ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0109.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: animal welfare assessment; categorisation; beef cow systems; semi-arid rangelands; Namibia
Online: 4 December 2020 (12:36:14 CET)
The study aimed to develop standards for a welfare assessment protocol, by validating potential categorisation thresholds for assessment of beef farms in various beef cow-calf production systems in Namibia. Forty measures combined from a New Zealand-based protocol plus Namibia-specific measures, were applied on 55 beef farms (17 commercial farms, 20 semi-commercial and 18 communal village farms) during pregnancy testing, and a questionnaire guided interview. The categorised measures on a 3-point welfare score of 0: good 1: marginal and 2: poor/unacceptable welfare were subsequently compared with derivation of thresholds based upon the poorest 15% and best 50% of herds for each measure. Overall combined thresholds of continuous measures across the 3 farm types, showed 10/22 measures that posed welfare compromise across Namibia, where commercial farms had 4/22 measures and semi-commercial and communal village farms had 12/22 and 11/22 respectively with high thresholds. Most measures-imposed thresholds were retained because of significant importance to welfare of animals and preventiveness of the traits, while leniency was given to adjust good feeding and mortality measures to signify periods of drought. Handling measures (fearful, falling/lying) and abrasions thresholds were adjusted to reflect the temporary stress caused by infrequent cattle handling, and faulty yard designs/design and possible cattle breed influence on handling. Hence, the country needs prioritised investigation of underlying contributing factors and remediation to reduce the high thresholds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0101.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: animal welfare assessment; beef cow systems; semi-arid rangelands; Namibia
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:11:53 CET)
A proposed animal welfare assessment protocol for semi-arid rangeland-based cow-calf systems in Namibia combined 40 measures from a protocol developed for beef cattle in New Zealand with additional Namibia-specific measures. Preliminary validation of the protocol had been undertaken with five herds in one semi-commercial village. The aim of the current study was to apply this protocol and compare animal welfare across three cow-calf production systems in Namibia. A total of 2529 beef cows were evaluated during pregnancy testing in the yards of 17 commercial, 20 semi-commercial and 18 communal (total: 55) herds followed by an assessment of farm resources and a questionnaire-guided interview. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate the difference in the welfare scores between the production systems. The results indicated a discrepancy of animal welfare between the three farm types, with a marked separation of commercial farms from semi-commercial, and communal village farms in the least. The differences in these production systems was mainly driven by economic gains through access to better beef export market for commercial farms and semi-commercial villages, as well as by the differences in the available grazing land, facility designs/quality and traditional customs in the village systems. The results indicate an advantage of commercialisation over communalisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: beef cow welfare; reproductive performance; New Zealand
Online: 6 November 2020 (15:38:20 CET)
One key area where animal welfare may relate to productivity is through reproductive performance. Welfare was assessed on 25 extensively managed pastoral New Zealand beef farms and the relationship between welfare and reproductive performance was explored. Relationships between welfare measures and key reproductive performance indicators (pregnancy rate, weaning rate, mating period and bull: cow ratio) were investigated using an exploratory Principal Components Analysis and linear regression model. Seven welfare measures (thinness, poor rumen fill, dirtiness, blindness, mortality, health checks of pregnant cows and yarding frequency/year) showed potential influence on reproductive performance, and lameness was retained individually as a potential measure. Mean pregnancy rates in both 2018 (PD18) and 2017 (PD17) were ~91% and mean weaning rate was 84%. Of the welfare measures, only lameness had a direct association with pregnancy rate, as well as confounding effect on the association between mating period and pregnancy rate. The bull: cow ration (mean 1:31) and reproductive conditions (dystocia, abortion, vaginal prolapse) did not influence pregnancy and weaning rates. In the study population there was no clear association between welfare and reproductive performance, except for the confounding effects of lameness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0025.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: macro-minerals; micro-minerals; environmental-minerals; beef quality; beef production; multivariate analysis
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:38:11 CET)
Mineral profile of beef interests human health, but also animal performance and meat quality. This study analyzes the relationships of 20 minerals in beef (ICP-OES) with 3 animal performance and 13 meat quality traits analyzed on 182 samples of Longissimus thoracis. Animals’ breed and sex showed limited effects. The major sources of variation (farm/date of slaughter, individual animal within group and side/sample within animal) differed greatly from trait to trait. Mineral contents were correlated to animal performance and meat quality being significant 52 out of the 320 correlations at the farm/date level, and 101 out of the 320 at the individual animal level. Five latent factors explained 69% of mineral co-variation. The most important, “Mineral quantity” factor correlated with age at slaughter and with the meat color traits. Two latent factors (“Na+Fe+Cu” and “Fe+Mn”) correlated with performance and meat color traits. Two other (“K-B-Pb” and “Zn”) correlated with meat chemical composition and the latter also with carcass weight and daily gain, and meat color traits. Meat cooking losses correlated with “K-B-Pb”. Latent factor analysis appears be a useful means of disentangling the very complex relationships that the minerals in meat have with animal performance and meat quality traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0287.v1
Online: 19 October 2022 (13:10:29 CEST)
The increasing need for effective analytical tools to evaluate beef quality has prompted the development of new procedures to improve the animal sector’s performance. In this study, three beef breeds—Thai native (TN), crossbred Brahman x Thai native (BT), and crossbred Charolais x Brahman (CB)—were compared in terms of their physicochemical and metabolic profiles. The findings demonstrated that TN beef was lighter and tougher than other beef. Beef odor was stronger in BT. In addition, CB beef was the most tender and the highest intramuscular fat content. Twenty-one different metabolites were found overall through NMR and chemometric approaches. High levels of lactate and creatine were found in all species. The primary factors contributing to the difference in OPLS-DA loading plots were acetylcholine, valine, adenine, leucine, and phosphocreatine, β-hydroxypyruvate, ethanol, adenosine diphosphate, creatine, acetylcholine, and lactate. The multivariate analysis indicated that these metabolites in beef cattle breeds could be distinguished using NMR spectroscopy. The results of this study provide valuable information on the quality and meat metabolites in different breeds. This could help in the development of a more accurate assessment of the quality of beef in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0146.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: cattle; Belgian Blue; beef; colostrum; selenium
Online: 11 October 2022 (07:23:19 CEST)
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for the health and immunity of cattle. Double-muscled Belgian Blue cows are well known to be prone to nutritional deficiencies. Colostrum Se level is also a key factor to promote immunoglobulin intake in young calves. The main objectives of this study were to assess (1) the plasma and colostrum Se statuses of properly-supplemented Belgian-Blue cows on commercial farms and (2) the relationship between Se concentrations in plasma and colostrum. Secondary objectives were to assess relationships between plasma or colostrum Se concentrations and dietary Se supplementation as well as blood biomarkers. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 49 Belgian Blue cows on 5 commercial farms in Belgium. They received 5 different rations with Se supplementation ranging from 0.5 to 2 ppm including 20% to 83% of organic form. Results showed that average Se concentration was 90 +- 15 µg/L in plasma and 79 +- 26 µg/L in colostrum, consistent with previous studies on well-supplemented cows. No relationship was observed between Se concentrations in plasma and colostrum, suggesting that colostrum Se testing would be a complementary indicator for improving calf Se supplementation. Relationships between plasma or colostrum Se and dietary Se or blood biomarkers emphasized the complexity of Se metabolism in observational studies under field conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0322.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Development; area; livestock; beef cattle; corporation
Online: 21 December 2021 (11:31:54 CET)
Livestock is an integral part of agriculture which significantly contributes to the economic and socio-economic development. Based on its potential in natural resources and human resources, East Kalimantan Province has opportunity to become a beef cattle development area. The development of a corporate-based beef cattle breeding area is an approach which taken toward industrial and business-oriented beef cattle breeding. The concept of breeder corporation will create new strengths such as strengths in human resources, capital, and banking in business development, which can more open the opportunities for the success and growth of the breeder's business. The development of a corporate-based beef cattle breeding area provides opportunities, including: 1) improving the competitiveness and added value of the region and beef cattle commodities in order to support national sustainable food security; 2) strengthening the livestock business system in one area management in a holistic manner; and 3) strengthening breeders institutions in accessing information, technology, public facilities and infrastructure, capital, processing and marketing, so that the concept is expected to be applied in East Kalimantan Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0305.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: KCNJ12; SNP; myoblast differentiation; stature; Chinese beef cattle
Online: 28 April 2019 (09:38:56 CEST)
Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 12 (KCNJ12) gene is one promising candidate for economic traits because of its crucial roles in myoblast development. Here, a missense mutation (Cys>Arg), was firstly detected to locate in exon 3 of KCNJ12 from three Chinese cattle breeds by DNA-pool sequencing. Then, we performed the association analysis of this SNP with stature in three Chinese cattle populations (n = 820). Significantly positive correlation was revealed by reduced animal general linear model and the genotype of CC is the most excellent genotype in three breeds. Further, we measured the expression profiling of the KCNJ12 gene in various cattle tissues and primary bovine skeletal muscle cells. Ubiquitous expression with high abundance in muscle was observed. Further, in primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, the KCNJ12 mRNA expression was gradually up-regulated in differentiation medium (DM) compared with that in growth medium (GM), suggesting that KCNJ12 gene is involved in bovine myocyte differentiation. Conclusively, KCNJ12 gene is a functional candidate gene which can be used as molecular marker for beef cattle breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0065.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: low fat; salt reduction; meat product; sensory; beef
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:46:55 CEST)
The consumer’s acceptability of hamburgers elaborated with the flank of culling cows in which the content of salt or fat had been partially replaced was studied. A mixture of potassium chloride, potassium ferrocyanide and sodium ferrocyanide was used as substitutes for the salt. Oat flakes or a mixture of chia and flax seeds were used as substitutes for the fat. The hamburgers were tasted by 34 consumers. Consumers did not detect significant differences between the control and the rest of the formulations. Neither the gender nor the age of the consumers influenced the sensory appraisal. However, many comments regarding texture failures were recorded. Therefore, the substitution of salt and / or fat in the composition of hamburgers made with the flank of cows is a viable alternative for the commercialization of these pieces of low commercial value as long as the texture of the same is adjusted to resemble it to the control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Coxiella burnetii; dairy cattle; beef cattle; grazing; ELISA; IS1111
Online: 5 September 2020 (03:47:14 CEST)
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection according to cattle breeds and growth types. A total of 491 cattle [cattle breed: 216 dairy cattle and 275 beef cattle; according to growth type: indoor housing (n = 294) and grazing (n = 197)] were tested for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies against C. burnetii using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, 10.8% and 8.8% of the cattle were positive by PCR and for C. burnetii antibodies, respectively. The prevalence of C. burnetii was significantly higher in beef cattle than in dairy cattle using PCR (13.6% vs 7.4%; P = 0.032) and ELISA (14.6% vs 1.4%; P = 0.000), respectively. The overall infection rate of C. burnetii was significantly high in grazing cattle (PCR: 24.9%, ELSIA: 21.3%; P = 0.000) compared with housing cattle (PCR: 1.4%, ELISA: 0.3%). The results indicate that beef cattle have a significantly higher risk of contracting C. burnetii infection compared with dairy cattle (21.5% vs. 7.9%, χ2 = 5.82, P = 0.000, odds ratio = 3.197, 95% CI: 1.80-5.67). In addition, the infection of C. burnetii was significantly associated with grazing (P = 0.000). Moreover, a risk of contracting C. burnetii infection in grazing cattle was increased by 32.57-fold (95% CI: 12.84-82.60, P = 0.000) compared with indoor housed cattle. The phylogenetic analysis based on the IS111 gene revealed that our isolates were grouped together with humans, ticks, goats, and cattle isolates found in several countries. C. burnetii isolates circulating in the Republic of Korea exhibit genetic variations. Consequently, our results suggest that cattle are potential reservoirs for C. burnetii infection and most importantly, grazing acts as a high risk factor for the occurrence and transmission of this infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0139.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: E. coli O157:H7; non-intact beef; mechanical tenderization; blade tenderization; antimicrobial interventions; translocation
Online: 14 January 2019 (12:15:28 CET)
The USDA-FSIS considers mechanically-tenderized beef as ‘non-intact’ and a food safety concern because of the potential for translocation of surface E. coli O157:H7 into the interior of the meat that may be cooked ‘rare or medium-rare’ and consumed. We evaluated 14 potential spray interventions on E. coli O157:H7-inoculated lean beef wafers (~106 CFU/cm2 , n=80) passing through a spray system (18 sec dwell time, ~40 PSI) integrated into the front end of a Ross TC-700MC tenderizer. Inoculated and processed beef wafers were stomached with D/E neutralizing broth and plated immediately, or were held in refrigerated storage for 1-, 7-, or 14 days prior to microbial plating. Seven antimicrobials that showed better performance in preliminary screening on beef wafers were selected for further testing on beef subprimals in conjunction with blade tenderization. Boneless top sirloin beef subprimals were inoculated at ~2 x 104 CFU/cm2 with a four-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and passed once, lean side up, through an integrated spray system and blade tenderizer. Core samples obtained from each subprimal were examined for the presence/absence of E. coli O157:H7. Absence of E coli O157:H7 translocated into core samples correlated with the ability of the antimicrobials to reduce bacterial levels on the surface of beef prior to blade tenderization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Ireland; beef farms; Producer Organisations (POs), product differentiation; co-operatives; values-based supply chain
Online: 20 September 2018 (04:16:57 CEST)
Irish beef farms have experienced poor viability longitudinally, with officially acknowledged ‘crisis’ levels in 2013. In response, beef Producer Organisation (PO) legislation was introduced. Through the lens of international evidence in the literature about how POs function, this paper presents an analysis of Irish stakeholders’ views in the context of a public consultation process. While stakeholders indicate the need for individual POs to collaborate, little emphasis is placed on other factors necessary for success: collaboration with other chain actors; and market differentiation of products. Stakeholders identified primary threats as poor engagement on the part of both farmers and processors/purchasers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0422.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fresh cassava root; pellet containing high sulfur; ruminal characteristics; blood thiocyanate; Thai native beef cattle
Online: 17 December 2020 (09:16:26 CET)
The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding pellet containing high sulfur (PELFUR) diet and fresh cassava root (FCR) to Thai native beef cattle on feed use efficiency, ruminal characteristics, and blood metabolites. Four male Thai native beef cattle (150 ± 15.0 kg of body weight (BW)) were allocated with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was FCR supplementation at 15 and 20 g/kg of BW. Factor B was the sulfur level in the PELFUR ration at 15 and 30 g/kg of dry matter (DM). No interaction effect was found among FCR supplementation and PELFUR in terms of feed intake and nutrient intake (p > 0.05). Cyanide intake was significantly increased based on FCR supplementation (p < 0.05), whereas sulfur intake was increased by level addition of PELFUR levels (p < 0.05). There were interaction effects among FCR supplementation and PELFUR on digestibility coeﬃcients of DM and organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05). FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg demonstrated the highest digestibility of DM and OM. Moreover, interactions were observed between FCR and PELFUR for bacterial populations (p < 0.01). The populations of bacteria were highest in FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg at various feeding times. An interaction effects from among feeding FCR with PELFUR was found on blood thiocyanate concentrations at various feeding times (p < 0.01). The highest mean values of blood thiocyanate were observed when feeding FCR at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR at 30 g/kg. No interaction effect was found between FCR and PELFUR on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and their profiles (p >0.05). However, the proportions of the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding were increased when FCR at 20 g/kg BW was supplemented (p < 0.01). FCR at 20 g/kg BW could enhance propionate (C3) at 4 h post-feeding when compared with FCR at 15 g/kg BW (p < 0.01). Moreover, supplementation of PELFUR at 30 g/kg increased the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding, whereas the concentration of C3 at 4 h post-feeding was enhanced (p < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found for any parameters among treatments and between the main effect of FCR and PELFUR supplementation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, feeding of two combinations (FCR 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg) could promote the nutrient digestibility, the bacterial populations, and the rate of disappearance of cyanide without having any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: beef tallow biodiesel; fatty acid esters; atomic charge; molecular dipole moment; HOMO-LUMO energy gap; electrostatic potential
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:37:39 CEST)
This study deals with computational analysis of dominant fatty acid ethyl esters characterized from the biodiesel produced from waste beef tallow by means of KOH catalyzed ethanol based transesterification. Ethyl palmitate, Ethyl Oleate, Ethyl Stearate and Ethyl Myristate were identified as dominant fatty acid esters and were computed for molecular analysis in Gaussian 09 software using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP method) with 6-31G* as basis set. Geometric parameters were in accordance with existing experimental values and population analysis exhibited negative charge for oxygen atoms, both positive & negative charge for carbon atoms in all ester molecules. The molecular dipole moment was higher for unsaturated ester molecule and quadruple moment proposed electronic dislocation in X+Y direction. Also, energy gap decreased slightly with increasing carbon chain but reduced drastically with increase in unsaturation. Electrostatic potential mapping displayed negative electrostatic potential for oxygen atoms in ester linkage of all ester molecules.