ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: analog circuit design; buffer amplifiers; offset voltage's systematic component; voltage followers; operational amplifiers; depletion-mode; СMOS; JFET; Si; GaAs; GaN
Online: 5 May 2022 (08:42:15 CEST)
The authors of the article performed computer simulation of buffer amplifiers (BA), which have medium and extremely small values of the offset voltage's systematic component (Voff), for different technological processes (Si, GaAs and GaN). The proposed control units are distinguished by a small number of elements and allow operation in the range of low and high temperatures. The variants of circuitry implementation of control units based on GaAs, GaN depletion-mode CMOS and JFET technological processes are considered. The results of the comparative modeling showed that the basic circuit of the BA on two field-effect transistors, when implemented on various modifications of GaN MOS and depletion-mode MOS transistors, provides sufficiently low values of the offset voltage's systematic component (less than 2 μV). The proposed BAs are designed for use in the structure of the Sallen-Key low-pass filter (LPF) when they are implemented both on mid-frequency Si CJFET and on GaAs microwave transistors. Low values of the LPF Voff have a positive effect on the effective capacity of the ADC. An example of switching on a BA in the JFET OpAmp structure based on the depletion-mode MOS input stage and a “folded” cascode, which, with 100% negative feedback, can be used in the Sallen-Key LPF, is considered. Computer simulation of the JFET/MOS OpAmp showed that the OpAmp has an open-loop voltage gain of 76-85dB, and its Voff is within 7µV in the temperature range from -60°C to +120°C. The presented circuitry of buffer amplifiers is intended, first of all, for the tasks of designing precision Sallen-Key low-pass filter (low-pass filter, high-pass filter, PF, RF).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: operational amplifier; compensation of the systematic component of the zero offset voltage; differential stage; buffer amplifier; current mirror; reference current source; BJT transistors; GaAs transistors.
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:33:53 CEST)
The zero offset voltage in anti-aliasing low-pass filters (LPF) included at the ADC input has a significant effect on the effective bit rate of the ADC. The article discusses methods for minimizing the systematic component of the zero offset voltage (VOS) of operational amplifiers (Op-Amp) in the structure of the LPF, due to the degradation of the current gain of the base (b) of bipolar transistors for an extremely common subclass of Op-Amp with one high-impedance node. The methods of matching a high-impedance Op-Amp node and a buffer amplifier with the help of special correcting SCMp and SCMn multipolars are proposed. Methods of description and formation of the given coefficients of weak current asymmetry of typical Op-Amp functional units (current mirrors, input DS, buffer amplifiers, SRC, etc.) are presented. As an example, the results of computer simulation of GaAs Op-Amp with small VOS performed on JFET field and p-n-p bipolar transistors are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0326.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cu2O; CIGS; HTL; Buffer Layer; SCAPS
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:09:49 CEST)
Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) is an inexpensive material that has the potential to dominate the next-generation photovoltaic (PV) industry. Here we detail computational investigation of CIGS solar cell with encouragement of adopting cuprous dioxide (Cu2O) as a Hole Transport Layer (HTL) for efficient fabricated CIGS solar cells. Although Cu2O as a HTL has been studied earlier for perovskite and other organic/inorganic solar cell yet no study has been detailed on potential application of Cu2O for CIGS solar cells. With the proposed architecture, recombination losses are fairly reduced at the back contact and contribute to enhanced photo-current generation. With the introduction of Cu2O, the overall cell efficiency is increased to 26.63%. The wide-band of Cu2O pulls holes from the CIGS absorber which allows smoother extraction of holes with experiencing lesser resistance. Further, it was also inferred that, HTL also improves the quantum efficiency (QE) for photons with large wavelengths thus increases the cell operating spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0300.v1
Online: 22 March 2022 (11:21:05 CET)
Following the rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe, the intense response that was demanded of diagnostic centers and research laboratories prompted the use of numerous products and protocols for the management of SARS-CoV-2 specimens. In these settings, proper handling of such infectious specimen is necessary to ensure the safety of personnel and to reduce the risk of active transmission. Our aim was to evaluate the inactivation efficacy of different inactivating methods, notably from commercial lysis buffers available in diagnostic kits. Heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent were also included in our investigations. A cell culture-based assay was used, and supported by molecular qRT-PCR detection, to show in vitro infectivity reduction after inactivation treatment. Overall, all the investigated methods were successful in inactivating SARS-CoV-2. Ten minutes of contact with the commercial buffers completely stopped in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Fifteen minutes at 68°C and 30 minutes at 56°C as well as one hour with sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent at 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.1% yielded the same results. These findings demonstrate the reliability of these protocols with regards to biosafety. Inactivation by heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent are rather simple and can be readily available methods for rendering an infectious SARS-CoV-2 specimen inactive, especially in settings where commercial buffers are not available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0189.v1
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:41:28 CET)
Numerous protocols have been published for extracting DNA from phlebotomines. Nevertheless, their small size is generally an issue in terms of yield, efficiency, and purity, for large-scale individual sand fly DNA extractions when using traditional methods. Even though this can be circumvented with commercial kits, these are generally cost-prohibitive for developing countries. We encountered these limitations when analysing parasite infection in Lutzomyia spp. by PCR  and, for this reason, we evaluated various modifications on a previously published protocol ( and Acardi personal communication). The most significant variation was the use of a different lysis buffer  to which added Ca2+ (buffer TESCa), because this ion protects proteinase K against autolysis, increases its thermal stability, and could have a regulatory function for its substrate-binding site . Individual sand fly DNA extraction success was confirmed by amplification reactions using internal control primers that amplify a fragment of the cacophony gene [5,6]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a lysis buffer containing Ca2+ has been reported for the extraction of DNA from sand flies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0098.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: Historic urban landscapes; Weberian administration; tactical urban planning; buffer zones.
Online: 5 July 2018 (15:10:03 CEST)
In this article, a critical reflection is made that involves questioning the notion of historic urban landscapes profiled in the Memorandum of Vienna (UNESCO, 2005) and the Paris Recommendation (UNESCO, 2011) as a conceptual paradigm on which to base urban conservation in the 21st century. Its limited methodological development and the assumption of change as an inherent part of the urban condition constitutes the source of many of the problems and difficulties posed by management and protection of contemporary cities, since there is no consensus as to what the acceptable limits of change should be in historic urban landscapes - difficulties that become ever more apparent, given the background of Weberian administrative doctrines present in current governance models. Likewise, the concept of Buffer Zones as a landscape management tool is analyzed, with the aim of establishing new methodological proposals that enable spatial organization to be regulated by defining areas of harmonization that are made up of flexible and multifunctional spaces for cooperation where territorial scale comes into contact with modernization of the historical fabric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0145.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: parvalbumin; calretinin; calbindin; expression; retina; topography; ganglion cell; calcium buffer protein
Online: 11 February 2020 (11:43:03 CET)
The most prevalent Ca2+-buffer proteins (CaBPs: parvalbumin—PV; calbindin—CaB; calretinin—CaR) are widely expressed by various neurons throughout the brain, including the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Even though their retinal expression has been extensively studied, a coherent assessment of topographical variations is missing. To examine this, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the mouse retina. We found variability in the expression levels and cell numbers for CaR, with stronger and more numerous labels in the dorso-central area. CaBP+ cells contributed to RGCs with all soma sizes, indicating heterogeneity. We separated 4-9 RGC clusters in each area based on expression levels and soma sizes. Besides the overall high variety in cluster number and size, the peripheral half of the temporal retina showed the greatest cluster number, indicating a better separation of RGC subtypes there. Multiple labels showed that 39% of the RGCs showed positivity for a single CaBP, 30% expressed two CaBPs, 25% showed no CaBP expression and 6% expressed all three proteins. Finally, we observed an inverse relation between CaB and CaR expression levels in CaB/CaR dually- and CaB/CaR/PV triple labeled RGCs, suggesting a mutual complementary function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0346.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Absorber Layer and Buffer Layer; CdTe; ZnSe; Conversion Efficiency; SCAPS-1D; Solar Cell
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:32:18 CEST)
Cadmium telluride (CdTe), a metallic dichalcogenide material, has been utilized as an absorber layer for thin film-based solar cells with appropriate configurations, and the SCAPS-1D structures program has been used to evaluate the results. In both known and developing thin film photovoltaic systems, a CdS thin film buffer layer has been frequently employed as a traditional n-type heterojunction partner. In this study, numerical simulation was used to find a suitable non-toxic material for the buffer layer instead of CdS, among various types of buffer layers (ZnSe, ZnO, ZnS, and In2S3), and carrier concentrations for the absorber layer (NA) and buffer layer (ND) were varied to determine the optimal simulation parameters. carrier concentrations (NA from 2 x 1012 cm-3 to 2 x 1017 cm-3 and ND from 1 x 1016 cm-3 to 1 x 1022 ??−3) have been differed. The results showed that the CdS as buffer layer based CdTe absorber layer solar cell has the highest efficiency (?%) of 17.43%. Furthermore, high conversion efficiencies of 17.42% and 16.27% have been found for ZnSe and ZnO based buffer layers, respectively. As a result, ZnO and ZnSe are potential candidates for replacing the CdS buffer layer in thin-film solar cells. Here, the absorber (CdTe) and buffer (ZnSe) layers were chosen to improve the efficiency by finding the optimal density of the carrier concentration (acceptor and donor). The simulation findings above provide helpful recommendations for fabricating high-efficiency metal oxide-based solar cells in the lab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: riparian zone; transitional environment; riparian forest buffer; spatial modelling; mapping; spatial ecology; ecosystem functions
Online: 6 August 2016 (06:07:11 CEST)
Riparian zones represent ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and are of utmost importance to biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Modelling/mapping of these valuable and fragile areas is needed for an improved ecosystem management, based on an accounting of changes and on monitoring of their functioning in time. In Europe, the main legislative driver behind this goal is the European Commission’s Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, on one hand aiming at reducing biodiversity loss, on the other hand enhancing ecosystem services by 2020, and restoring them as far as feasible. A model, based on Earth Observation data, including Digital Elevation Models, hydrological, soil, land cover/land use data, and vegetation indices is employed in a multi-modular and stratified approach, based on fuzzy logic and object based image analysis, to delineate potential, observed and actual riparian zones. The approach is designed in an open modular way, allowing future modifications and repeatability. The results represent a first step of a future monitoring and assessment campaign for European riparian zones and their implications on biodiversity and on ecosystem functions and services. Considering the complexity and the enormous extent of the area, covering 39 European countries, including Turkey, the level of detail is unprecedented. Depending on the accounting modus, 0.95%–1.19% of the study area can be attributed as actual riparian area (considering Strahler’s stream orders 3-8, based on the Copernicus EU-Hydro dataset), corresponding to 55,558–69.128 km2. Similarly depending on the accounting approach, the potential riparian zones are accounted for about 3-5 times larger. Land cover/land use in detected riparian areas was mainly of semi-natural characteristics, while the potential riparian areas are predominately covered by agriculture, followed by semi-natural and urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0275.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: near threshold computing (NTC); dual-supply; static random access memory (SRAM); reliability; write aggregation buffer
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:45:16 CEST)
Energy-efficient microprocessors are essential for a wide range of applications. While near-threshold computing is a promising technique to improve energy efficiency, optimal supply demands from logic core and on-chip memory are conflicting. In this paper, we perform static reliability analysis of 6T SRAM and discover the variance among different sizing configuration and asymmetric minimum voltage requirements between read and write operations. We leverage this asymmetric property in near-threshold processors equipped with voltage boosting capability by proposing an opportunistic dual-supply switching scheme with a write aggregation buffer. Our results show that proposed technique improves energy efficiency by more than 21.45% with approximate 10.19% performance speed-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sallen-Key filters; LPF; HPF; BPF; NF; voltage followers; buffer amplifiers; CJFET; neutron flux; cryogenic temperatures
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:49:14 CET)
In this paper consider the circuitry of voltage followers (VF) with unity-gain, intended for practical use in active Sallen-Key RC-filters (LPF, HPF, BPF, RF). The results of research and computer modeling of radiation-resistant and low-temperature VF in the LTSpice environment on models of CJFET transistors operating under the influence of neutron flux up to 10e14 n/cm2 and cryogenic temperatures up to -197°C are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Absorber Layer; Buffer Layer; CZTS; CdSe; ZnSe; Conversion Efficiency; Carrier Concentration; Temperature; SCAPS-1D; Solar Cell
Online: 9 November 2021 (08:19:08 CET)
This article describes in detail the numerical modeling of a CZTS (copper zinc tin sulfide) based kesterite solar cell. The Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator -one-dimension (SCAPS-1D) software was used to simulate MO/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/FTO structured solar cells. The parameters of different photovoltaic thin-film solar cells are estimated and analyzed using numerical modeling. The effects of various parameters on the performance of the photovoltaic cell and the conversion efficiency are discussed. Since the response of the solar cell is also contingent on its internal physical mechanism, J-V characteristic measures are insufficient to characterize the behavior of a device. Different features, as well as different potential conditions, must be considered for simulation, disregarding the belief in the modeling of a solar cell. With a conversion efficiency of 25.72%, a fill factor of 83.75%, a short-circuit current of 32.96436 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage of 0.64V, promising optimized results have been achieved. The findings will be useful in determining the feasibility of fabricating high-efficiency CZTS-based photovoltaic cells. The efficiency of a CZTS-based experimental solar cell is also discussed. First, the effects of experimentally developed CZTS solar cells are simulated in the SCAPS-1D environment. The experimental results are then compared to the SCAPS-1D simulated results. The conversion efficiency of an optimized system increases after cell parameters are optimized. Using one-dimensional SCAPS-1D software, the effect of system parameters such as the thickness, acceptor and donor carrier concentration densities of absorber and electron transport layers, and the effect of temperature on the efficiency of CZTS-based photovoltaic cells is investigated. The proposed results will greatly assist engineers and researchers in determining the best method for optimizing solar cell efficiency, as well as in the development of efficient CZTS-based solar cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0027.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: service systems; service process; analytical and simulation model; request; transact; dynamic priority; limited and unlimited buffer
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:09:52 CET)
In Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture, Priority Service System (PSS) plays a vital responsibility to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) for the applications based on networks. Priority queuing systems has always been a subject of interest for analytical modelling and evaluating the performance. However, previous works have mainly focused on performing priority queuing under range dependent traffics, namely Short Range Dependent (SRD) or Long Range Dependent (LRD). Recent studies revealed that realistic traffic demonstrates a heterogeneous nature for the modern networks that provide multiple services. In this paper, the results of analytical and simulation models of dynamic priority service systems is reviewed to study the heterogeneous traffic impact on designing and performance of the systems based on networks. In this paper, the results of analytical and simulation models of dynamic priority service systems is reviewed to investigate the impact of heterogeneous traffic on the design and performance of network-based systems. Here, the time of presence of requests in limited and unlimited buffer system is restricted. If the restriction is violated, the requests will be lost. The results of experiments conducted on both models are compared and it is identified that they differ in the allowable limit (2-9) %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0021.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Epitaxial graphene; buffer layer; quasi-free standing graphene; high-temperature sublimation; terahertz Optical Hall effect; free charge carrier properties
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:48:08 CET)
In this work we have critically reviewed the processes in high-temperature sublimation growth of graphene in Ar atmosphere using enclosed graphite crucible. Special focus is put on buffer layer formation and free charge carrier properties of monolayer graphene and quasi-freestanding monolayer garphene on 4H-SiC. We show that by introducing Ar at different temperatures, TAr one can shift to higher temperatures the formation of the buffer layer for both n-type and semi-insulating substrates. A scenario explaining the observed suppresed formation of buffer layer at higher TAr is proposed and discussed. Increased TAr is also shown to reduce the sp3 hybridization content and defect densities in the buffer layer on n-type conductive substrates. Growth on semi-insulating substrates results in ordered buffer layer with significantly improved structural properties, for which TAr plays only a minor role. The free charge density and mobility parameters of monolayer graphene and quasi-freestanding monolayer graphene with different TAr and different environmental treatment conditions are determined by contactless terahertz optical Hall effect. An efficient annealing of donors on and near the SiC surface takes place in intrinsic monolayer graphene grown at 2000∘C, and which is found to be independent of TAr. Higher TAr leads to higher free charge carrier mobility parameters in both intrinsically n-type and ambient p-type doped monolayer graphene. TAr is also found to have a profound effect on the free hole parameters of quasi-freestanding monolayer graphene. These findings are discussed in view of interface and buffer layer properties in order to construct a comprehensive picture of high-temperature sublimation growth and provide guidance for growth parameters optimization depending on the targeted graphene application.