REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1579.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: contaminants of emerging concern; electrochemical sensors
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:49:12 CEST)
Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs), a new category of contaminants in limelight, is a major issue of global concern. The pervasive nature of CECs and its harmful effects, such as cancer, reproductive disorders, neurotoxicity etc., make the situation alarming. The perilous nature of CECs lies in the fact that even very small concentration of CECs can cause great impacts on living beings. It also has a nature of bioaccumulation. Thus, it is the ultimate need to have efficient sensors for detection of CECs to ensure safe living environment. Electrochemical sensors are an efficient platform for CEC detection as they are highly selective, sensitive, stable, reproducible, and prompt, and can detect very low concentrations of analyte. Major classes of CECs are pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products, endocrine disruptors, newly registered pesticides, and disinfection by-products. This review focusses on CECs, including their sources and pathways, health effects caused by them, and electrochemical sensors as reported in literatures under each category for the detection of major CECs.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: toxicology; microbiota; symbiosis; contaminants; resilience; environment
Online: 8 August 2020 (05:01:26 CEST)
Over the last 15 years, the advent of high-throughput ‘omics’ techniques has revealed the multiple roles and interactions occurring among hosts, their microbial partners and their environment. This microbiome revolution has radically changed our views of biology, evolution and individuality. Sitting at the interface between a host and its environment, the microbiome is a relevant yet understudied compartment for ecotoxicology research. Various recent works confirm that the microbiome reacts to and interacts with contaminants, with consequences for hosts and ecosystems. In this paper, we thus advocate for the development of a “microbiome-aware ecotoxicology” of organisms. We emphasize its relevance and discuss important conceptual and technical pitfalls associated with study design and interpretation. We identify topics such as functionality, quantification, temporality, resilience, interactions and prediction as major challenges and promising venues for microbiome research applied to ecotoxicology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biological contaminants; grazers; microalgae; open cultivation; biopesticides
Online: 26 October 2021 (14:36:19 CEST)
Microalgae biomass is a budding raw material for the origination of food, fuel, and other value-added products. However, bulk production of microalgal biomass at commercial level is a herculean task for the current microalgal mass production technologies due to the undesirable contaminations by biological pollutants. These contaminants hamstring the production of microalgae biomass by debilitating the growth of cultures, crumble the quality of biomass and sometimes may crash the whole culture. The best utilization of the microalgae biomass at industrial level could be attained by avoiding various possible biological contaminations in mass cultivation system, understanding the contamination mechanisms, and the complex interactions of algae with other microorganisms. This review explores the various types of biological pollutants, their possible mode of infection along with mechanisms, different controlling methods to maintain desired microalgae culture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0336.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Adsorption; Emerging contaminants; Biomass; Biochar; Activated carbon
Online: 18 September 2018 (09:06:00 CEST)
This review analyzes the synthesis and characterization of biomass-derived carbons for adsorption of emerging contaminants from water. The study begins with the definition and different types of emerging contaminants more often founded in water streams and the different technologies available for their removal including adsorption. It also describes the biomass sources that could be used for the synthesis of biochars and activated carbons. The characterization of the adsorbents and the different approaches that could be employed for the study of the adsorption processes are also detailed. Finally, the work reviews in detail some studies of the literature focused on the adsorption of emerging contaminants on biochars and activated carbons synthesized from biomass precursors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0163.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Polymeric beads; nanocomposite; graphene oxide; paracetamol removal; pharmaceutical contaminants.
Online: 3 November 2023 (03:30:11 CET)
This study introduces a promising and practical method for the removal of paracetamol from aqueous environments, employing graphene oxide-polymer nanocomposite beads. The approach involves the utilization of a straightforward and facile phase inversion method, offering a convenient and efficient one-step process for the creation of adsorbent beads by integrating polymers and graphene oxide (GO). The synthesized nanocomposite beads are tailored for the removal of paracetamol from simulated wastewater in batch systems. Extensive characterization techniques are employed to scrutinize the chemical properties and structural attributes of the prepared beads. The investigation explores the impact of critical parameters such as adsorbent dosage, adsorption duration, initial paracetamol concentration, and solution pH on the adsorption process. These nanocomposite beads exhibit an exceptional paracetamol removal efficiency, achieving up to 99% removal. This research not only contributes to the advancement of efficient and sustainable adsorbent materials for pollutant removal but also underscores their potential for environmentally friendly and cost-effective solutions in the domain of wastewater treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1697.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: chemometrics; food contaminants; food processes; machine learning; spectroscopy; sustainability
Online: 26 October 2023 (09:46:52 CEST)
On a global scale, food safety and security aspects entail to be considered throughout the farm to fork continuum considering food’s supply chain. Generally, the agri-food system is a multiplex network of interconnected features and processes, with a hard predictive rate, where maintaining the food’s safety is an indispensable element and is part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It has led the scientific community to develop advanced applied analytical methods, such as Machine learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques applied for assessing foodborne diseases. The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the development of the consensus version of ongoing research about the application of artificial intelligence tools in the domain of food-crops safety from an analytical point of view. Writing a comprehensive review for a more specific topic can also be challenging, especially when searching within the literature. To our knowledge, this review is the first to address this issue. This work consisted of conducting a unique and exhaustive study of the literature, using our TriScope Keywords-based Synthesis methodology. All available literature related to our topic was investigated according to our criteria of Inclusion and Exclusion. The final count of data papers was subject to deep reading and analysis to extract the necessary information to answer our research questions. Although many studies have been conducted, limited attention has been paid to outlining the applications of AI tools combined with analytical strategies for crop-based food safety specifically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: lipids; phospholipids; sphingolipids; triglycerides; FTIR; mass spectrometry; chemical contaminants
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:03:24 CEST)
Despite the increasing popularity of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based lipidomics, there is a lack of accepted and validated method for lipid extract quality and quantity assessment prior to LC-MS. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has been reported for quantification of pure lipids, however, the sample complexity and purity complex lipid extract quantification in lipidomics experiments could be impact quantification accuracy. Here, we report comprehensive assessment of the sample matrix on the accuracy of lipid quantification using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Pure lipids are characterized by CH-and C=O-stretching vibrations on FTIR, with quantitative range of 40–3000 ng and a limit of detection of 12 ng. Sample extraction method and local baseline subtraction during FTIR spectral processing significantly impact lipid quantification by CH-stretching. To facilitate sample quality screening, we developed the Lipid Quality (LiQ) score from a spectral library of common contaminants, using a ratio of peak heights between CH-stretching vibrations maxima and the collective vibrations from amide/amine, CH-stretching minima and sugar moieties. We evaluated LiQ score as a rapid sample quality control method by comparing to total LC-MS intensity of targeted lipidomics of 107 human plasma lipid extracts. Exclusion of poor-quality samples based on LiQ score improved the correlation between FTIR and LC-MS quantification. Finally, the uncertainty of absolute quantification by FTIR was estimated using a 795 ng SPLASH LipidoMix standard to be <10%. In summary, this study identified key parameters for accurate FTIR-based quantification of complex lipid mixture, and developed a rapid workflow requiring only 1 µL of MS-ready sample and < 5 minutes for routine lipidomics sample quality and quantity assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0722.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: food; safety; electrochemical biosensors; bacteria; toxins; pesticides; antibiotics; contaminants
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:02:34 CEST)
Safety and quality are key issues for the food industry. Consequently, there is a growing demand to preserve the food chain and products against substances toxic, harmful to human health such as contaminants, allergens, toxins, or pathogens. For this reason, it is mandatory to develop highly sensitive, reliable, rapid, and cost-effective sensing systems/devices such as electrochemical sensors/biosensors. Generally, conventional techniques are limited by long time of analyses, expensive and complex procedures, and they require skilled personnel. Therefore, the development of performant electrochemical biosensors can significantly support the screening of food chain and products. Here, we report some of the recent developments in this area and analyze the contributions produced by electrochemical biosensors in the food screening and the challenges to address.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; stress; drug policy; environment; contaminants; pesticides; fungi; prohibition
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:21:43 CEST)
Background: Most modern studies about human marijuana use have been made under a set of arbitrary cultural standards and policies not related to drug harm potential, loosely called Prohibition. Here we asked if potential health hazards generated by Prohibition are addressed in research design and analysis. Methods: For this, we have searched PubMed database (from inception to December 2017) for citations of prevalent contaminants of illegal street cannabis: fungi and pesticides. In addition, we performed full text evaluation of 23 studies selected from, and including, 2 meta-analysis reviews investigating potential health hazards from cannabis use. Results: Different combinations of the keywords cannabis, prohibition, pesticides, fungi, contaminants, cancer, schizophrenia, psychosis, show that these words coincide in less than 1% of the cannabis human studies within the database. In the scope of 141 abstracts in which the terms, cannabis and pesticides coincide, none is directed to distinguish cannabis and pesticide adverse effects on CNS. A similar picture emerges when fungi is the paired word. Full text evaluation shows that all but one of the studies analyzed, completely neglect or comment on the nature of cannabis source, legal status, or contamination as a confounding factor. Discussion: Our results show a potential bias on scientific investigation that may affect data reliability in informing about the health hazards of cannabis use. This finding suggests that other aspects of the Prohibition environment may also go unacknowledged. Conclusion: Prohibition related health risks usually go unacknowledged and unaccounted for in biomedical research on Cannabis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1749.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Microplastics; ecotoxicology; marine pollution; contaminants of emerging concern, chronic toxicity.
Online: 26 June 2023 (05:33:01 CEST)
Glitter particles are considered a model of microplastics, which are used in a wide range of products. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of green and white glitter dispersions on the embryonic development of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunte, Arbacia lixula, and the mussel Perna perna. The Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) approach was used to identify possible chemicals related to toxicity. Glitter dispersions were prepared using 0.05% ethanol. The tested dispersions ranged from 50 to 500 mg/L. The white glitter was composed of a vinyl chloride-methyl acrylate copolymer. The effective concentrations of green glitter to 50% embryos (EC50) were 246.1 (235.8 – 256.4) mg/L to A. lixula, 23.0 (20.2 - 25.8) mg/L to P. perna and 105.9 (61.2 - 150.2) mg/L, whereas the EC50 of white glitter to E. lucunter was 272.2 (261.5 – 282.9) mg/L. The EC50 for P. perna could not be calculated; however, the lowest effect concentration was 10 mg/L. The filtered suspension of green glitter had Ag levels exceeding the legal standards for marine waters. TIE showed that metals, volatiles, and oxidant compounds contribute to toxicity. The results showed that glitter may adversely affect marine organisms; however further studies are necessary to determine its environmental risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0636.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: insoluble contaminants; hydraulic oil; varnish; Membrane Patch Colorimetry; ASTM D7843 – 21
Online: 8 August 2023 (09:30:41 CEST)
Insoluble contaminant or a varnish is a result of oil degradation by products and sometimes depleted additive molecules. This process is in most cases initiated by thermal stress placed on the oil. In tribology varnish becomes a significant problem for modern complex machinery lubrication systems as it has severe debilitating effects such as loss of operating clearances and heat transfer. Problems arising from varnish build-up in lubricants can be inhibited by timely oil analysis which gives us important information about oil-degradation level and current insoluble contaminants potential of oil. There are several laboratory testing methods to describe varnish potential. The most applied one is a colorimetric analysis, also known as MPC (Membrane Patch Colorimetry) as it tends to be reasonably quick and cost-effective. This study applies principles generally used for MPC test of turbine oils to measure lubricant generated insoluble contaminants of hydraulic fluids. For this purpose, in-service oil samples were taken from hydraulic circuits of rubber vulcanizing presses and analyzed using testing method based on method defined by standard ASTM D7843 – 21. Accuracy of this testing method is dependent on development time of tested sample. Therefore, we not only try to proof applicability of this method for hydraulic oils but also want to determine incubation time needed for efficient and accurate determination of concentration of insoluble contaminants in the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0537.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: metals oxides; surface hydrophilicity; alcoholic beverage; contaminants; quality control; mesoporous materials
Online: 31 March 2023 (03:13:00 CEST)
The presence of copper in distilled sugar cane spirits, especially cachaça produced in alembics, has impeded the marketing of this product. Red mud (RM) is a residue obtained from alumina production. It contains a high concentration of metal oxides and is very alkaline. The RM was dried at 100 oC and sifted through a 150-micron sieve. The sample was characterized by B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (A.A.S.). The textural parameters indicate that the total surface area (S.T.) was 21.9 m2g-1, and the total volume pore (V.T.) was 0.09 cm3g-1. The RM (1 g) was stirred for two hours with a 1.0 L cachaça sample containing 9.39 mg of copper L-1 and filtered under atmospheric pressure. The concentration of copper ions detected in the filtrate was 0.00 mg L-1. No copper ions were retained when the cachaça was filtered through the RM under high pressure without stirring prior to filtration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0571.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air-conditioned filer dust; indoor environment; heavy metal; biological contaminants; risk assessment
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:08:24 CEST)
Among others, road traffic, industrial emissions, commercial activities, smoking and cooking are considered as major contributing factors for the increasing levels of pollutants in atmosphere. High levels of potentially toxic metals and microbes in atmosphere, especially in indoor air, may pose serious threat to human health. Therefore, concentration and associated health risks of potentially toxic trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their risk to human health, and microbial load in indoor air was assessed using air condition (AC) filter dust samples collected from 5 locations representing residential, agricultural and industrial settings of Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The levels of trace metals varied considerably among sampling areas, with the highest levels of Cr and Cd recorded in the Industrial-area sites followed by the Agricultural and Urban-Residential sites. The highest levels of Pb and Fe were found in the Agricultural area sites followed by the Industrial and Urban-Residential area sites. The metals in dust sample, especially Cd, Cr and Pb, showed a considerable health risk through dermal pathway. Among the sites, the highest hazard quotient for these metals was found for Al-Qatif-Industrial areas sites and among the metals it was the highest for Cd. The cancer risk from the metals contained in AC filter dust was negligible. Samples collected from Agricultural and Industrial area sites were substantially contaminated with bacteria and fungi, respectively. Bacterial contaminants were mostly Gram Negative, with considerable antibiotic resistance and haemolytic activity. Thus, indoor air quality as assessed by AC filter dust depicted that a considerable health risk could be posed by the trace heavy metals and microorganisms for a long-term exposure. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that AC filters dust could be a unique and reliable test sample for the assessment of indoor environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2112.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Waste; chemical pollution; behavioural pattern; The Natural Step; survey; school; emerging contaminants; New Zealand; essentiality
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:14:25 CEST)
Anthropogenic chemicals are fundamental to our standard of living in modern society. Unfortunately, some chemicals are persistent and can enter waste streams and ultimately the environment. Commonly used household products including pharmaceuticals and personal care products are an important source of contaminants. The aim of this study was to develop an “Up-the-pipe Solutions” framework to raise awareness about the presence and potential risks of chemicals found in household products to reduce their levels in waste streams or substitute them with less harmful alternatives. This approach based on The Natural Step framework and the concept of essentiality recognises the importance of engaging the community to raise awareness around the consequences of our daily activities and behavioural patterns that can lead to the release of persistent contaminants in main waste streams from the kitchen and bathroom and green wastes we generate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0293.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Environment friendly processes; Bayer residue; waste management; bauxite; contaminants; quality control; fatty acid methyl ester
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:42:31 CEST)
Red mud (RM) is a residue obtained from the production of alumina. It contains a high concentration of metal oxides and waste concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (pH = 13). To increase the value of RM, an environmentally friendly process of transesterification using waste cooking oil (WCO), MeOH and concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (CSHS) from aluminum production was proposed. Triglycerides of WCO reacted with MeOH at 60 oC to yield mixtures of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the presence of 2.03% (w/w) CSHS/WCO using the CSHS (0.204 mol L-1, predetermined by potentiometric titration) from aluminum production by the Bayer process or with the addition of 0.68% (w/w) fabric softener (3% w/w cetyltrimethylammonium chloride in solution) as a phase transfer (PTA) agent. The addition of PTA to the catalyst resulted in a better yield of the products (greater than 98% yield). A simplified mechanism is presented to account for the experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0377.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Environmentally friendly processes; Bayer residue; waste management; basic catalyst, contaminants, red mud, fatty acid methyl ester
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:00:47 CEST)
Red mud (RM) is composed of a waste alkaline solution (pH = 13.3) obtained from the production of alumina. It contains high concentrations of soluble hematite (Fe2O3), goetite (FeOOH), gibisite [Al(OH)3], a boemite (AlOOH), anatase (Tetragonal - TiO2), rutile (Ditetragonal dipyramidal - TiO2), hydrogarnets [Ca3Al2(SiO4)3−x(OH)4x], and perovskite (CaTiO3). It was shown to be an excellent catalytic mixture for biodiesel production. To demonstrate the value of RM, an environmentally friendly process of transesterification in aqueous medium using waste cooking oil (WCO), MeOH and waste alkaline solution (WAS) obtained from aluminum production was proposed. Triglycerides of WCO reacted with MeOH at 60 oC to yield mixtures of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the presence of 0.019% (w/w) WAS/WCO using the WAS (0.204 mol L-1, predetermined by potentiometric titration) from aluminum production by the Bayer process. The use of the new catalyst (WAS) resulted in a high yield of the products (greater than 99% yield).
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1514.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Photonics; Molecular gates; Localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR); porous silica; bio-sensing; microfluidics; respiratory viruses; chemical contaminants
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:28:33 CEST)
This paper presents the concept of a novel adaptable sensing solution currently being developed under the EU Commission founded PHOTONGATE project. This concept will allow to quantify multiple analytes of the same or different nature (chemicals, metals, bacteria, etc.) in a single test with levels of sensitivity and selectivity at/or over those offered by current solutions. PHOTONGATE relies on two core technologies: a bio-chemical technology (molecular gates) which will confer the specificity and, therefore, the capability to be adaptable to the analyte of interest, and which combined with porous substrates will increase the sensitivity, and a photonic technology based on Local Surface Plasmonic Resonance (LSPR) structures serves as transducer for light interaction. Both technologies are in the micron range, facilitating the integration of multiple sensors within a small area (mm²). The concept will be developed for its application in health diagnosis and food safety sectors. It is thought as an easy-to-use modular concept, which will consist of the sensing module, mainly of a microfluidics cartridge that will house the photonic sensor, and a platform for fluidic handling, optical interrogation, and signal processing. The platform will include a new optical concept, fully Europe Union Made, avoiding optical fibers and expensive optical components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: contaminants of emerging concern; bisphenol; microalgae; Phaeodactylum tricornutum; bacteria, extracellular vesicles; electron microscopy; flow cytometry; mass spectrometry
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:57:22 CEST)
Small cellular particles are released into the surroundings of cells and are proposed to play an important role in intercellular communication and consequently the responses of microbial com-munities to environmental stressors. We studied the connection between the small cellular parti-cles and the efficiency of three culture series of the microalge Phaeodactylum tricornutum and bac-teria (axenic microalgae, bacterial culture and co-culture of the two) in removing bisphenols from their growth medium. The microorganism growth rate was determined by flow cytometry, protein profiles were examined by protein gel electrophoresis, cultures and small cellular particle isolates were imaged by scanning electron microscopy, and bisphenols were analyzed using gas chroma-tography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Higher growth rates of microal-gae were observed in the co-culture than in the axenic microalgal culture, while the presence of bisphenols neither influenced the morphology of the microalgal cells, protein profiles, nor the small cellular particle isolates. Biotic removal of bisphenols ranged from 0% to 71% and differed among the culture series in a compound-specific manner. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms influenced algal growth and bisphenol removal. Further research on the mechanisms of interspecies communication is needed to advance our understanding of microbial communities at the nano-level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0281.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: polymer-derived contaminants; pvc fires; fire emissions analysis; polymer leachate characterization; gc-ms and ftir analysis of gaseous pollutants
Online: 25 September 2019 (09:12:03 CEST)
In order to assess the human exposure risks from the release of contaminants from water pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), experiments were carried out by subjecting the PVC pipe material to burning and leaching conditions followed by analysis of the emission and leachate samples. The emissions of burning pipes were analyzed by both infrared spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The emission results indicate the presence of chlorinated components including chlorine dioxide, methyl chloride, methylene chloride, allyl chloride, vinyl chloride, ethyl chloride, 1-chlorobutane, tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, and hydrogen chloride were detected in the emissions of burning PVC pipes. Furthermore, the concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, methyl methacrylate, carbon monoxide, acrolein, and formaldehyde were found at levels capable of affecting human health adversely. The analysis of PVC pipe leachates using GC-MS shows that there are 40-60 tentatively identified compounds, mostly long-chain hydrocarbons such as tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane, and docosane, were released when the burned PVC materials were soaked in deionized water for one week. Quantitative analysis shows that 2-butoxyethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and diethyl phthalate were found in the burned PVC polymer at the average levels of 2.7, 14.0, and 3.1 micrograms per gram (g/g) of pipe material. This study has significant implications for understanding the benzene contamination of drinking water in the aftermath of wildfires that burned polymer pipes in California.