REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0343.v1
Online: 27 June 2022 (03:18:28 CEST)
Adolescence represents a critical period for the programming of future adult behaviours. Neurogenesis is particularly active during adolescence, with increased number of granule cells and increased hippocampal volume both in animals and humans. Among the factors which can affect neurogenesis during adolescence, stress is considered a major one. Indeed, adolescence is known to be a particularly stressful period in life, with some adolescents suffering from mood disorders and anxiety. While there is increasing interest on the neurogenic changes occurring during the adolescent period, evidence is sparse. We conducted a systematic review summarising changes in hippocampal neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions and behavioural outcomes in stress-induced adolescent animal models of depression, and investigating long-term stress effects on the same outcomes assessing the same animals in adulthood. Overall, the results show a significant reduction in hippocampal cell proliferation, and a concomitant increase in depressive-like behaviours in adolescent animals exposed to stress challenges, however reduction in the number of surviving neurons was accompanied by no changes in both cognition and behaviour. Studies also observed altered neuroplasticity, including a stress-induced decrease in markers of pre- and post-synaptic plasticity, dendritic spine length and density, and long-term potentiation. These changes in neuroplasticity were accompanied by cognitive impairments and depressive-like behaviours. Overall, some of the negative effects observed during adolescence, especially on cell proliferation, neuroplasticity, cognition and behaviour either persisted or worsened during adulthood. Interestingly, treatment during adolescence with antidepressants, glutamate receptor inhibitors, glucocorticoid antagonists, or a healthy diet consisting of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin A, were able to reverse or prevent these detrimental effects. Future research should aim to investigate the translational impact of these preclinical findings, developing novel tools for the measurement of hippocampal neurogenesis directly in depressed adolescents, and subsequently assessing neurogenic changes in response to stress as well as pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0131.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Alcohol; Adolescence; Cognition; Drinking motives
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:18:57 CEST)
Increased motivation towards alcohol use and suboptimal behavioural control are suggested to predispose adolescents to Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Paradoxically however, most adolescent AUDs resolve over time without any formal intervention, suggesting adolescent resilience to AUDs. Importantly, studies directly comparing adolescent and adult alcohol use are largely missing. We therefore aimed to unravel the moderating role of age in the relation between alcohol use and motivational and control-related cognitive processes in 45 adolescent drinkers compared to 45 adults. The results showed that enhancement drinking motives and impulsivity related positively to alcohol use. Although enhancement drinking motives and impulsivity were higher in adolescents, the strength of the relation between these measures and alcohol use did not differ between age groups. None of the alcohol use-related motivational measures (i.e., craving, attentional bias, approach bias) and behavioral control measures (i.e., interference control, risky decision making, working-memory) were associated with alcohol use or differed between age groups. These findings support the role of impulsivity and affective sensitivity in adolescent drinking, but question the moderating role of age therein. The current study contributes towards understanding the role of age in the relation between alcohol use and cognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: pro-environmental behavior; factorial experiment; adolescence; intervention
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:27:23 CEST)
The current study aimed to assess the components of the intervention program “Aquatic”, targeted at the reduction of bottled water use in adolescence. The Comprehensive Action Determination Model was chosen as a theory of change for the development and evaluation of pro-environmental behavior intervention. We examined the impact of five experimental intervention factors (water bottles, promo video, prompts, goal setting, and feedback) on eight intervention program outcomes: Perceived behavioral control, Social norm, Habit, Awareness of need, Awareness of consequence, Personal norm, Intention, and Behavior. The study sample consisted of 419 adolescents (52.8% girls, Mage = 15.21, SDage = .64) from Lithuania. A factorial experimental study design was used, and a Latent change modeling approach was applied for the evaluation of individual and combined effects of intervention components. Promo video, Prompts, and Goal setting had a positive effect on Awareness of consequence, Social norm, and Awareness of need, respectively. Receiving a Water bottle in combination with the Promo video had a positive effect on Perceived behavioral control and in combination with Prompts as well as Goals – on Awareness of need. Water bottles, Promo-video, Prompts, and Goals, but not Feedback, had value in the promotion of targeted pro-environmental outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0051.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: problematic smartphone use; adolescence; marketing; unhook; gamification
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:59:36 CEST)
Background: Smartphones have become an indispensable part of the daily lives of adolescents in the 21st century, which is characterized by a highly digitized modern world. Besides their many advantages, smartphones might pave the way to compulsive usage and addictive experiences. To remedy this problem, this study proposes an authentic approach which integrates consumer behavior theories and techniques such as unhook and gamification. An education program has been designed based on these approaches to decrease the problematic smartphone use. Method: The participants of the education program consisted of 305 students (48.2% girls and 51.8% boys) with a mean age of 14.57 (SD = 0.74). The Demographic Form and Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SASA) were conducted before the education program and three weeks after the education. Results: The results of the paired sample t-test analysis before and after the education program revealed that the SASA total scores decreased significantly (p < 0.01). There are significant differences in terms of gender, mothers’ education and class levels. Conclusion: This research emphasizes the role of an interdisciplinary approach to the addiction problem. The content used in the education program includes strategies that originally aimed at increasing consumption. The effectiveness of the program can be enhanced further in the future along with self-regulatory additions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0328.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: family violence; self-control; meta-analysis; adolescence
Online: 18 September 2018 (05:39:34 CEST)
Theoretical studies propose an association between family violence and low self-control in adolescence, yet empirical findings of this association are inconclusive. The aim of the present research was to systematically summarize available findings on the relation between family violence and self-control across adolescence. We included 27 studies with 143 effect sizes, representing more than 25,000 participants of eight countries from early to late adolescence. Applying a multi-level meta-analyses, taking dependency between effect sizes into account while retaining statistical power, we examined the magnitude and direction of the overall effect size. Additionally, we investigated whether theoretical moderators (e.g., age, gender, country), and methodological moderators (cross-sectional/longitudinal, informant) influenced the magnitude of the association between family violence and self-control. Our results revealed that family violence and self-control have a small to moderate significant negative association (r = -.191). This association did not vary across gender, country, and informants. The strength of the association, however, decreased with age and in longitudinal studies. This finding provides evidence that researchers and clinicians may expect low self-control in the wake of family violence, especially in early adolescence. Recommendations for future research in the area are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0056.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: virtual reality; autism spectrum disorder; education; intervention; childhood and adolescence
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:17:12 CET)
Virtual reality (VR) technology gains theoretical support from rehabilitation and pedagogical theories and offers a variety of capabilities in educational and interventional contexts with affordable products. VR is attracting increasing attention in the medical and healthcare industry as it provides fully interactive three-dimensional simulations of real-world settings and social situations, which are particularly suitable for cognitive and performance training including social and interaction skills. The worldwide rising trend in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder calls for innovative and efficacious techniques for assessment and treatment. The article offers a summary of current perspectives and evidence-based applications of VR technology as an educational and intervention tool for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, with a primary focus on social communication including social functioning, emotion recognition, and speech and language. Technology- and design-related limitations as well as the disputes over the application of virtual reality to autism research and therapy are discussed and future directions of this emerging field are highlighted with regards to application expansion and improvement, technology enhancement, and the development of brain-based research and theoretical models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0626.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Sexism; social networks; adolescence; digital gender gap, emotional well-being
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:01:04 CEST)
Despite gender equality being present in the social and political sphere, we still encounter aspects that are characteristic of sexism. Such aspects impact upon gender inequality and different types of violence towards women. The present article aims to examine the behaviour of adolescents from Huelva with regards to ambivalent sexism towards women on social networks and their influence on health. Further, we seek to uncover adolescent’s perceptions with regards to gender differences in the use of social networks, the relationship between sexism and women's emotional well-being was observed. The study sample was formed by young people aged between 14 and 16 years who were residing in rural and urban zones in the south of Spain. A mixed methods approach was taken. At a quantitative level, a sample of 400 young people was recruited. These were administered a questionnaire about sexism which was composed of two scales and has been validated at a national and international level. At a qualitative level, the study counted on 33 young people who participated in in-depth discussions via interviews and discussion groups. The results showed that sexism emerges in adolescence in the analysed sample from the south of Spain. This favoured a digital gender gap and was reinforced through social networks such as Instagram and Snapchat. Rising awareness and a critical view of the aforementioned sexism was shown on the behalf of females, particularly those from urban backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: childhood trauma; stressful life events; sleep patterns; anxiety; depression; adolescence
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:36:54 CEST)
Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent effects of childhood trauma and stressful life events on sleep patterns are less understood. We tested the independent effects of stress (childhood trauma and stressful life events) while controlling for anxiety and depression on adolescent sleep patterns. Seven hundred fifty-two adolescents completed self-report questionnaires about childhood trauma, stressful life events, anxiety, and depression. Four sleep factors identifying movement during sleep, sleep regularity, sleep disturbances and sleep pressure were extracted in the principal component analysis of sleep questions. Both childhood trauma and recent stressful life events were significantly associated with sleep disturbances before and after controlling for anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0120.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Transgender, non-binary gender identity, adolescence, health, well-being, gender nonconforming
Online: 6 September 2018 (15:31:10 CEST)
Purpose: Young transgender and non-binary are exposed to situations of discrimination and have a greater risk of violence. The purpose of this study is to analyze which protective, violence and health and well-being factors have more influence on transgender and non-binary people compared to cisgender people. Method: The sample comprised 856 people between 14 and 25 years old. A survey including questions about sociodemographic information and protective, violence and health and well-being factors was designed ad hoc for this study. Results: The results show non-binary group received the least support from family and friends, higher risk of suffering cyberbullying and a higher feel isolated and unhappy. Non-binary and transgender have suffered more verbal attacks both inside and outside their school and physical attacks at school than cisgender young. Conclusions: These results are important and may contribute to promote public policies and clinical interventions to favor the integration of non-binary and transgender people in our society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0606.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: adolescence; SLD; SLI; specific learning disabilities in mathematics; learning profiles; neurodevelopmental disorders
Online: 24 March 2021 (17:03:48 CET)
SLI and SLD constitute two autonomous neurodevelopmental disorders, which frequently cause challenges in the diagnosis process, especially due to their nature, which has caused disagreement among clinicians regarding their recognition as separate or overlapping disorders. The objective of the study was to enlighten the path of valid diagnosis and intervention during adolescence when the two disorders change their manifestation and overlap. 200 Greek adolescents (140 boys and 60 girls), 124 already diagnosed with SLD and 76 diagnosed with SLI, 12-16 years old, participated in the study. All participants were assessed in reading, oral and written language and mathematics (mathematical operations and mathematical reasoning) along with IQ testing. In order to determine statistically significant differences, the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, odd ratios and their 95 per cent confidence intervals were implemented. The results revealed that the SLI group presented significantly greater difficulties than SLD in their overall cognitive-mental profile and in most language and mathematical measurements (number concept, executive-procedural part of solving operations and mathematical reasoning). The similarity of the two groups was mainly detected in their deficient metacognitive, metalinguistic and metamnemonic strategies. The research concludes that SLD adolescents managed to overcome their difficulties to a significant degree, while adolescents with SLI still struggle with many learning areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns; tracking; stability; longitudinal change; generalized estimating equations; childhood; adolescence; adulthood
Online: 20 June 2017 (09:00:37 CEST)
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8-15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-hour recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005 and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, “Vegetarian-style”, “Western-like”, “High-fat, high-protein”, “Mixed” and “Snack” DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the “Vegetarian-style” (ß=0.44, P<0.001) and “High-fat, high-protein” (ß=0.39, P<0.001) DPs in females and “Vegetarian-style” DP (ß=0.30, P<0.001) in males. Remaining DPs showed a poor-to-fair tracking in both sexes. No tracking for “Western-like” DP in females was observed. Assessing overall change in DP scores from childhood to young adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to “Vegetarian-style” DP and decreasing trend in adherence to “High-fat, high-protein” DP by age in both sexes (P<0.001). While “Western-like” and “Mixed” DP scores increased only in males (P<0.001). These findings suggest that healthy dietary habits established during childhood and adolescence moderately continue into adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0077.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: externalizing behavior; adolescence; gray matter volume; white matter integrity; heritability; genetic correlation; longitudinal; magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 4 February 2022 (15:07:45 CET)
Externalizing behavior in its more extreme form is often considered a problem to the individual, their families, teachers and society as a whole. Several brain structures have been linked to externalizing behavior and such associations may arise if the (co)development of externalizing behavior and brain structures share the same genetic and/or environmental factor(s). We assessed externalizing behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report, and brain volumes and white matter integrity (FA and MD) with magnetic resonance imaging in the BrainSCALE cohort, consisting of twins and their older siblings from 112 families measured longitudinally at ages 10, 13, and 18 years of the twins. Genes influenced externalizing behavior and changes therein (h2 up to 88%). More pronounced externalizing behavior was associated with higher FA (observed correlation rph up to +0.20) and lower MD (rph up to –0.20); with sizeable genetic correlations (FA ra up to +0.42; MD ra up to –0.33). Cortical gray matter (CGM; rph up to –0.20) and cerebral white matter (CWM; rph up to +0.20) volume were phenotypically but not genotypically associated with externalizing behavior. These results suggest a potential mediating role for global brain structures in the display of externalizing behavior during adolescence that are both partially explained by the influence from the same genetic factor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: adolescence; substance use; cannabis use; ordered logistic regression; fuzzy set theory; fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis; Boolean functions.
Online: 18 February 2022 (11:49:13 CET)
The literature on substance use usually extracts conclusions from data with correlational methods. Our study shows the usefulness of complementing ordered logistic regression (OLR) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to assess factors inducing cannabis consumption in a sample of 1,935 teenagers. OLR showed a significant influence of gender (odd ratio (OR) =0.383, p<0.0001), parental monitoring (OR=0.587, p=0.0201); religiousness (OR=0.476, p=0.006); parental tolerance to substance use (OR=42.01, p<0.0001) and having close peers that consume substances (OR=5.60, p<0.0001). FsQCA has allowed fitting linkages between factors from a complementary perspective. (1) Coverage (cov) and consistency (cons) attained by solutions explaining use (cons=0.808, cov=0.357) are clearly lower than by recipes of non-use (cons=0.952, cov=0.869) (2) The interaction of gender, a tolerant family to use and the attitude toward substances by peers is very consistent to explain cannabis use. (3) The most important recipe explaining resistance to cannabis is simply parental disagreement with substance consumption (cons=0.956, cov=0.861) (4) Factors as gender, religiosity, parental monitoring and age show also a relevant impact on attitude toward cannabis use. However, whereas some of them impact symmetrically on use and non-use this does not follow in factors such as parental monitoring or age.