1981), which increases natural gas utilisation, are related to Malaysia's participation in the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area (MT-JDA). Malaysia would want to think about streamlining its energy administration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0507.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: wireless sensor network; agent cooperation; mobile agent; itinerary; multi agent system; communication
Online: 26 July 2018 (08:48:35 CEST)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is designed to collect information across a large number of limited battery sensor nodes. Therefore, it is important to minimize the energy consumption of each node, which leads to the extension of the network life. Our goal is to design an intelligent WSN that collects as much information as possible to process it intelligently. To achieve this goal, an agent has been migrated to each node in order to process the information and to cooperate with these neighboring nodes while Mobile Agents (MA) can be used to reduce information between nodes and send those to the base station (Sink). This work proposes to use communication architecture for wireless sensor networks based on the Multi Agent System (MAS) to ensure optimal information collection. The collaboration of these agents generates a simple message that summarizes the important information in order to transmit it by a mobile agent. To reduce the size of the MA, the nodes of the network have been grouped into sector. As for each MA, we have established an optimal itinerary, consuming a minimum amount of energy with the data aggregation efficiency in a minimum time. Successive simulations in large scale wireless sensor networks through the SINALGO simulator show the performance of our proposal, in terms of energy consumption and package delivery rate.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0459.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: colonial life-history; major evolutionary transition (MET); cooperation; modularity; biological information; heterochrony; tunicate
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:05:33 CEST)
The diversification of life-histories is mediated by cooperation, innovations of biological information, modularity, and heterochrony in developmental processes. These processes are defined, contextualized, and exemplified, studying the evolution of coloniality (i.e. life-history involving modularization of the multicellular individual) in the family of benthic tunicates Styelidae. This study proposes that in these colonial tunicates there is an inter-generational division of labor, where one generation is feeding, a second is developing by morphogenetic processes, and a third is aging by programmed cell death and phagocytosis. The communication system developed in these colonies is mediated, by changes in proportion, location, and gene expression of specialized blood cells. Colonial life-history in animals is related to the reduction of individual size; development of extra-corporeal tissues to interconnect zooids; the inter-generational division of labor; and the reduction of zooid’s individuality. Processes analogous with the widely accepted major evolutionary transitions (METs), suggesting that coloniality could be studied as a MET. The understanding of colonial life-histories could provide information about key mechanisms for life diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0556.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: National Security Strategy; Defense Policy; Arms Sales; Defense Cooperation Security Agency; Foreign Military Sales
Online: 23 March 2021 (09:11:17 CET)
The aim of the study is to characterize the U.S. and Lithuanian defense cooperation from 1990–2020 including arms procurements. Findings suggest close defense cooperation between countries at Presidential, Congressional, and Defense Ministry/Secretary levels. The most developed cooperation areas are joint participation in international operations, improvements of the Lithuanian Armed Forces’ capabilities, and an increase of the U.S. military presence in the Baltic region. An analysis of Lithuanian defense procurements between 1990–2020 indicates that the majority of defense armaments were acquired from the U.S. using the Foreign Military Sales venue while other options to obtain armaments were not used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0652.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: supply chain management; logistics; collaboration; cooperation; supply chain design; customer satisfaction; distribution; regression; noodles
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:45:36 CET)
The degree of collaboration among supply chain partners and the structure of the network are important determinants of the level of satisfaction customers derive from the products or services. However, the effects of these dimensions on customer satisfaction at the downstream section of the supply chain remain under-researched in Nigeria. This study precisely examined the effects of collaboration and supply chain design on customers’ satisfaction at the downstream end of the chain using Ekiti State as study area. The study employed descriptive survey design with the use of structured Likert scale questionnaire administered to 381 retailers of noodles in Ekiti State. The research hypotheses were analysed using simple linear regression as statistical technique with the aid of SPSS version 22.0. At the end of the study, it was observed that both collaboration and supply chain design were significant predictors of customers’ satisfaction of instant noodles in Ekiti State. However, collaboration among supply chain partners emerged as stronger determinant of customers’ satisfaction than supply chain design. The study concludes that these two practices of supply chain management are highly important criteria any manufacturing firm especially in the noodles industry must pay close attention to in order to satisfy her consumers.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0594.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: societal transformation; systems change; sustainability; societal cognition; climate change; biodiversity loss; active inference; cooperation; SAILS
Online: 27 August 2020 (07:48:57 CEST)
Climate change, biodiversity loss, and other social and environmental problems pose grave risks. Progress so far has been incremental and insufficient, and as a result scientists, global policy experts, and the general public increasingly conclude that bold change is required across all sectors of society. At least two kinds of bold change are conceivable: reform of existing societal systems (e.g., financial, economic, legal, and governance systems), including their institutions, policies, rules, and priorities; and transformation, understood as the de novo development of and migration to new, improved systems. This paper is the second in a series of three that together propose a novel science-driven research and development program aimed at societal transformation. Moreover, the series advances a conceptual framework and formal mechanics by which societal transformation might be approached. Two of the underlying hypotheses are that new societal systems can be developed in a science-driven process to be fit for purpose, and system fitness can be compared across designs. Societies are viewed as superorganisms, and systems are viewed as a societal cognitive architecture. The first paper in the series provides definitions, aims, hypotheses, and a worldview. This paper discusses motivations, the role of science in societal transformation, a theory of change, and fitness metrics. The proposed R&D program and theory of change are sound, viable, and affordable. The local-global-viral strategy invites the global science community to play a unique co-leadership role with local communities in the development, testing, and monitoring of new societal systems. Systems are implemented via a novel civic club model, where participation is voluntary. Clubs grow and replicate based on merit and aided by club networks, whose systems are also viewed as societal cognitive architectures. Benefits of the program and strategy are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0102.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: epidemiology; disaster epidemiology; data matching; record linkage; probabilistic record linkage; interagency cooperation; 9/11 health
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:06:37 CEST)
Since its post-World War II inception, the science of record linkage has grown exponentially and is used across industrial, governmental, and academic agencies. The academic fields that rely on record linkage are diverse, ranging from history to public health to demography. In this paper, we introduce the different types of data linkage and give a historical context to their development. We then introduce the three types of underlying models for probabilistic record linkage: Fellegi-Sunter based methods, machine learning methods, and Bayesian methods. Practical considerations such as data standardization and privacy concerns are then discussed. Finally, recommendations are given for organizations developing or maintaining record linkage programs, with an emphasis on organizations measuring long-term complications of disasters such as 9/11.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Cieszyn - Český Těšín, participation in culture, consumer behaviour, cross-border cooperation, market for cultural services
Online: 4 October 2018 (14:47:47 CEST)
This is a theoretical and empirical article. In the first part, an original definition of the cross-border market for cultural services has been developed, based on classic market definitions. The structure and conditions of functioning for this market have also been presented. The next part of the article discusses the supply side of the cross-border market of cultural services for the two twin towns: Cieszyn (Poland) and Český Těšín (Czech Republic). Next, based on the surveys conducted, the participation of residents of both towns in the most important cultural events organised by cultural institutions on both sides of the border was examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0046.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: bifunctional catalyst; metal-ligand cooperation; dinuclear complex; iridacycle; cyclometalation; asymmetric transfer hydrogenation; cyanation; 1,1-binaphthyl; axial chirality
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:35:48 CET)
As a candidate for bifunctional asymmetric catalysts containing a half-sandwich C–N chelating Ir(III) framework (azairidacycle), a dinuclear Ir complex with an axially chiral linkage is newly designed. An expedient synthesis of chiral 2,2’-bis(aminomethyl)-1,1’-binaphthyl (1) from 1,1-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) was accomplished by a three-step process involving nickel-catalyzed cyanation and subsequent reduction with Raney-Ni and KBH4. The reaction of (S)-1 with an equimolar amount of [IrCl2Cp*]2 (Cp* = 5-C5(CH3)5) in the presence of sodium acetate in acetonitrile at 80 °C gave a diastereomeric mixture of new dinuclear dichloridodiiridium (5) through the double C–H bond cleavage, as confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. A loss of the central chirality on the Ir centers of 5 was demonstrated by treatment with KOC(CH3)3 to generate the corresponding 16e amidoiridium complex 6. The following hydrogen transfer from 2-propanol to 6 provided diastereomers of hydrido(amine)iridium with retaining the bis(azairidacycle) architecture. The dinuclear chlorido(amine)iridium 5 can serve as a catalyst precursor for the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone with a substrate to catalyst ratio of 200 in the presence of KOC(CH3)3 in 2-propanol, leading to (S)-1-phenylethanol with up to 67% ee.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0226.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: positive assortment; public goods; collective action; common-pool resources; cooperation; game theory; group selection; kin selection; social dilemma
Online: 16 June 2020 (12:35:40 CEST)
Public goods are produced at all levels of the biological hierarchy, from the secretion of diffusible molecules by cells to social interactions in humans. However, the cooperation needed to produce public goods is vulnerable to exploitation by free-riders — the Tragedy of the Commons. The dominant solutions to this problem of collective action are that some form of positive assortment (due to kinship or spatial structure) or enforcement (reward and punishment) is necessary for public-goods cooperation to evolve and be maintained. However, these solutions are only needed when individual contributions to the public good accrue linearly, and the assumption of linearity is never true in biology. We explain how cooperation for nonlinear public goods is maintained endogenously and does not require positive-assortment or enforcement mechanisms, and we review the considerable empirical evidence for the existence and maintenance of nonlinear public goods in microbiology, cancer biology, and behavioral ecology. We argue that it is time to move beyond discussions about assortment and enforcement in the study of cooperation in biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0362.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Juniperion lagunae; cross-border cooperation; landscape evolution; cluster analysis; conservation; sustainable development; territorial cohesion; Ombroedaphoxeric Index; phytosociology; SCI areas
Online: 16 October 2018 (12:33:03 CEST)
We have studied Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. badia in the central and southern Iberian Peninsula. Here, the macrobioclimate ranges from Mediterranean-pluviseasonal-oceanic and Mediterranean-pluviseasonal-continental, thermotype from thermomediterranean and supramediterranean. The relevés were taken following the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological methodology. A statistical treatment was applied to establish a separation among Juniperus communities. To understand the presence of Juniperus communities in territories dominated by species of the genus Quercus, we applied the formula of Thornthwaite to calculate potential evapotranspiration. The general cluster analysis clearly separates two groups of plant communities and separates the different associations in each group. All plant communities growing on rocky crests and in steeply extreme sloping areas are significantly influenced by the soil. The Ombroclimatic Index does not explain the presence of plant communities influenced by substrate: so, we propose a new Ombroedaphoxeric Index which explains the presence of the Juniperus communities in territories with a thermotype ranging from the thermo to the supramediterranean belt. The areas of distribution of Juniperus species are expanding due to the spread of rocky areas: this phenomenon causes a rise in edaphoxerophilous areas and a decrease in climatophilous one. We propose four new plant associations and with this update on their structures and floristic compositions, it is possible to make an efficient form of conservation in both territories studied (Spain and Portugal) with specific cross-border-cooperation projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0343.v1
Subject: Keywords: Evolutionary Games; Cooperation; Consensus; Dynamics on Networks; Stag-Hunt Game; Chicken Game; Mixed Nash Equilibrium; Self-regulation; Stable Equilibrium; Complex Systems
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:26:30 CEST)
Cooperation is widely recognized to be challenging for the well-balanced development of human societies. The emergence of cooperation in populations has been largely studied in the context of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, where temptation to defect and fear to be betrayed by others often activate defective strategies. In this paper we analyze the decision making mechanisms fostering cooperation in the two-strategy Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, which include the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium, describing partially cooperative behavior. We find the conditions for which cooperation is asymptotically stable in both full and partial cases, and we show that the partially cooperative steady state is also globally stable in the simplex. Furthermore, we show that the last can be more rewarding than the first, thus making the mixed strategy effective, although people cooperate at a lower level with respect to the maximum allowed, as it is reasonably expected in real situations. Our findings highlight the importance of Stag-Hunt and Chicken games in understanding the emergence of cooperation in social networks.