ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0183.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: financial inclusion; unit banking; banking in Bangladesh; banking policy
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:18:47 CET)
The financial inclusion, including all the people with the finance, is very concerned issue all over the world where Bangladesh is also trying to include all the people with the finance. Bangladesh lies in such a group of countries where only 17.6% - 38.6% adults are presently under the reach of the formal financial services. This is because the present banks and other formal financial modes consider the outcome and profitability in a way that, the rural and non-developed areas are always out of the consideration. But these areas consist of the most population of Bangladesh. And only then financial inclusiveness will be successful in Bangladesh when people from these regions will be under formal financial consideration. The paper seeks for a solution to the issue and presents the Unit Banking System as a probable way towards financial inclusion. For implementing the system in Bangladesh, the system needs a slight modification to cope in Bangladeshi economic condition and address the specific needs without hampering the surroundings. Considering all these, the paper shows the status, problems and key points of financial scenario of inclusion in Bangladesh and shows policy for a Modified Unit banking System.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0303.v2
Online: 17 October 2018 (16:43:54 CEST)
In the repercussions of the latest financial crisis that have occurred on the years 2008-2009, to fortify the stability of the banking systems, policy makers, and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision – BCBS, together with national regulators have built up a few safety measures, and structures to guarantee that banks establishments keep up adequate capital levels through using risk management tools, in specific the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Processes (ICAAP). They all have called for thorough evaluations and assessments for the structure and components of risk management frameworks, tools, and practices whether by banks, regulators, analysts and risk management experts consistently, to ascertain the adequacy of the banking systems, policies, arrangements and techniques for overseeing risks, and guaranteeing the sufficiency of holding appropriate capital levels for confronting normal, as well as adverse and unexpected situations or emergencies. The main objectives of this research study is to shed the light on the ICAAP as one of the main keys of risk management programs, a process by which banks can use to ensure that they operate with an appropriate levels of capital, forward looking processes for capital planning covering a broad range of risks across banks, activities beyond simple capital management, and brings together risk and capital management activities in a form that can be used to support business decisions. The research study shall evaluate the significant relationship between the Banking System Stability (dependent variable) and the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP – independent variable) with evidence from the Egyptian Banking Sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: banking; financial performance; sustainability performance
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:23:42 CET)
Banking sector is generally taken out of sample while the sustainability performance, and the financial performance are compared with each other. The core aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the declarations made in the cope of sustainability reports on the financial performance in the banking sector. Seven banks were included in the study which were placed at least one time in BIST Sustainability Index in between 2010-2017 years. Environment, human resources, product liability and community involvement were determined as sustainability criteria and return on assets, return on equity and net interest margin were determined as financial performance criteria. Non-Parametric Statistic Tests and Panel Data Analysis were used for analysis and types, and the sizes of banks were selected as dummy variables. As a result, it is found that the declarations of sustainability reports have a significant effect only on return on assets and have no significant effect on return on equity and net interest margin. And also, when we analyzed the relationship of sustainability criteria and return on assets, we found that the declarations about environment and human resources have negative effects on return on assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0040.v1
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:33:58 CET)
This study examined the determinants of domestic savings mobilization among the rural poor in Uasin-Gishu county, Kenya. The general notion is that the subsistence farmers are too poor to save. This seems to be unfounded given the fact that they are general excluded from formal financial services and studies on poverty in the country show that the average propensity of the rural households to save is higher than the national average. What are the factors which motivate small scale farmers to save? The study was conducted on 446 table banking groups under the aegis of JOYWO, a table banking grouping in Kenya. Data was collected using structured questionnaires from members of groups under the umbrella of JOYWO. The findings of the study indicates that household income had a positive and significant effect on savings mobilization while dependency ratio had a negative and significant effect on savings mobilization. Household size was not significant. The results point to the need to expose the rural poor to informal savings and financing models expected to enhance income generating capabilities of the rural poor and lower the level dependency through government welfare funding for senior citizens and essential services for the young.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0305.v1
Online: 15 October 2018 (11:49:29 CEST)
As the demand for a more sustainable society increases, adopting a sustainable banking approach serves as a competitive advantage for banks that are focused on attaining bank loyalty. This study revolves around understanding the role of sustainable banking practices on bank loyalty, while exploring the mediating effect of corporate image in the relationship between sustainable banking practices and bank loyalty. 511 data derived from customers of the banking sector was adopted for this study. Result from the structural equation modeling shows that sustainable banking practices positively and directly affects bank loyalty and corporate image, corporate image directly and positively affect bank loyalty, and also mediates in the relationship between sustainable banking practices and bank loyalty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0380.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Information System; Information Audit; Audit; Internet Banking
Online: 28 June 2022 (07:30:01 CEST)
This report is on online banking and information systems in online banking. It throws some light on the introduction and historical background of online banking. Next, in this term report online banking information is explained in detailed. We collected a few articles, related to internet banking, on which other researchers have worked. Then further we have brief them into a table where we have mentioned their problems and limitations. Next, we discussed them in detail, giving an overview of each article. Lastly, recommendations for the online banking sectors are also mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Islamic Bank; Banking Performance; Bibliometric Analysis; Cluster
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:51:16 CET)
Islamic banks (IBs) have been criticized as not being genuinely Islamic, and the methods in measuring their performances have been debatable. While the literature on IBs performance has been emerging, such studies precisely assess its recent development remains absent. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the development of scholarly articles that measure IBs’ performances. We employ bibliometric analysis and sample related articles from the Scopus database. We find that the development of IBs performance literature may be understood by 111 peer-reviewed journal articles, 4 conference papers, 1 book, and 1 book series. We analyze these materials based on publication sources, country and institution affiliation, keywords association, and cluster dendrogram. Our model that quantifies the keywords association and cluster dendrogram provides a novelty in assessing IBs performance literature development. Future studies may replicate our model to cluster and identify the keyword associations from the unstructured data sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Complex networks; Minimum Dominating Set; Banking supervision; monitoring optimization
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:08:42 CEST)
The global financial crisis of 2008, triggered by the collapse of Lehman Brothers, highlighted a banking system that was widely exposed to systemic risk. The minimization of the systemic risk via a close and detailed monitoring of the entire banking network became a priority. This is a complex and demanding task considering the size of the banking systems: in the US and the EU they include more than 10000 institutions. In this paper, we introduce a methodology which identifies a subset of banks that can: a) efficiently represent the behavior of the whole banking system and b) provide, in the case of a failure, a plausible range of the crisis dispersion. The proposed methodology can be used by the regulators as an auxiliary monitoring tool, to identify groups of banks that are potentially in distress and try to swiftly remedy their problems and minimize the propagation of the crisis by restricting contagion. This methodology is based on Graph Theory and more specifically Complex Networks. We termed this setting a “multivariate Threshold – Minimum Dominating Set” (mT–MDS) and it is an extension of the Threshold – Minimum Dominating Set methodology (Gogas e.a., 2016). The method was tested on a dataset of 570 U.S. banks: 429 solvent and 141 failed ones. The variables used to create the networks are: the total interest expense, the total interest income, the tier 1 (core) risk-based capital and the total assets. The empirical results reveal that the proposed methodology can be successfully employed as an auxiliary tool for the efficient supervision of a large banking network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainable development; alliance; financial institution; banking sector; public finance
Online: 12 June 2018 (11:53:17 CEST)
The striving for sustainable development has become the goal of actions undertaken not only by representatives of public authorities and institutions representing this sector, but also representatives of private entities who are increasingly recognizing the benefits and sources of long-term development based on the principles and objectives of sustainable development. These are mainly based on the pursuit of synergy in the three basic areas of activities, i.e., in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions as well as in the maintenance of natural resources. The implementation of these activities is connected with the necessity of incurring financial expenditures, which the government (public sector) does not have in the required value. Therefore, in the process of sustainable development for which the government is responsible, the active participation of the financial sector (banks) is necessary. Achieving results within the alliance of the concept of sustainable development requires the setting of a kind of contract, the parties of which are the government, society, and financial institutions. The purpose of the conducted research is to indicate by which means the government and the financial sector can stimulate economic growth towards its sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Financial distress; Dual system banking; Loan Loss Provission; forecasting; econometrics
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:19:41 CET)
Nowadays, many Muslim-majority countries have implemented a dual banking system, namely the sharia and conventional systems. The development of Islamic banks is to fulfill the Muslims' need for the existence of halal transactions in financial institutions. However, in some countries, it turns out that conventional banks still dominate the country's economy. Because of that, it is necessary to see whether there are differences in financial risk and Earnings management between Islamic and conventional banks. The samples are conventional and Islamic banks in Southeast Asia, analyzed by the purposive sampling method from 2010-2019. The analytical tool used is the statistical difference test and economometrics analysis using generalized least square (GLS) regression with panel data (time series and cross-sectional data). These models are intended to forecasting the macroeconomics effects in applying dual banking system in one country or region. The results using non parametrics means difference test showed that the first hypothesis is accepted It means that Earnings management in conventional banks is greater than in Islamic banks. The Random Model Effect (REM) for second and third hypotheses testing on Conventional banks shows the Bankruptcy Risk and NPL do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). While fixed effect model testing on Islamic banks, the second and third hypothesis testing is rejected. Therefor Islamic Banks the value of Bankruptcy Risk (z-score) and the value of Non-Performing Loans (NPL) do not affect Earnings management. It also means that hypothesis 2 and 3 are rejected both in conventional as well as Islamic Banking. Sensitivity analysis for conventional as well as Islamic banking altogether using fixed effect model shows that the second and third hypotheses show that the independent variables (Bankruptcy Risk and NPL) do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). These results can be concluded that Islamic bank are enganged in less earnings management. Therefor in the the long run there are still more research that should conduct in comparing dual banking system in one region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0215.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: COVID-19; green finance; green banking; green economic recovery; financial institutions; Bangladesh.
Online: 16 December 2021 (12:36:55 CET)
The main purpose of study is to identify the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the green financing of banks and non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh. Also, this study shows the green banking activities of the banks and NBFIs during the pandemic. To analyze the impact of the pandemic on green financing, secondary data were obtained from the quarterly and annual reports of Bangladesh Bank (BB) on green financing as well as the annual reports and websites of 61 banks and 34 NBFIs in Bangladesh for the period 2021–2019. Subsequently, the study deployed dependent t-test statistics, growth rate (year-on-year), descriptive statistics, relative percentage changes, and varying tables and graphs to analyze the obtained secondary data. The empirical findings revealed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in green finance for all banks and NBFIs compared to before the epidemic, indicating that the pandemic had no negative impact on the total green finance growth of all banks and NBFIs. On the other hand, compared to the pre-pandemic period, bank-wise growth in green financing was higher for state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs), specialized banks (SDBs), and private commercial banks (PCBs) but lower for foreign-owned commercial banks (FCBs) during the COVID-19 epidemic. This suggests that the pandemic does not affect the expansion of green finance by SOCBs, SDBs and PCBs but significantly impacted the growth of green financing by FCBs. Furthermore, the research findings showed that the total outstanding and classified loans within the green finance investment decrease for both banks and NBFIs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicated that the Bangladeshi banks’ level of automation towards green banking were satisfactory during the pandemic. Therefore, major policy implications for the green economic recovery by the government, BB, and managers of the banks and financial institutions in emerging economies like Bangladesh were discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0407.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: Attitude; Perceived Ease of Use; Perceived Usefulness; Facilitating Condition; Personal Innovativeness in IT; Mobile Banking; Generation Y.
Online: 27 March 2020 (11:22:34 CET)
The study investigates the determinants of mobile Internet banking adoption among Gen-Y in Malaysia. Align the issue of the study and research objectives, and the study underpinned Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the main guideline or a blueprint to analyze the research model. The study applied survey research design and analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) under the PLS-SEM technique with SmartPLS 2.0. A total of 358 mobile internet banking users in Malaysia were random proportional selected as respondents and analyzed. Results from the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) revealed that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, facilitating condition, and personal innovativeness in IT have significantly influenced the attitude of mobile internet banking adoption in Malaysia. Additionally, perceived ease of use and facilitating conditions found to have a significant influence on the perceived usefulness of Mobile Internet Banking. Lastly, facilitating conditions and personal innovativeness in IT are significantly influence the perceived ease of use of mobile internet banking among Gen-Y in Malaysia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial Institutions and Services; General; Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages; Investment Banking, Government Policy, and Regulation
Online: 5 May 2022 (11:14:25 CEST)
We have estimated the level of Risk Weighted Assets among 30 countries in Europe, in 30 trimesters, using data of the European Banking Authority-EBA of 139 variables. We perform an econometric model using Pooled OLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Weighted Least Squares. We found that Risk Weighted Assets is negatively associated, among others, to the level of NFC loans in mining and quarrying, in public administration and defence, and in financial and insurance activities and positively associated, among others to distribution of NFC loans in human health services and social work activities, in education and the level of net fee and commission income. Furthermore, we apply a cluster analysis with the k-Means algorithm, and we find the presence of two clusters. A comparison was then made between eight different machine learning algorithms for predicting the value of the RWAs and we found that the best predictor is the linear regression. The RWA value is predicted to increase by 1.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0105.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: chief executive officer; compensation; firm performance; Nigeria banking industry; chief executive officer compensation; firm size; return on asset
Online: 16 October 2017 (07:56:04 CEST)
This is a quantitative research based on secondary sources of data. The study examines the influence of Chief Executive Officer’s (CEO) compensation on a firm's performance. The objectives of the study were to determine if CEO compensation and firm size do significantly influence a firm’s performance. In other to elicit information to examine the relationship between the variables, the convenience sampling technique, with the combination of both the cross-sectional and time-series data (panel data) were used since they provide greater precision and guard against having an illusory sample. 10 banks quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange were sampled for easy accessibility of data. The least square regression technique was used to test the hypotheses of the study. Two hypotheses were tested using panel least square (EViews 8) and from the research work, we summarize the following results; there is a significant relationship between CEO compensation and firm performance in the Nigerian banking industry. In addition, firm size does significantly influence firm performance in the Nigerian banking industry. The study recommends that there should be proper compensation review as this will increase the productivity of the executives. Since increased pay is necessary for the efficiency of the workers, it is advised to ensure a considerable pay as this will ensure for efficiency in the organization. In addition, since the core goal of setting up any business is to make a profit, business organisations should sort out ways at maximising profit and this could include cutting down expenses such as cutting down excessive employees’ pay (CEOs pay especially) and setting apposite pay package for employees. Therefore, policymakers (board of directors) should make an effort to align CEO’s paywith the firm’s capability to pay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Modern Technology; Traditional Technology; Technology Renascence; E-Banking; Ecommerce; Education; Energy; Economy and Other E-Technologies; Artificial Intelligence; Business Intelligence
Online: 17 July 2020 (16:14:26 CEST)
Abstract: The human race has always innovated, and in a relatively short time went from building fires and making stone-tipped arrows to creating smartphone apps and autonomous robots. Today, technological progress will undoubtedly continue to change the way we work, live, and survive in the coming decades. Since the beginning of the new millennium, the world has witnessed the emergence of social media, smartphones, self-driving cars, and autonomous flying vehicles. There have also been huge leaps in energy storage, artificial intelligence, and medical science. We are facing immense challenges in global warming and food security, among many other issues. While human innovation has contributed to many of the problems we are facing, it is also human innovation and ingenuity that can help humanity deal with these issues “New directions in science are launched by new tools much more often than by new concepts. The effect of a concept-driven revolution is to explain old things in new ways. The effect of a tool-driven revolution is to discover new things that have to be explained”. (F. Dyson, 1997 In this article, we review the impact of technology as evolving at beginning of 21st Century on future prospect of Energy demand either renewable or non-renewable form, Economy, to Ecommerce, Education and any other E-related of Modern Technology.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Systemic risk; Systemically Important Firms(SIFs); Stock Price; Stock Price (Close); Stock Price (Open); Stock Price: Bid; Stock Price: Ask; Stock Price: Spread; Joint Probability of Distress(JPoD); Banking Stability Index (BSI); Co-Risk Model
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:40:33 CET)
The Estimation of systemic risk in India is still in its infancy stage. There are several methods which are available but none of the methods are fully compatible to forecast the systemic risk since under different circumstances the factors responsible for the risk differs. In this paper the systemic risk estimation in India being carried out based on spread in daily stock market price(Difference between the bid and ask price of a share) of the top 100 firms in India according to market capitalization for the period of July2007 to March 2016. The results were compared with the Financial Stability Report published by Reserve Bank Of India for the period of March 2010 to June 2016.The results clearly indicates that there exits relationship between market illiquidity represented by spread and risks associated with the Financial System. In most of the cases the Z score (deviation from the mean/Standard Deviation) of the spread has become negative which provides the spread which is farther from the mean, also a good indicator of volatility in market and risk to financial system. It is also seen that the Systemic Risk Survey conducted by Reserve Bank of India which started during October 2011 has supported the results.