REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0259.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Microbiology; fashion; design; education; biotechnology
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:24:04 CET)
Fashion industry is the second most polluting industry in the world representing a 2 trillion dollars and growing valuation (Pal, 2017). This dual context makes its challenges hard to address. From one side, fashion design education and practice systems have been perpetuating an industrial-focused approach which relies mostly in the economic improvement through fast cycles of product development (Pal, 2017). On the other side, fashion industry has also been closed to either multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary initiatives outside the scope of the artistic disciplines. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed to solve fashion industrial challenges. One of the most promising fields to tackle fashion current environment and technological problems is microbiology (Mazzoto et al., 2021). During the past 50 years, microbiology has played a vital role in solving human grand challenges in health, agriculture, food, and waste management sectors, and it also represents an opportunity for fashion industry as well. Microbiology biotechnological potential for the fashion industry relies mostly on the improvement of toxic waste bioremediation and the development of novel biomaterials and biomolecules. Moreover, the emergent field of synthetic biology is expanding the tools and approaches available, and they can already be seen in the development of engineered living materials that have functional properties (Mazzoto et al., 2021). Despite the urgent need for change, there is still a long way until a more sustainable fashion industry is achieved. Therefore, microbiological research and innovation need maturation to be able to scale-up and reach a global impact for tackling fashion industrial problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Thyroid; Organoid; Spheroid; Biotechnology; Biomedical
Online: 9 August 2021 (08:18:25 CEST)
Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune illness in which thyroid cells are damaged by immunological mechanisms involving cells and antibodies. Thyroid peroxidase and/or thyroglobulin autoantibodies in the serum are biochemical indicators of the condition, with females having a higher incidence than males and increasing with age. It's the leading cause of hypothyroidism in affluent countries. Inadequate dietary iodine intake, on the other hand, is the most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide. The development of antithyroid antibodies that target the thyroid tissue, causing gradual fibrosis, is the pathogenesis of Hashimoto thyroiditis. The diagnosis can be difficult, and as a result, the problem is frequently not detected until late in the disease process. The most prevalent laboratory findings are raised TSH and low thyroxine (T4) levels, as well as enhanced antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Hashimoto thyroiditis are discussed in this article.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0358.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Nanoparticle; Bacterial; Biotechnology; Biomedical; Application
Online: 13 March 2021 (00:17:05 CET)
On estimation scales ranging from 0.1 nm to 100 nm, the nanoscale is part of the capacitance components of the physical-synthetic and natural environment. Dimensionality, morphology, structure, uniformity, and agglomeration are all used to classify nanoparticles. Its functionality and effect on the environment and species are influenced by its shape and morphology. The priority research is to determine the effects of nanoparticles on any biological entity that is necessary when designing nanotechnology-based biotechnological and biomedical products. Bacteria have a remarkable ability to reduce metal ions, making them one of the most promising candidates for nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles have been researched in the biomedical field for antimicrobial, biosensor, diagnostic imaging, and drug delivery applications. These natural technologies appear to be capable of producing stable nanoparticles with well-defined dimensions, morphologies, and compositions by optimizing reaction conditions and selecting the best bacteria. This work includes a list of the most commonly used microorganisms and associated Nanoparticles, as well as a discussion of current biotechnology and biomedical developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0303.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Lynch syndrome; CRC; Cancer; Biotechnology; Biomedical
Online: 12 August 2021 (12:20:49 CEST)
Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition caused by mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes in the germline. Colorectal cancer and/or LS-associated cancer are more likely in people who carry pathogenic mutations in these genes. Cancers of the endometrium, small intestine, stomach, pancreas, and biliary tract, ovarian, brain, upper urinary tract, and skin are among the cancer types linked to LS. The criteria for a clinical diagnosis of LS, as well as the processes for genetic testing to identify carriers of pathogenetic mutations in MMR genes, have been known for a long time. The precise description of the pathogenicity associated with MMR genetic variants is critical in the mutation detection analysis, especially in order to enroll mutation carriers in endoscopic surveillance programs that are more suited to them. As a result, this may aid in the improvement of LS-related cancer prevention efforts. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the molecular genetics of LS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0198.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: extromphiles; extremophilic bacteria; enzymes; biotechnology application
Online: 22 January 2018 (10:22:21 CET)
Extremophilic bacteria are important groups of extremophilic organisms that have been studied during the last years. They are considered as a source of enzymes due to great diversity and can survive under extreme conditions. Many enzymes produced by these microorganisms are of great importance and have found applications in several industries. Due to their activity and stability under extreme conditions, these enzymes offer new alternatives for current biotechnological and industrial applications. They have a wide range of potential uses and have been a nuclear subject of many different investigations. To date, some of the enzymes produced by extremophilic bacteria are currently being assessed thier industrials applications. Despite, benefits that present these enzymes, their potentials remain largely unexplored. These enzymes pose new opportunities for new line of research, and biotechnological applications. This review provides a summary on diversity and biotechnological and industrial applications of some enzymes produced by extremophilic bacteria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0245.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: energy; entropy; anabolism; catabolism; microbial cultures; biotechnology
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:00:02 CET)
To understand microbial growth with mathematical models has a long tradition that dates back to the pioneering work of Jacques Monod in the 1940s. Growth laws are simple mathematical expressions that aim at describing growth rates of microbes as functions of external parameters, in particular nutrient concentrations. These laws are now widely applied to construct, e.g., dynamic ecosystem models. However, to explain the growth laws from underlying (first) principles is extremely challenging. In the second half of the 20th century, numerous experimental approaches aimed at precisely measuring heat production during microbial growth to determine the entropy balance in a growing cell and to quantify the exported entropy. This has led to the development of thermodynamic theories of microbial growth, which have generated fundamental understanding and identified principle limitations of the growth process. Whereas these approaches considered a growing microbe as a black box, modern theories heavily rely on genomic resources to describe and model genome-scale networks to explain microbial growth. Interestingly, however, thermodynamic constraints are often included in modern modelling approaches only in a rather superficial fashion, and it appears that recent modelling approaches and classical theories are disconnected fields. In order to stimulate a closer interaction between these fields, we here review various theoretical approaches that aim at describing microbial growth based on thermodynamic principles. We start with classical black-box models of cellular growth, and continue with genome-scale modelling approaches that include thermodynamics, before we place these models in the context of fundamental considerations based on non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We conclude by identifying conceptual overlaps between the fields and suggest how the various types of theories and models can be integrated. We outline how concepts from one approach may help to inform or constrain another, and we demonstrate how genome-scale models can be used to infer classical black-box parameters, which are experimentally accessible in growth experiments. Such integration will allow understanding to what extent microbes can be viewed as thermodynamic machines, and how close they operate to theoretical optima.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0051.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: algae; Euglena; biotechnology; carbohydrates; N-glycan; sugar nucleotide
Online: 17 December 2017 (08:55:09 CET)
Euglena gracilis is an alga of great biotechnological interest and extensive metabolic capacity, able to make high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and β-glucan. Previous work has shown that Euglena expresses a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an unexpectedly high capacity for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates for a single-celled organism. Here, we present an analysis of some of the carbohydrates synthesised by Euglena gracilis. Analysis of the sugar nucleotide pool showed that there are the substrates necessary for synthesis of complex polysaccharides, including the unusual sugar galactofuranose. Lectin- and antibody-based profiling of whole cells and extracted carbohydrates revealed a complex galactan, xylan and aminosugar based surface. Protein N-glycan profiling, however, indicated that just simple high mannose-type glycans are present and that they are partially modified with putative aminoethylphosphonate moieties. Together, these data indicate that Euglena possesses a complex glycan surface, unrelated to plant cell walls, while its protein glycosylation is simple. Taken together, these findings suggest that Euglena gracilis may lend itself to the production of pharmaceutical glycoproteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Technological Cooperation Networks; Biotechnology Sector; Bibliometrics; Social Network Analysis.
Online: 4 March 2021 (16:51:51 CET)
The present study aims to analyze scientific production about technological cooperation networks in biotechnology sector, based on bibliometrics network analysis. We used the Gephi software to identify groups of partnerships, proving that the cooperation relationship is a practice used, re-sulting technological development. Findings identify that in the path for new resources that com-plement skills and competences universities are an important player in this cooperative ecosystem, and The United States is a large hub, with an extensive network of global cooperation. A strong role of its researchers in the publication of scientific articles in cooperation is highlighted. This study contributes to the advancement of the discussion about cooperative networks, as well as to the development of policies aimed at the biotechnology sector advancements
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0661.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Pandemic situation; Bangladesh; Health sector; Biotechnology
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:08:17 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been showing a speedy growth in the number of infected patients with a remarkable mortality rate, thus it has become a worldwide public health concern. From March 8, 2020, the disease was confirmed to start spreading in Bangladesh. Since then, people got infected so exponentially that the country positions at the list of top infected countries in the world. Therefore, the objective of this comprehensive review was representing overall scenario of COVID-19 in different sectors of Bangladesh, particularly prioritizing the health sector. Up to 14 September 2020, 339,332 confirmed cases and 4,759 deaths were reported. An alarming fact is that while the global mutation rate of coronavirus is 7.23 % in average, the rate is 12.6 % in Bangladesh. Although the government ruled preventive strategies such as nationwide lockdown, social distancing, contact monitoring, quarantine and isolation, it was difficult to implement those due to lack of public awareness, inappropriate attitudes and so on. Moreover, the overburdened healthcare system had a weak response at initial stage because of insufficient healthcare facilities. Consequently, this pandemic affected severely almost all the important sectors of the country, specifically the economy, agriculture and health sectors. Hence, focusing on healthcare system as well as maintaining social distance and other essential precautions can limit the spread of infection and help to alleviate the severity of the pandemic.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: solanum tuberosum; potato breeding; potato genebank; biotechnology; wild potato species; Solanaceae
Online: 28 July 2019 (14:25:23 CEST)
The goal of germplasm enhancement is to introgress traits from wild crop relatives into cultivated material and eventually cultivars. It seeks to restore genetic diversity that has been lost over time or to augment cultivated material with novel alleles that improve parents in breeding programs. This paper discusses potato germplasm enhancement efforts in the past, focusing on effective examples such as disease resistance and processing quality. In addition, it outlines new strategies for enhancement efforts, shifting the focus from evaluating phenotypes to tracking and manipulating specific DNA sequences. In the genomics era, germplasm enhancement will increasingly be focused on identifying and introgressing alleles rather than traits. Alleles will come from a broad pool of genetic resources that includes wild species relatives of potato, landraces, cultivated potato itself, and distantly related species. Genomics tools will greatly increase the efficiency of introgressing multigenic traits, and will make it possible to identify rare alleles and utilize recessive alleles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0404.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; biotic stress; biotechnology; climate change; CRISPR; crop improvement; genome editing
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:44:22 CEST)
Climate change poses a serious threat to global agricultural activity and food production. To address this issue, plant genome editing technologies have been developed to provide an alternative solution for crop improvement. Unlike conventional breeding techniques (e.g., selective breeding and mutation breeding), modern genome editing tools offer more targeted and specific alterations of the plant genome to produce crops with desired traits, such as higher yield and/or stronger resilience to the changing environment. In this review, we discuss the current development and future applications of genome editing technologies in mitigating the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on agriculture. We focus specifically on the CRISPR/Cas system, which has been the center of attention in the last few years as a revolutionary genome-editing tool in various species. We also conducted a bibliographic analysis on CRISPR-related papers published from 2012 to 2021 (10 years) to identify trends and possible gaps in the CRISPR/Cas-related plant research. In addition, this review article outlines the current shortcomings and challenges of employing genome editing technologies in agriculture with notes on future prospective. We believe combining conventional and more innovative technologies in agriculture would be the key to optimizing crop improvement beyond the limitations of traditional agricultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0555.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nanotechnology; silver nanoparticles; antimicrobial; biotechnology; phitochemistry; plant extract; green chemistry; cosmetics; preservatives.
Online: 23 June 2021 (09:35:03 CEST)
Biogenic-Silver nanoparticles emerge as new nanosilver platfmorm that allow to obtain silver nanoparticles via “green chemistry”. In our study we obtained biogenic-Silver nanoparticles from Iris tuberosa leaves extract. Nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, dinnamical light scattering technique and Transmission electron microscope, showing spheric and irregular nanoparticles with 5 to 50 nm in diameter. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were evaluated against typical microbial contaminants found in cosmetic products, showing high antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. We formulated a natural moisturizing cream with biogenic-silver nanoparticles to evaluate the preservative efficiency trought challenge test, confirming that our nanoparticles are a promising alternative to use as cosmetic preservative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0122.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: microbial communities; host-microbe interactions; mathematical modelling; diatoms; synthetic ecology; algal biotechnology
Online: 17 October 2017 (17:37:49 CEST)
The pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a model organism able to synthesize industrially-relevant molecules. Commercial-scale cultivation currently requires large monocultures, prone to bio-contamination. However, little is known about the identity of the invading organisms. To reduce the complexity of natural systems, we systematically investigated the microbiome of non-axenic P. tricornutum cultures from a culture collection in reproducible experiments. The results revealed a dynamic bacterial community that developed differently in “complete” and “minimal” media conditions. In complete media, we observed an accelerated “culture crash”, indicating a more stable culture in minimal media. The identification of only four bacterial families as major players within the microbiome suggests specific roles depending on environmental conditions. From our results we propose a network of putative interactions between P. tricornutum and these main bacterial factions. We demonstrate that, even with rather sparse data, a mathematical model can be reconstructed that qualitatively reproduces the observed population dynamics, thus indicating that our hypotheses regarding the molecular interactions are in agreement with experimental data. Whereas the model in its current state is only qualitative, we argue that it serves as a starting point to develop quantitative and predictive mathematical models, which may guide experimental efforts to synthetically construct and monitor stable communities required for robust upscaling strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0318.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: agricultural industry; antibacterial; antimicrobial; green synthesis; gold; nano-biotechnology; nanoparticles; silver; sustainable development
Online: 15 July 2020 (06:13:43 CEST)
Currently, metal nanoparticles have varied uses for different medical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural applications. Nano-biotechnology combined with green chemistry has great potential for the development of novel and necessary products that benefit human activities, while encourages the reduction of hazardous reagents for nanoparticle production. Green chemistry has an important role due to its contribution to unconventional synthesis methods of gold and silver nanoparticles from plant extracts, which have exhibited antimicrobial potential among other outstanding properties. Biodiversity-rich countries need to collect and convert knowledge from biological resources into processes, compounds, methods, and tools, which need to be achieved along with sustainable use and exploitation of biological diversity. Therefore, this review focuses on the importance of metal nanoparticles, the use of plant extract for their synthesis as well as other available methods, and the relevant antimicrobial activity that can be exploited in a sustainable model of agricultural management through a modern nanotechnological approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0236.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Insect Biotechnology; molecular entomology; pest management; Sterile Insect Technique; sperm storage; transgenesis; Tribolium castaneum
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:02:52 CEST)
Sperm marking represents a valuable monitoring tool for genetic pest control strategies such as the Sterile Insect Technique, but also provides a key tool for reproductive biology studies. Sperm-marked lines can be generated by introducing transgenes that mediate the expression of fluorescent proteins during spermatogenesis. Homozygous lines established by transgenesis approaches are going through a genetic bottleneck that can lead to reduced fitness. Transgenic SIT approaches have mostly focused on Dipteran and Lepidopteran pests so far. With this study, we provide sperm-marked lines for the Coleopteran pest model organism, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, based on the β2-tubulin promoter/enhancer driving red (DsRed) or green (EGFP) fluorescence. The obtained lines are reasonably competitive and were thus used for studies on reproductive biology confriming the phenomenon of ‘last male sperm precedence’ and that the spermathecae are deployed for long term sperm storage enabling the use of sperm from first matings even after secondary matings for a long period of time. The homozygosity and competiveness of the lines will enable future studies to analyze the controlled process of sperm movement into the long time storage organ as part of a post-mating cryptic female choice mechanism of this extremely promiscuous species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0207.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: ARV delivery; Biotechnology in ARV; Biological Barriers; Emulsions; Lipid nanoparticles; Liposomes; RNAi and ARV codelivery.
Online: 9 August 2021 (17:09:13 CEST)
Since HIV was first identified, and in a relatively short period of time, AIDS has become one of the most devastating infectious diseases of the 21st century. Classical antiretroviral therapies were a major step forward in disease treatment options, significantly improving the survival rates of HIV-infected individuals. Even though these therapies have greatly improved HIV clinical outcomes, antiretrovirals (ARV) feature biopharmaceutic and pharmacokinetic problems such as poor aqueous solubility, short half-life and poor penetration into HIV reservoir sites, which contribute to the sub-optimal efficacy of these regimens. To overcome some of these issues, novel nanotechnology-based strategies for ARV delivery towards HIV viral reservoirs have been proposed. The current review focus on the benefits of using lipid-based nanocarriers for tuning the physicochemical properties of ARVs to overcome biological barriers upon administration. Furthermore, a correlation of these properties and the potential therapeutic outcomes has been established. Biotechnological advancements using lipid nanocarriers for RNA interference delivery for the treatment of HIV infections were also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0287.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: PCR; recombination; cloning; engineering; biotechnology; synthetic biology; synthetic nucleotide; plasmids; repository; minimalism; Escherichia coli; mutagenesis
Online: 15 October 2018 (09:22:22 CEST)
Minimal plasmids play an essential role in many intermediate steps in molecular biology. They can for example be used to assemble building blocks in synthetic biology or be used as intermediate cloning plasmids that are ideal for PCR-based mutagenesis methods. A small backbone also opens up for additional unique restriction enzyme cloning sites. Here we describe the generation of pICOz, a 1185 bp fully functional high-copy cloning plasmid with an extended multiple cloning site (MCS). To our knowledge, this is the smallest high-copy cloning vector ever described.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: synthetic biology; CRISPR; Cas9; biotechnology; biodesign; nickase; base editing; prime editing; genome editing; ethics; responsible innovation
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:38:22 CEST)
The RNA-guided endonuclease system CRISPR-Cas9 has been extensively modified since its discovery, allowing its capabilities to be extending far beyond double-stranded cleavage to high fidelity insertions, deletions, and single base edits. Such innovations have been possible due to the modular architecture of CRISPR-Cas9 and the robustness of its component parts to modifications and the fusion of new functional elements. Here, we review the broad toolkit of CRISPR-Cas9-based systems now available for diverse genome editing tasks. We provide an overview of their core molecular structure and mechanism and distil the design principles used to engineer their diverse functionalities. We end by looking beyond the biochemistry and towards the societal and ethical challenges that these CRISPR-Cas9 systems face if their transformative capabilities are to be deployed in a safe and acceptable manner.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0220.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: aging; bioactive molecules; blue biotechnology; cancer; cell culture; COST Action; Europe; marine/aquatic invertebrates; regeneration; stem cells
Online: 24 January 2018 (04:14:56 CET)
The “stem cells” discipline represents one of the most dynamic areas in biomedicine. While adult marine/aquatic invertebrate stem cell (MISC) biology is of prime research and medical interest, studies on stem cells from organisms outside the classical vertebrate (e.g., human, mouse, zebrafish) and invertebrate (e.g., Drosophila, Caenorhabditis) models have not been pursued vigorously. Marine/aquatic invertebrates constitute the largest biodiversity and the widest phylogenetic radiation on Earth, from morphologically simple organisms (e.g. sponges, cnidarians), to the more complex mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and protochordates. These organisms illustrate a kaleidoscope of MISC-types that participate in the production of a large number of novel bioactive-molecules, many of which are of significant potential interest for human health. MISCs further participate in aging and regeneration phenomena, including whole-body regeneration. For years, the European MISC-community has been highly fragmented and scarce ties were established with biomedical industries in attempts to harness MISCs for human welfare. Thus, it is important to: i) consolidate the fragmented European community working on MISCs; ii) promote and coordinate European research on MISC biology; iii) stimulate young researchers to embark on research in MISC-biology; iv) develop, validate, and network novel MISC tools and methodologies; v) establish the MISC discipline as a forefront interest of biomedical disciplines, including nanobiomedicine; vi) establish collaborations with industries to exploit MISCs as sources of bioactive molecules. In order to fill the recognised gaps, the EC-COST Action 16203 “MARISTEM”, has recently been launched. At its initial stage the consortium unites 26 scientists from EC countries, Cooperating countries and Near Neighbor Countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0123.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass crops; biofuels; plant miRNAs; miR156; miR156/SPL-system; plant biotechnology; abiotic and biotic stresses; bio-confinement
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:52:23 CEST)
Currently, energy security and environmental degradation are the two biggest challenges before humanity that can be surmounted with the use of green and sustainable biofuels produced from lignocellulosic crops. In the future, to ensure adequate and cost-effective supply of biofuels, it requires a sufficient amount of amenable and quality lignocellulosic feedstocks. Therefore, agricultural yields of lignocellulosic biomass crops should be substantially increased by intense genetic maneuvering of key gene regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways that control plant biomass yield. Recently, numerous miRNAs families are identified, characterized, and validated across the plant kingdom. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to 24 nucleotides long, non-coding small RNAs, act as regulators of their target genes via inducing modifications in transcription, translation, and epigenome. MiRNAs represent many hallmark characteristics like sequence-specific regulation, tissue, and species-specific expression, evolutionary conservation, and functional diversity. They coordinate well physiological and life cycle processes in plants under adverse environmental conditions. Hence, miRNAs offer accurate, precise, and efficient regulatory switches in the miRNA-targeted genetic networks. It is evident from the study of the miR156 family and its target SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes network that controls highly significant agronomic traits in crop plants. The miR156/SPL module acts as a master circuit that synchronizes many intricate complex biological functions such as growth and development, and metabolic processes by sensing internal and external environmental signals in plants. Therefore, miR156 can prove a potential target for miRNAs based plant biotechnology to harmonize complex biofuel traits and improve biomass yield in lignocellulosic biomass crops.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0163.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: white biotechnology; metabolic engineering; non-conventional yeast; oleaginous yeast; cell factory; heterologous expression; biodiversity; Yarrowia lipolytica; Yarrowia clade; GMO
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:50:26 CEST)
Among non-conventional yeasts of industrial interest, the dimorphic oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica appears as one of the most attractive for a large range of white biotechnology applications, from heterologous proteins secretion to cell factories process development. The past, present and potential applications of wild type, traditionally improved or genetically modified Yarrowia lipolytica strains will be resumed, together with the wide array of molecular tools now available to genetically engineer and metabolically remodel this yeast. The present review will also provide a detailed description of Yarrowia lipolytica strains and highlight the natural biodiversity of this yeast, a subject little touched upon in most previous reviews. This work intends to fill this gap by retracing the genealogy of the main Yarrowia lipolytica strains of industrial interest, by illustrating the search for new genetic backgrounds and by providing data about the main publicly available strains in yeast collections worldwide. At last, it will focus on exemplifying how advances in engineering tools can leverage a better biotechnological exploitation of the natural biodiversity of Yarrowia lipolytica and of other yeasts from the Yarrowia clade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0398.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: intellectual property; intellectual property protection; plant variety protection, plant breeders’ rights, essentially derived variety; utility patent; plant breeding; biotechnology.
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:03:30 CEST)
This review examines the categorization of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDV) introduced in the 1991 revision of the Convention of the Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales (UPOV). Challenges in the implementation of the concept and progress made on a crop-by-crop basis to provide greater clarity and more efficient implementation are reviewed. The current approach to EDV remains valid provided i) clarity on thresholds can be achieved including through resource intensive research on an individual crop species basis and ii) that threshold clarity does not lead to perverse incentives to avoid detection of essential derivation. However, technological advances leading to new varieties resulting from the simultaneous introduction or change in expression of more than “a few” genes will so challenge the concept to require a new Convention. Revision could include deletion of the concept of essential derivation and revision on a crop-by-crop basis of the breeder exception. Countries that allow utility patents for individual plant varieties per se should consider removing that possibility unless plant breeders utilize those encouragements for risk taking and investment to broaden the germplasm base upon which the long-term sustainability of plant breeding resides.