ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0425.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: bovine tuberculosis; TB; attenuation; genomes; immunopathogenesis; SNPs
Online: 25 August 2022 (07:18:29 CEST)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant bovis (MBO) has one of the widest known mammalian host ranges, including humans. Despite characterization of this pathogen in the 1800s, and whole genome sequencing of a UK strain (AF2122) nearly two decades ago, the basis of its host specificity and pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recent experimental calf infection studies show that MBO strain Ravenel (MBO Ravenel) is attenuated in the cattle host. In the present study, experimental infections were performed to define attenuation and whole genome sequencing completed to identify regions of differences (RD) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain the observed attenuation. Comparative genomic analysis of MBO Ravenel against three pathogenic strains of MBO (strains AF2122-97, 10-7428 and 95-1315) was performed. Experimental infection studies on 5 calves each, with either MBO Ravenel or 95-1315, revealed no visible lesions in all 5 animals in the Ravenel group despite robust IFN-γ responses. Out of 486 polymorphisms in the present analysis, 173 were unique to MBO Ravenel among the strains compared. A high-confidence subset of 9 unique SNPs were missense mutations in genes with annotated functions impacting 2 major MBO survival and virulence pathways: 1) Cell wall synthesis & transport [espH (A103T), mmpL8 (V888I), aftB (H484Y), eccC5 (T507M), rpfB (E263G)], and 2) Lipid metabolism & respiration [mycP1(T125I), pks5 (G455S), fadD29 (N231S), fadE29 (V360G)]. These substitutions likely contribute to the observed attenuation. Results from experimental calf infections and the functional attributions of polymorphic loci on the genome of MBO Ravenel provide new insights into the strain’s genotype-disease phenotype associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: atmospheric propagation; communication system performance; attenuation; communication
Online: 29 July 2022 (11:15:18 CEST)
6G is already being planned and will employ much higher frequencies, leading to a revolutionary era in communication between people as well as things. It is well known that weather, especially rain, can cause increased attenuation of signal transmission for higher frequencies. The standard methods for evaluating the effect of rain on symbol error rate are based on long-term averaging. These methods are an inaccurate, which results with an inefficient system design. This is critical regarding bandwidth scarcity and energy consumption and requires a more significant margin of effort to cope with the imprecision. Recently we have developed a new and more precise method for calculating communication system performance in case of rain, using the probability density function of rain rate. For high rain rate (above 10mm/hr), for a typical set of parameters, our method shows the symbol error rate in this range to be higher by orders of magnitude than that found by ITU standard methods. Our model also indicates that sensing and measuring the rain rate probability is important in order to provide the required bit error rate to the users. To the best knowledge of the authors, this novel analysis is unique. It can constitute a more effi-cient performance metric for the new era of 6G communication and prevent disruption due to incorrect system design. Keywords: atmospheric propagation, communication system performance, attenuation, com-munication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0341.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cyanide attenuation, waste water, light irradiation, green chemistry
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:27:45 CEST)
Cyanides, though naturally occurring, are environmental pollutants when not treated properly. Some methods used to attenuate cyanides in waste waters from industrial processes are based simply on changing the physico-chemical properties of the waste water such as the pH and temperature. The effectiveness of these methods are based on hydrolysis of the cyanide and volatilization of the hydrogen cyanide formed. Another reaction which takes place simultaneously is ultraviolet-catalysed oxidation which converts the cyanide to bicarbonates and carbonates.The changes in the cyanide degradation rate approaches a minimum faster if the cyanide solution is maintained at a higher than ambient constant temperature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0521.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: acoustic metamaterials; Sound attenuation; Air ventilation; Acoustic resonance
Online: 27 July 2020 (11:51:22 CEST)
In the past two decades, acoustic metamaterials have garnered much attention owing to their unique functional characteristics, which is difficult to be found in naturally available materials. The acoustic metamaterials have demonstrated to exhibit excellent acoustical characteristics that paved a new pathway for researchers to develop effective solutions for a wide variety of multifunctional applications such as low-frequency sound attenuation, sound wave manipulation, energy harvesting, acoustic focusing, acoustic cloaking, biomedical acoustics, and topological acoustics. This review provides an update on the acoustic metamaterials' recent progress for simultaneous sound attenuation and air ventilation performances. Several variants of acoustic metamaterials, such as locally resonant structures, space-coiling, holey and labyrinthine metamaterials, and Fano resonant materials, are discussed briefly. Finally, the current challenges and future outlook in this emerging field is discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: weighted centroid; signal intensity; attenuation model; combined model
Online: 16 March 2018 (04:23:19 CET)
Aiming at the defects of low precision and time cumulative error, an external wireless signal weighted centroid localization algorithm aided inertial positioning method is designed in this paper. According to the signal strength of each anchor node received at the test point, the distance between the anchor node and the anchor node is obtained by using the attenuation model of the wireless signal. Three anchor nodes are used to measure the distance between the anchor node and the measured point. We can obtain the area to be measured according to the actual situation, the position of the measured point is obtained by the weighted centroid localization algorithm and a combined model of wireless signal aided inertial navigation system is established. The simulation results show that the method can greatly improve the positioning accuracy and restrain the divergence of the longitude error and latitude error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0477.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: rain cells; atmospheric attenuation; microwave radar; Ka-band; altimetry
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:32:59 CEST)
The impact of large atmospheric attenuation events on data quality and availability is a critical aspect for future altimetry missions based on Ka-band altimetry. The SARAL/AltiKa mission and its Ka-band nadir altimeter offer a unique opportunity to assess this impact. Previous publications (Tournadre et al. 2009, 2015) already analyzed the impact of rain on the waveforms at Ka-band and proposed a definition of an elaborate rain flag. This notion tends to give a simpler black and white view of the atmospheric attenuation when the effect on the altimeter measurement is intense. But in practice, there is continuum of measurements that may be partially distorted or corrupted by rain events. The present study proposes a wider point of view , the ACECAL approach providing statistics on rain cells occurrences as well as their amplitude and their size, as guidelines for future Ka-band missions concerning the impact of the atmosphere. At global scale, 1 % of the measurements are affected by an attenuation larger than 23 dB and 10 % of the atmospheric attenuation events have a size larger than 40 km. This study demonstrates that the data quality and availability over some regions of particular interest for oceanography as Gulf Stream, North Pacific and Brazil currents could be affected compared to global statistics. It also opens some perspectives on the benefits that the community could be drawn from the systematic distribution of the rain cells parameters as secondary products of altimetry missions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0323.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: scattering; heterogeneity; anisotropy; elastic waves; dispersion; attenuation; Mohorovičić discontinuity
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:01:02 CEST)
The geometry of mesoscopic inhomogeneities plays an important role in determining the macroscopic propagation behaviors of elastic waves in a heterogeneous medium. Non-equiaxed inhomogeneities can lead to anisotropic wave velocity and attenuation. Developing an accurate scattering theory to describe the quantitative relation between the microstructure features and wave propagation parameters is of fundamental importance for seismology and ultrasonic nondestructive characterization. This work presents a multiple scattering theory for strongly scattering elastic media with general tri-axial heterogeneities. A closed analytical expression of the shape-dependent singularity of the anisotropic Green’s tensor for the homogeneous reference medium is derived by introducing a proper non-orthogonal ellipsoidal coordinate. Renormalized Dyson’s equation for the coherent wave field is then derived with the help of Feynman’s diagram technique and the first-order-smoothing approximation. The exact dispersion curves and the inverse Q-factors of coherent waves in several representative medium models for the heterogeneous lithosphere are calculated numerically. Numerical results for small-scale heterogeneities with the aspect ratio varying from 1 to 7 show satisfactory agreement with those obtained from real earthquakes. The results for velocity dispersion give rise to a novel explanation to the formation mechanism of different seismic phases. The new model has potential applications in seismology and ultrasonic microstructure characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: dolomite; dissolution rate; time scale; quantitative analysis; microstructure; intensity attenuation
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:39:33 CEST)
Dolomite is a common type of natural soluble rock. The strength of rock decreases under the action of corrosion, which has a significant impact on the self-stability and long-term safety of the tunnel surrounding the rock. To reveal the microscopic structure evolution and strength-damage law of carbonate rock caused by corrosion, chemical corrosion, rock uniaxial compression, and electron microscope scanning tests are conducted at different pH values on the dolomite of the Doushantuo Formation. The rock dissolution at different pH values exhibits four typical stages: the initial dissolution stage, secondary dissolution acceleration stage, stable dissolution rate stage, and dissolution attenuation stage. During the dissolution process, the initial dissolution rate is 25.91 times that of the stable stage, and the maximum strength attenuation is 76.2% after 21 days of dissolution. For macroscopic failure, the rock is developed from 1 to 2 external fractures to multiple internal and external fractures and penetrated, and the specimen transforms from brittle to flexible. For microstructure, the sample exhibits corrosion characteristics along the joint surface, intensified corrosion at the edge, etc. The porosity increase rate is 0.6%/d; however, the length–width ratio of the pores is maintained at 1.7–1.85, indicating that the development rate of pores in different directions is similar. The results of this study have enriched the study of the dolomite dissolution mechanism and have important reference value for the stability evaluation of tunnel surrounding rock in karst environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0013.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: sea water; bubbles; plankton; sound scattering; sound attenuation; acoustic spectroscopy
Online: 4 May 2022 (14:16:08 CEST)
The presence of bubbles near the sea surface under certain conditions leads to abnormal sound scattering and a significant change in the acoustic properties of the upper layer of the sea. The article presents some results of sound scattering studies under various sea conditions, up to stormy conditions, when extensive bubble clouds arise. By the method of unsteady acoustic spectroscopy, data on the size distribution of bubbles at various depths have been obtained, which can be described by a power function with exponential decay at small bubble sizes of the order of 10 microns. Estimates of the gas content in bubble clouds and their influence on the acoustic characteristics of the upper layer of the sea have been carried out. It is shown that at sufficiently high concentrations, sharp increases in absorption and dispersion of the sound velocity are observed. Modeling of sound propagation in the presence of a quasi-homogeneous bubble layer shows that it leads both to a change in the laws of the average decay of the sound field along the sound propagation path and to a change in the shallow spatial structure of the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0317.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: scattering; elastic waves; porous materials; dispersion; attenuation; Mohorovičić discontinuity; seismology
Online: 28 July 2019 (15:18:25 CEST)
Scattering of elastic waves in heterogeneous media has become one of the most important problems in the field of wave propagation due to its broad applications in seismology, natural resource exploration, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and biomedical ultrasound. Nevertheless, it is one of the most challenging problems because of the complicated medium inhomogeneity and the complexity of the elastodynamic equations. A widely accepted model for the propagation and scattering of elastic waves, which properly incorporates the multiple scattering phenomenon and the statistical information of the inhomogeneities is still missing. In this work, the author developed a multiple scattering model for heterogeneous elastic continua with strong property fluctuation and obtained the exact solution to the dispersion equation under the first-order smoothing approximation. The model establishes an accurate quantitative relation between the microstructural properties and the coherent wave propagation parameters and can be used for characterization or inversion of microstructures. Starting from the elastodynamic differential equations, a system of integral equation for the Green functions of the heterogeneous medium was developed by using Green’s functions of a homogeneous reference medium. After properly eliminating the singularity of the Green tensor and introducing a new set of renormalized field variables, the original integral equation is reformulated into a system of renormalized integral equations. Dyson’s equation and its first-order smoothing approximation, describing the ensemble averaged response of the heterogeneous system, are then derived with the aid of Feynman’s diagram technique. The dispersion equations for the longitudinal and transverse coherent waves are then obtained by applying Fourier transform to the Dyson equation. The exact solution to the dispersion equations are obtained numerically. To validate the new model, the results for weak-property-fluctuation materials are compared to the predictions given by an improved weak-fluctuation multiple scattering theory. It is shown that the new model is capable of giving a more robust and accurate prediction of the dispersion behavior of weak-property-fluctuation materials. Numerical results further show that the new model is still able to provide accurate results for strong-property-fluctuation materials while the weak-fluctuation model is completely failed. As applications of the new model, dispersion and attenuation curves for coherent waves in the Earth’s lithosphere, the porous and two-phase alloys, and human cortical bone are calculated. Detailed analysis shows the model can capture the major dispersion and attenuation characteristics, such as the longitudinal and transverse wave Q-factors and their ratios, existence of two propagation modes, anomalous negative dispersion, nonlinear attenuation-frequency relation, and even the disappearance of coherent waves. Additionally, it helps gain new insights into a series of longstanding problems, such as the dominant mechanism of seismic attenuation and the existence of the Mohorovičić discontinuity. This work provides a general and accurate theoretical framework for quantitative characterization of microstructures in a broad spectrum of heterogeneous materials and it is anticipated to have vital applications in seismology, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and biomedical ultrasound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0045.v1
Subject: Keywords: longitudinal sound wave; electric field; electrons; kinetic equation; sound attenuation
Online: 8 March 2017 (05:27:52 CET)
In the present work the problem of the attenuation of longitudinal sound oscillations in a conducting medium are considered. The proposed approach is based on the dynamic interaction of electron gas with the lattice vibrations. This interaction is manifested in the modification of kinetic equation for electrons. The process is accompanied by generation of an electric field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0010.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: millimeter-wavelength cloud radar; attenuation correction; dual-radar; data fusion
Online: 1 November 2016 (10:05:18 CET)
In order to correct attenuated millimeter-wavelength (Ka-band) radar data and address the problem of instability, an attenuation correction methodology (attenuation correction with variation trend constraint; VTC) was developed. Using synchronous observation conditions and multi-band radars, the VTC method adopts the variation trends of reflectivity in X-band radar data captured with wavelet transform as a constraint to adjust reflectivity factors of millimeter-wavelength radar. The correction was evaluated by comparing reflectivities obtained by millimeter-wavelength cloud radar and X-band weather radar. Experiments showed that attenuation was a major contributory factor in the different reflectivities of the two radars when relatively intense echoes exist, and the attenuation correction developed in this study significantly improved data quality for millimeter-wavelength radar. Reflectivity differences between the two radars were reduced and reflectivity correlations were enhanced. Errors caused by attenuation were eliminated, while variation details in the reflectivity factors were retained. The VTC method is superior to the bin-by-bin method in terms of correction amplitude and can be used for attenuation correction of shorter wavelength radar assisted by longer wavelength radar data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar power interpolation; solar power attenuation; spatial autocorrelation; semi-variograms; geosatistics
Online: 7 December 2018 (03:55:55 CET)
To reduce solar power production invariance, it is critical to study varying patterns of power production in the concerned region. Analyzing the patterns of past power production trends can help simulate power production scenarios for future. The current study area is around Amsterdam, located in Netherlands. PVoutput.org website is used to mine 6 months of solar power production data for 120 stations around Amsterdam city. FME Workbench software is used to actively fetch the data from the mentioned website and manage in a MySQL database. Solar attenuation maps created using ArcGIS, helped to graphically visualize the variations in solar power production at different times and locations. Further, spatial autocorrelation is checked between the stations using semi-variograms in geostatistical tool of ArcMap. This feature allows to check whether the stations located close to each other are more correlated to each other rather than stations which are far apart. The statistical data analysis of power production can aid solar power production companies to better interpolate and predict solar power in advance for the concerned study region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0132.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: formal semantics; quality attenuation; distributed systems; system design; scalability; performance; feasibility; blockchain; ΔQ.
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:43:32 CET)
This paper directly addresses a long-standing issue that affects the development of many complex distributed software systems: how to establish quickly, cheaply, and reliably whether they can deliver their intended performance before expending significant time, effort and money on detailed design and implementation. We describe ∆QSD, a novel metrics-based and quality-centric paradigm that uses formalised outcome diagrams to explore the performance consequences of design decisions, as a performance blueprint of the system. The distinctive feature of outcome diagrams is that they capture the essential observational properties of the system, independent of the details of system structure and behaviour. The ∆QSD paradigm derives bounds on performance expressed as probability distributions encompassing all possible executions of the system. The ∆QSD paradigm is both effective and generic: it allows values from various sources to be combined in a rigorous way, so that approximate results can be obtained quickly and subsequently refined. ∆QSD has been successfully used by Predictable Network Solutions for consultancy on large-scale applications in a number of industries, including telecommunications, avionics, and space and defence, resulting in cumulative savings worth billions of US dollars. The paper outlines the ∆QSD paradigm, describes its formal underpinnings, and illustrates its use via a topical real-world example taken from the blockchain/cryptocurrency domain. ∆QSD has enabled challenging throughput targets to be met for a globally distributed blockchain operating on the public internet.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Classical Test Theory; Classical True-Score Theory; Correction for Attenuation; Partial Correlation Coefficient
Online: 25 December 2020 (12:17:02 CET)
Bohrnstedt’s (1969) attempt to derive a formula to compute the partial correlation coefficient and simultaneously correct for attenuation sought to simplify the process of performing each task separately. He suggested that his formula, developed from algebraic and psychometric manipulations of the partial correlation coefficient, produces a corrected partial correlation value. However, an algebraic error exists within his derivations. Consequently, the formula proposed by Bohrnstedt does not appropriately represent the value he intended it to estimate. By correcting the erroneous step and continuing the derivation based upon his proposed procedure, the steps outlined in this paper ultimately produce the formula that Bohrnstedt desired.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: hybrid energy storage system; L2-gain disturbance attenuation; passivity-based control; port-controlled Hamiltonian model
Online: 16 April 2020 (06:36:09 CEST)
Battery/Supercapacitor(SC) current tracking control is a key issue for hybrid energy storage system (HESS) in electric vehicles. An innovative passivity-based L2-gain adaptive control (PBL2AC) based on port-controlled Hamiltonian model with dissipativity (PCHD) for reference current tracking and bus voltage stability in HESS is presented. The developed PCHD model has considered both parameter variations and external disturbances. By using L2-gain disturbance attenuation, the PBL2AC ensures robust reference current tracking and stable bus voltage. Moreover, adaptive mechanism is adopted to estimate the electrical parameters. To validate the proposed control scheme for HESS, simulations and experiments were done and compared with traditional PID and sliding mode control under several typical driving cycles, and results show that the effectiveness of the proposed controller can be confirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0139.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: li-rich layered oxide; cathode materials; voltage attenuation; lithium-ion batteries; solid-state complexation method
Online: 10 December 2019 (15:51:04 CET)
Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials have become one of the most promising cathode materials for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries owning to its high theoretical specific capacity, low cost, high operating voltage and environmental friendliness. Yet they suffer from severe capacity and voltage attenuation during prolong cycling, which blocks their commercial application. To clarify these causes, we synthesize 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (LL-811) with high-nickel-content cathode material by a solid-sate complexation method, and it manifests a lot slower capacity and voltage attenuation during prolong cycling compared to LL-111 and LL-523 cathode materials. The capacity retention at 1C after 100 cycles reaches to 87.5% and the voltage attenuation after 100 cycles is only 0.460 V. Combining X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it indicates that increasing the nickel content not only stabilizes the structure but also alleviates the attenuation of capacity and voltage. Therefore, it provides a new idea for designing of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials that suppress voltage and capacity attenuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0031.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Satellite Communication; Signal Propagation; Rain Attenuation; Urban area ground station; SNR, ITU-R; LSTM, Neural network
Online: 2 December 2021 (11:18:57 CET)
Free-space communication is a leading component in global communications. Its advantages relate to a broader signal spread, no wiring, and ease of engagement. Satellite communication services became recently attractive to mega-companies that foresee an excellent opportunity to connect disconnected remote regions, serve emerging machine-to-machine communication, Internet-of-things connectivity, and more. Satellite communication links suffer from arbitrary weather phenomena such as clouds, rain, snow, fog, and dust. In addition, when signals approach the ground station, it has to overcome buildings blocking the direct access to the ground station. Therefore, satellites commonly use redundant signal strength to ensure constant and continuous signal transmission, resulting in excess energy consumption, challenging the limited power capacity generated by solar energy or the fixed amount of fuel. This research proposes LTSM, an artificial recurrent neural network technology that provides a time-dependent prediction of the expected attenuation level due to rain and fog and the signal strength that remained after crossing physical obstacles surrounding the ground station. The satellite transmitter is calibrated accordingly. The satellite outgoing signal strength is based on the predicted signal strength to ensure it will remain strong enough for the ground station to process it. The instant calibration eliminates the excess use of energy resulting in energy savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0267.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Scanning acoustic microscopy; speed of sound; attenuation of sound; anticancer drugs; tannic acid; acetic acid; microwave; Computer Imaging
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:25:34 CET)
Cells receive external stimuli to incur structural and functional damages. On scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), speed-of-sound (SOS), attenuation-of-sound (AOS), and thickness values are plotted on the screen to create cellular images, which are related to stiffness, viscosity, and cell size, respectively. The obtained digital data compared using statistical analysis. We aimed to investigate the effects of anticancer drugs, acidic fluids, and heat effects on the cells by using SAM. Anticancer drug cisplatin induced cancer cell apoptosis/necrosis and regeneration in culture, causing elevated SOS, reduced AOS, and thickness. During a more prolonged incubation, the SAM values fluctuated differently between the cisplatin-treated and untreated cells. The tannic and acetic acid and microwave stimuli induced SOS and AOS elevations. These stimuli altered the cell size, number, differentiation, viscosity, and stiffness, which corresponded well to the fluctuation of the SOS and AOS values after incubation. Different anticancer drugs interacted with cancer cells to induce the characteristic alterations of the SAM values. These structural and mechanical alterations induced in cells was difficult to observe on light microscopy. Cellular damages were statistically compared between different stimuli and time-lapse cellular changes were observed using a SAM analysis. SAM is a useful modality to evaluate cellular damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: remote sensing; attenuation coefficient; ratio method; soil line; bottom reflectance; shallow substrate; satellite derived bathymetry; water column correction; bottom typing
Online: 6 June 2017 (06:33:27 CEST)
All empirical water column correction methods have consistently been reported to require existing depth sounding data for the purpose of calibrating a simple depth retrieval model; they yield poor results over very bright or very dark bottoms. In contrast, we set out to (i) use only the relative radiance data in the image along with published data, and several new assumptions, (ii) in order to specify and operate the simplified radiative transfer equation (RTE), (iii) for the purpose of retrieving both the satellite derived bathymetry (SDB) and the water column corrected spectral reflectance over shallow seabeds. Sea truth regressions show that SDB depths retrieved by the method only need tide correction. Therefore it shall be demonstrated that, under such new assumptions, there is no need (i) for formal atmospheric correction, (ii) nor for conversion of relative radiance into calibrated reflectance , (iii) nor for existing depth sounding data, to specify the simplified RTE and produce both SDB and spectral water column corrected radiance ready for bottom typing. Moreover, the use of the panchromatic band for that purpose is introduced. Altogether, we named this process the Self-Calibrated Supervised Spectral Shallow-sea Modeler (4SM). This approach requires a trained practitioner, though, to produce its results within hours of downloading the raw image. The ideal raw image should be a “near-nadir” view, exhibit homogeneous atmosphere and water column, include some coverage of optically deep waters and bare land, and lend itself to quality removal of haze, atmospheric adjacency effect, and sun/sky glint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0377.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: spherical transmittance; plane transmittance; diffuse attenuation coefficient; spherical albedo; plane albedo; diffusion exponent; average cosine of the light field; IPOL; MDOM; SORD
Online: 20 July 2018 (05:54:38 CEST)
The transmission of light is one of the key optical processes in the terrestrial environment (the atmosphere and underlying surfaces). The dependence of light transmittance on the illumination/observation conditions and optical properties of the atmosphere–underlying system can be studied using the integro-differential radiative transfer equation. However, for numerous applications a set of analytical equations is needed to describe the transmitted light intensity and flux. In this paper, we describe various analytical techniques to study light transmittance through light scattering and absorbing media. A physical significance and improved mathematical accuracy of approximations are provided using the analytical models for the diffusion exponent, average cosine of the light field, spherical and plane albedos. The accuracy of various approximations is studied using exact radiative transfer calculations with various scattering phase functions, single-scattering albedos, observational conditions, and optical depths.