ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0274.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy performance contracting; trust; annual energy saving quantity; annual cost saving; investment
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:14:51 CEST)
A lack of trust in Energy Service Company (ESCo) is the most critical factor affecting the development of Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) in China compared with other constraints. One cannot easily estimate the energy-saving performance of an EPC project. Under that condition, lack of trust may cause the Energy-Consuming Unit (ECU) to suspect the energy-saving performance promised by the ESCo, thus leaving potentially profitable projects without necessary funding. Currently, specific studies taking an across-projects viewpoint on annual energy-saving performance of EPC projects in multiple subsectors objectively and quantitatively are lacking. This paper studies the regression relationships of annual energy-saving quantity in terms of revamping cost and the regression relationships of annual cost saving in terms of revamping cost. The regression results show that there are statistically significant correlations in the above relationships in the nine subsectors investigated. This is significant for ESCos and ECUs because knowledge on energy-saving performance could contribute to EPC investment decisions and trust relationships between ESCos and ECUs. Then a multiple linear regression model of revamping cost is set up to analyze its influencing factors. The model indicates that the subsector the sample belongs to, financing, registered capital of the ESCo, and contract period have significant effects on revamping cost. Thus, policy implications regarding innovation of EE promotion technology, clarifying ESCos’ exit mechanism, innovation of financing mechanism, and improving the market credit environment for promoting investment in EPC projects are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0177.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: quasi-stationary wave; stratosphere; mesosphere; westward phase tilt; geopotential height; ozone; annual and semi-annual oscillation
Online: 14 February 2022 (14:05:03 CET)
The purpose of this work is to study quasi-stationary wave structure in the mid-latitude stratosphere and mesosphere (40–50°N) and its role in the formation of the annual ozone cycle. Geopotential height and ozone from Aura MLS data are used and winter climatology for January–February 2011–2020 is considered. More closely examined is the 10-degree longitude segment centered on Longfengshan Brewer station, China, and located in the region of the Aleutian Low influence associated with the quasi-stationary zonal maximum of total ozone. Annual and semi-annual oscillations in ozone were compared using units of ozone volume mixing ratio and concentration, as well as changes in ozone peak altitude and in time series of ozone at individual pressure levels between 316 hPa (9 km) and 0.001 hPa (96 km). The ozone maximum in the vertical profile is higher in volume mixing ratio (VMR) values than in concentration by about 15 km (5 km) in the stratosphere (mesosphere), in consistency with some previous studies. We found that the properties of the annual cycle are better resolved in the altitude range of the main ozone maximum: middle–upper stratosphere in VMR and lower stratosphere in concentration. Both approaches reveal SAO/AO-related changes in the of ozone peak altitudes in a range of 4–6 km during the year. In the lower-stratospheric ozone of the Longfengshan domain, an earlier development of the annual cycle takes place with a maximum in February and a minimum in August compared to spring and autumn, respectively, in zonal means. This is presumably due to the higher rate of dynamical ozone accumulation in the region of the quasi-stationary zonal ozone maximum. The “no-annual-cycle” transition layers are found in the stratosphere and mesosphere. These layers with undisturbed ozone volume mixing ratio throughout the year are of interest for more detailed future study.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: rational decisions; resilience; coping strategies; annual flood
Online: 20 May 2019 (12:10:26 CEST)
A rational decision is a systematic and logical way of making a resolution. It is needed in critical situation, especially the unavoidable ones such as annual floods. People affected by this natural disaster, continue living their lives if good rational decisions are made. The current research consists of two studies. The first identifies rational decisions based on age, education, socio-economic and gender, while the second is based on decisions associated with resilience, coping strategies and age. A total number of 354 participants from various cities in East Java were used as participants of the study. The results in the first study, 58% of the people made good rational decisions, with the remaining 42% making low decisions. Furthermore, education was found to significantly influence the decision making process. The second study found a significant relationship between the resilience, coping strategies, age with the rational decisions. Conclusion of the study will be used make better decisions for the community in order to minimize physical and psychological impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: annual cyckle; complex EOFs; statistical analysis; South China Sea
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:11:52 CEST)
We present a method to study the interannual variability of the annual cycle. The method consists of first determining the amplitude and phase of segments of 12 monthly means at all spatial points, resulting in one complex number per grid point and per year. The complex fields, once per year, are then subject to a complex EOF (CEOF) analysis. We consider as an example the barotropic stream function in the South China Sea as simulated with an ocean general circulation model across 6 decades of years, driven my realistic (NCEP) weather forcing. We find 3 to 4 to “significant” CEOFs, which account for about 53 to 62% of variance. These CEOFs go with large-scale patterns. Their time coefficients are mostly stationary, but point to some inhomogeneities related to instationarities in the forcing. In particular, the simulation since 1950-1958 deviates from the remainder of the simulation. The first CEOF describes variations in the center of the South China Sea. Its principal component describes a systematic, albeit noisy shift by almost 180o from 1960 to about the year 2000. When overlaid the long-term mean annual mean, the overall change consists of an amplification of the annual cycle in the 1960s and 1990s, whereas In the 1970s, the amplitude was reduced. Phase shifts in the anomaly (given by the CEOFs) have a small effect, because of the dominance of the mean annual cycle. These variations are not related to ENSO variability but may origin in variations of the Southeast monsoon. The second EOF represents strong changes, both in terms of intensity and phase, in the Luzon strait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0535.v1
Subject: Keywords: annual weeds; conservation agriculture; perennial weeds; reduced tillage; weed seedbank
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:35:27 CET)
When farmers first shift from conventional tillage (CT) to conservation agriculture (CA) practice the control of weeds may be more difficult due to the absence of tillage. However, in the longer term (3-5 years), CA changes to weed dynamics may alter the weed seedbank. The nature of weed seedbank changes over time in intensively cropped rice-based rotations, that are typical of the Eastern Gangetic Plain, are not well understood. Three long term CA experiments were sampled (at Rajbari after 3 years and Rajshahi after 5 years) for effects of decreased soil disturbance strip planting (SP) and bed planting (BP) at both sites and Zero tillage (ZT) at Rajbari, increased retention of standing residues of previous crops (20 vs 50 %). The weed seedbank in 0-15 cm soil was quantified by assessing emergence from trays a net-house experiment during January-December 2016. The year-round count of emerged weeds revealed the fewest number of weed species (especially broadleaf weeds) and lowest weed density in SP followed by CT, BP, and ZT with 50% crop residues. The SP, BP, and ZT produced a higher number of perennials weeds than annual weeds, which was the opposite of CT. The continuous practice of SP and increased crop residue retention for 3 or more years decreased the size of weed seedbank but increased the relative proliferation of perennial weeds compared to CT. Weed seedbank size in SP was even smaller than BP and ZT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0302.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: annual linear extension; calcification; coral reefs; environmental gradients; growth; turbidity
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:13:20 CEST)
Pronounced differences exist in the biodiversity and structure of coral reef assemblages with increasing distance from shore, which may be expected given marked cross-shelf gradients in environmental conditions. Cross-shelf variation in the abundance of coral reef organisms is likely to be caused, at least in part, by differences in demography (e.g., growth and survival), though this has rarely been tested. This study quantified growth of three distinct coral taxa (Acropora nasuta, Pocillopora spp., and Stylophora pistillata) at 6 sites on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR), encompassing inshore, mid-shelf and outer-shelf reefs. Replicate colonies (up to 15 colonies per species, per reef) were stained using Alizarin red in December 2015 and retrieved 1-year later to quantify linear extension on replicate branches for each colony. Annual linear extension varied within and among coral taxa, with pronounced differences among reefs. For A. nausta. and S. pistillata, growth rates were highest at Orpheus Island, which is an inner shelf reef. However, inter-reef differences in coral growth were not explained by shelf position. Based on differences in skeletal density, which did vary according to shelf position, branching corals at the inshore sites may actually have higher rates of calcification compared to conspecifics on mid- and outer-shelf reefs. This study shows that growth of branching corals is not lower at inshore sites (and perhaps even higher) compared to sites at mid-shelf and outer reefs, despite generally higher levels of sedimentation and turbidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0222.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: West Africa; rainfall; annual cycle; CMIP5 models; onset; cessation; extremes; uncertainties
Online: 17 December 2019 (07:50:02 CET)
This study analyses uncertainties associated with the main features of the annual cycle of West African rainfall (amplitude, timing, duration) in 15 CMIP5 simulations over the Sahelian and Guinean regions with satellite daily precipitation estimates. The annual cycle of indices based on daily rainfall such as the frequency and the intensity of wet days, the consecutive dry (CDD) and wet days (CWD), the 95th percentile of daily rainfall (R95) have been assessed. Over both regions, satellite datasets provide more consistent results on the annual cycle of monthly precipitation than on higher-frequency rainfall indices, especially over the Guinean region. CMIP5 simulations display much higher uncertainties in both the mean precipitation climatology and higher-frequency indices. Over both regions, most of them overestimate the frequency of wet days. Over the Guinean region, the difficulty of models to represent the bimodality of the annual cycle of precipitation involves systematic biases the frequency of wet days. Likewise, we found strong uncertainties in the simulation of the CWD and the CDD over both areas. Finally, models generally provide too early (late) onset dates over the Sahel (the Guinean region) and overestimate rainfall during the early and late monsoon phases. These errors are strongly coupled errors in the latitudinal position of the ITCZ and do not compensate at the annual scale nor when considering West Africa as a whole. wet days. We found strong uncertainties in the simulation of the CWD and he CDD over both areas. Conversely for R95p and R95PTOT, the ncertainties in CMIP5 models appear somewhat weaker, but the magnitude f R95 is largely underestimated in most models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0007.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: West Africa; rainfall; annual cycle; CMIP5 models; onset; cessation; extremes; uncertainties
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:44:32 CEST)
This study analyses uncertainties associated with the annual cycle of West African rainfall characteristics in 15 simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) over the Sahel and Guinean regions. Indices based on daily rainfall such as the frequency and the ntensity of wet days, the consecutive dry days (CDD) and wet days (CWD), the 95th percentile of daily rainfall (R95) and its contribution to the umulative monsoon rainfall (R95PTOT) have been assessed. Over both regions, TRMM, GPCP and CHIRPS observational datasets provide very consistent results on the annual cycle of precipitation but less so on the frequency of wet days. Conversely, higher uncertainties are noted on the intensity of wet days over both study areas, particularly over the Guinean region. Overall, CMIP5 simulations present much higher uncertainties in the representation of the mean precipitation climatology, often provide too early (late) onset dates over the Sahel (the Guinean region) and overestimate rainfall during the early and late monsoon phases. These errors do not compensate at the annual scale nor when considering West Africa as a hole. Results also reveal that over the Guinean region, the difficulty of models to represent the annual structure of the mean precipitation strongly involves biases in the representation of the annual cycle of the frequency of wet days. We found strong uncertainties in the simulation of the CWD and he CDD over both areas. Conversely for R95 and R95PTOT, the ncertainties in CMIP5 models appear somewhat weaker, but the magnitude of R95 is largely underestimated in most models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0158.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: dust aerosol; Central Asia; remote sensing; seasonal variation; inter-annual variability
Online: 11 June 2018 (12:07:29 CEST)
Several long-term monitoring of aerosol datasets from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board Terra/Aqua, Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) are used to derive the dust aerosol optical depth (DOD) in Central Asia based on the Angstrom exponent parameter and/or the particle shape. All sensors agree very well on the interannual variability of DOD. The seasonal analysis of DOD and dust occurrences identified the largest dust loading and the most frequent dust occurrence in the spring and summer, respectively. No significant trend is found during the research period in terms of both DOD and the dust occurrence. Further analysis of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) aerosol products on a case-by-case basis in most dust months of 2007 suggested that the vertical structure is varying in terms of the extension and the dust loading from one event to another, although dust particles of most episodes have similar physical characteristics (the particle shape and size). Our analysis on the vertical structure of dust plumes, the layer-integrated color ratio and depolarization ratio indicates a varied climate effect (e.g., the direct radiative impact) by mineral dust, dependent on the event being observed in Central Asia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: agroecosystem; urban ecology; perennial and annual flowers; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant properties; biological activity
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:14:24 CEST)
Flowers have always accompanied people thanks to their manifold aesthetic properties. Some species have also become a component of human diet. Recent years have seen an increased interest in edible flowers and, consequently, research has been undertaken to determine their chemical composition. Dyes abundantly contained in flowers, whose role is to attract pollinating animals, are recognized substances with health promoting properties. Anthocyanins are a group of dyes that is very common in petals and other parts of flowers. Studies carried out in the twentieth and twenty-first century have found very strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of anthocyanins. Therefore, flowers used by humans for centuries to decorate their surroundings may become an easily available source of nutrients and health-promoting substances. This paper discusses the health-promoting properties of anthocyanins and collects literature on anthocyanin content in edible flowers commonly grown on balconies, terraces and roofs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0363.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Annual Maximum Series; Peak Over Threshold; uncertainty interval; flood parameters; compactness coefficient; flood shape
Online: 13 May 2021 (12:42:08 CEST)
The design flood concept (DF) provides for an essential tool in designing the hydraulic works, in defining the reservoir operation programs and for a reliable flood hazard identification. Under a simplified approach, the maximum discharge and the floods volume are statistically processed to reasonably define the DF. Yet, the integral hydrograph provides additional key temporal and quantitative details of important significance for flood management and particularly for the res-ervoirs operation and associated risks of failures. The procedure presented in this paper (as applied on a set of compatibly shaped hydrographs) involves the following key stages: (i) normalize the floods, (ii) define similar flood shape classes and (iii) evaluate the average dimensionless flood (ADF) for each class. The ADFs are finally transformed into a set of (DF)s. Many statistical distributions approximate acceptably the frequent values of the maximum discharges or the flood volumes, yet displaying a significant spread for medium or rare probabilities of exceedance (PE). This scattering, which can be explained by the epistemic uncertainty, defines an area of uncertainty both for measured and extrapolated values. In considering upper and lower values of the uncertainty in-tervals as limits for maximum discharges and flood volumes, then by combining them compatibly, a set of DFs - as completely defined hydrographs, with different shapes - results for each PE. The herein proposed procedure defines both one peak DF and multi-peaks DF. Subsequently, such DFs do assist water managers in examining and establishing tailored approaches for a variety of input hydrographs. Among the DFs that would correspond to a same PE, the most compact floods arise a special interest, for they are basic in defining the set of safe operation rules for hydraulic structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate social responsibility; environment; employment; R&D; annual reports; financial and non-financial statements; competition.
Online: 8 November 2018 (12:06:32 CET)
The commitment of the EU to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is projected in the EU law about annual reporting by businesses. Since EU member states further develop this framework by their own domestic laws, annual reporting with CSR information is not unified and just partially mandatory in the EU. Do all European businesses report CSR information and what public declaration to society do they provide with it? The main dual purpose of this paper is identifying the parameters of this annual reporting duty and studying the CSR information provided by the ten largest Czech companies in their annual statements for 2013-2017. Based on legislative research and the teleological interpretation, the current EU legislative framework with Czech particularities is presented and, via a case study exploring 50 annual reports, the data about the type, extent and depth of the CSR is dynamically and comparatively assessed. It appears that, at a minimum, large Czech businesses satisfy their legal duty and e-report on CSR in a similar extent, but in dramatically different quality. Employee matters and adherence to international standards are used as a public declaration to society more than the data on environmental protection, while social matters and R&D are played down.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0271.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building integrated photovoltaics; annual daylight simulation; reflection; RADIANCE; photon mapping; BSDF; HDR; image processing; feature detection
Online: 31 July 2018 (08:34:37 CEST)
With the increasing adoption of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), concerns arise about potential glare. While recommended criteria to assess glare exist, it is challenging to apply these in the spatial and temporal domains and communicate the complex data to planning authorities and clients. This paper presents a new computational workflow using annual daylight simulation, material modelling using bi-directional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) and image-based postprocessing to obtain 3-dimensional renderings of cumulative annual irradiance and glare duration on the built environment. The annual daylight simulation considers relevant sun positions in high temporal resolution (15-minute timesteps) and measured BSDFs to model different PV materials. The postprocessing includes a relative irradiance visualisation comparing the impact of a proposed PV proportional to a reference material. It also includes a new spatio-temporal workflow to assess the glare duration based on recommended thresholds. This workflow is demonstrated with a case study of a proposed PV roof for a church, assessing the glare potential of two different PV materials. The visualisations indicate glare durations well below the thresholds with satinated PVs, and in noncritical zones outside observer positions with standard PVs. Thus the proposed PV roof does not cause any disturbing glare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0216.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: tidal power density; in-stream renewable energy; peak spring tide flow; annual energy production; Gulf of California
Online: 24 February 2020 (03:14:28 CET)
We analyzed the peak spring tidal current speeds, annual mean tidal power densities (TPD) and annual energy production (AEP) obtained from experiment 06.1, referred as the "HYCOM model" throughout, of the three dimensional (3D), global model HYCOM in an area covering the Baja California Pacific and the Gulf of California. The HYCOM model is forced with astronomical tides and surface winds alone, and therefore is particularly suitable to assess the tidal current and wind-driven current contribution to in-stream energy resources. We find two areas within the Gulf of California, one in the Great Island Region and one in the Upper Gulf of California, where peak spring tidal flows reach speeds of 1.1 meters per second. Second to fifth-generation tidal stream devices would be suitable for deployment in these two areas, which are very similar in terms of tidal in-stream energy resources. However, they are also very different in terms of sediment type and range in water depth, posing different challenges for in-stream technologies. The highest mean TPD value when excluding TPDs equal or less than 50 W/m2 (corresponding to the minimum velocity threshold for energy production) is of 172.8 W/m2, and is found near the town of San Felipe, at (lat lon) = (31.006 -114.64); here energy would be produced during 39.00% of the time. Finally, wind-driven currents contribute very little to the mean TPD and the total AEP. Therefore, the device, the grid, and any energy storage plans need to take into account the periodic tidal current fluctuations, for optimal exploitation of the resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0603.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: regional flood frequency analysis; flood-related attribute; region of influence; flood region revision process; Canadian annual maximum flow
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:12:32 CEST)
The identification of homogeneous flood regions is essential for regional flood frequency analysis. Despite the type of regionalization framework considered (e.g., region of influence or hierarchical clustering), selecting flood-related attributes to reflect flood generating mechanisms is required to discriminate flood regimes among catchments. To understand how different attributes perform across Canada for identifying homogeneous regions, this study examines five distinctive attributes (i.e., geographical proximity, flood seasonality, physiographic variables, monthly precipitation pattern, and monthly temperature pattern) for their ability to identify homogeneous regions at 186 gauging sites. We add an automatic component to enhance identification of homogeneous regions is proposed as an addition to the region of influence framework. Results are presented spatially for Canada to assess patterning of homogeneous regions. Memberships of two selected regions are investigated to provide insight into membership characteristics. Sites in eastern Canada are highly likely to identify homogeneous flood regions, while the western prairie and mountainous regions are not. Overall, it is revealed that the success of identifying homogeneous region is relevant to local hydrological complexities, to whether considered attribute reflects primary flooding mechanism, and to whether catchment sites are clustered in small geographic region. Formation of effective pooling groups affords the extension of record lengths across the Canadian domain (where gauges typically have <50 years of record), facilitating more comprehensive analysis of higher return periods floods need for climate change assessment.