ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0570.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: anomaly detection; anomaly segmentation; self-attention; transformers; autoencoders
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:47:08 CEST)
Anomaly detection and segmentation aim at distinguishing abnormal images from normal images and further localizing the anomalous regions. Feature reconstruction based method has become one of the mainstream methods for this task. This kind of method has two assumptions: (1) The features extracted by neural network is a good representation of the image. (2) The autoencoder solely trained on the features of normal images cannot reconstruct the features of anomalous regions well. But these two assumptions are hard to meet. In this paper, we propose a new anomaly segmentation method based on feature reconstruction. Our approach mainly consists of two parts: (1) We use a pretrained vision transformer (ViT) to extract the features of the input image. (2) We design a self-attention autoencoder to reconstruct the features. We regard that the self-attention operation which has a global receptive field is beneficial to the methods based on feature reconstruction both in feature extraction and reconstruction. The experiments show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches for anomaly segmentation on the MVTec dataset. It is both effective and time-efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0341.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: microfoming; energy field assisted micro/nanoforming; ultrasonic vibration
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:53:15 CET)
Excitation of the acoustic field leading to the Blaha effect affects the plasticity of the material significantly in ultrasonic vibration-assisted forming. In a micro-forming field, the effects are more significant in the deformation in surface of materials -, in which reduction of the surface roughness based on the increasing of plastic deformation of surface asperity was effective . On the other hand, the effect on deformation behavior of the bulk region indicted reduction in the yield stress of materials, and not only acoustic effect , but also impact effect is found to generate a large amount of dislocation and produce plastic deformation . However, the effect on the bulk is more significant as that on the surface. Differences in the effect on the surface and the bulk are not clarified. In this study, the mechanism of the deformation in the surface of the material with ultrasonic vibration assistance is investigated and compared with that in the bulk. Forging tests using a newly developed ultrasonic vibrator were carried out on pure Cu foils with various process conditions. The longitudinal vibration frequency of the ultrasonic transducer is 60∓2kHz, and the vibration amplitude is in an adjustable range of 0~10μm. Forging test was carried out at different initial stress, specimen size and amplitude. The difference in acoustic softening and impact effects on the surface and the bulk was discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: jade waste; antibacterial agent; activation temperature; coatings
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:53:36 CEST)
Jade waste is a normal byproduct that makes up much more than the amount of jade extracted. Therefore, recycling jade waste is worth investigating from the point of view of energy conservation. Moreover, it is an environment-friendly material, which is desirable for use in building materials. In this study, Xiuyan jade waste was repurposed as antibacterial additives for building coatings. The powder waste was activated by milling and subsequent annealing. The antibacterial properties of the treated waste were mostly related to the annealing temperatures. Based on the investigations of the phase change and the release of metal ions of a series of samples and their antibacterial activities, the antibacterial mechanism of the treated samples was explored experimentally. The most applicable sample for coatings was finally chosen by considering its pH values and its antibacterial abilities. Antibacterial testing showed that the addition of treated jade waste could enhance the bacterial inhibition rate of building coatings from 60% to 99.9%.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: badminton; amateurs; lunge evaluation; contact time; microseismic; feasibility
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:38:14 CET)
The fast and flexible characteristics of badminton determine the necessity of its lunge, and fast lunge will have an important impact on the results of the game in actual combat. In lunge evaluation, the contact time to the ground is a key indicator. This article selects two middle-aged male badminton amateurs with similar body shape and age， but different skill levels as the research objects to carry out comparative experiments. The microseismic equipment is used to record the floor vibration which is caused by the running of badminton amateurs in sports. The microseismic signals of lunge are processed and analyzed by MATLAB software. And we evaluate the pro and cons of various time to touch the ground from amateurs with different skill levels. The research found that 1. Microseismic technology can detect the contact time to the ground. 2. High-level badminton amateurs have obvious advantages in the footwork contact time. Microseismic technology has a certain feasibility as a tool for evaluating the footwork contact time of badminton.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: GNSS-SAR; global navigation satellite system; synthetic aperture radar; range compression; range resolution
Online: 23 March 2017 (09:20:08 CET)
Passive Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), known as GNSS-SAR, is a new passive radar imaging system. However, compared with conventional SAR, range resolution of GNSS-SAR is significantly lower. To improve range resolution of GNSS-SAR is an interested topic for investigation. In this paper, a novel range compression algorithm for enhancing range resolutions of GNSS-SAR is proposed. In the proposed scheme, at first, range compression is conducted by correlating the received reflected GNSS signal of intermediate frequency (IF) with the synchronized direct baseband GNSS signal in range domain. Then spectrum equalization is applied to the compressed results to suppress side lobes. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results have demonstrated that significant range resolution improvement in GNSS-SAR can be obtained by the proposed range compression algorithm, compared to the conventional range compression algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0424.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; rural income; Henan Province, China; empirical analysis; countermeasures and suggestions
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:16:10 CEST)
This paper empirically analyzes the relationship between digital inclusive finance and rural income, and demonstrates that digital inclusive finance plays a significant role in promoting rural income, based on the 2012-2018 panel data of 17 cities in Henan Province of China. Further dimensional research unveils that all of its breadth of coverage, depth of use and degree of digitization present significant positive correlation with rural income, and a robustness test was conducted through the sub-sample method. In addition, according to regression analysis on the influencing factors of digital inclusive finance through the Tobit model, the level of economic development, the Internet popularity rate and the urbanization rate have a positive effect on the development of digital inclusive finance in Henan, while the income gap between urban and rural areas and the degree of opening up have a negative effect. Finally, predicated on the analysis of the restrictive factors of Henan’s digital inclusive finance in increasing rural income, the paper puts forward specific policy proposals based on the native state quo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0397.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Control chart; Multinomial distribution; specification limits; Pearson χ^(2 )statistic
Online: 6 June 2023 (07:45:37 CEST)
Control charts have been widely used for monitoring process quality in manufacturing and play an important role in triggering a signal in time when detecting a change in process quality. Many control charts in literature assume that the in-control distribution of the univariate or multivariate process data is continuous and not categorical. This research develops two exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) proportion control charts for monitoring a process with multinomial proportions when considering both large and small sample sizes. For a large sample size , the charting statistic depends on the well-known Pearson χ2 statistic, and the control limit of the EWMA proportion chart is determined by an asymptotical chi-square distribution. For a small sample size, we derive the exact mean and variance of the Pearson χ2 statistic. Hence, the exact EWMA proportion chart is determined. The proportion chart can also be applied to monitor the distribution-free continuous multivariate process as long as each categorical proportion associated with specification limits of each quality variable is known or estimated. Lastly, we investigate the detection performance of the proposed EWMA proportion chart by numerical analyses. Real data analysis demonstrates the beneficial application of the proposed EWMA proportion charts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: light alloys; magnesium; corrosion; vanadate; phosphate; fluoride; inhibition; conversion coating
Online: 21 February 2020 (02:21:19 CET)
The anodic polarization response of magnesium alloy AZ31 was characterized during exposure to aerated 0.1M NaCl solutions with millimolar additions of NaVO3, Na3PO4, Na2HPO4, NaF and various pairings to assess their ability to inhibit corrosion kinetics and retard localized corrosion. Each of the candidate inhibitors reduced the corrosion rate of the alloy to some degree. A Na3PO4 - NaVO3 pair produced a powerful inhibiting response decreasing the corrosion rate to about 10-7 A/cm2, which was two orders of magnitude lower than the uninhibited control case. A Bliss Independence assessment indicated that this inhibitor pair acted synergistically. A Na2HPO4 - NaVO3 pair reduced the corrosion rate to 10-6 A/cm2 but was not assessed to be acting synergistically. The NaVO3 - NaF pair did not reduce the corrosion rate significantly compared to the control case and was an antagonistic pairing. SEM imaging showed film formation due to exposure, which appears to be the origins of the observed inhibition. The resistance to localized corrosion was assessed as the difference in the breakdown potential and the corrosion potential with larger values indicating a lower probability of localized corrosion during free corrosion exposures. Effects of the inhibitors on this characteristic were mixed, but each of the inhibitor pairs yielded potential differences in excess of 100mV. A conceptual conversion coating process based on a mixture of vanadate and phosphate compounds were demonstrated. A fluoride-bearing formulation produced coatings whose total impedance was increased by a factor or 2 compared to an uncoated control. A fluoride-free formulation produced coatings whose corrosion resistance was increased by more than a factor of 3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1922.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: long-span spatial steel structure; time-varying mechanical; integral lifting; construction process; displacement difference
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:44:09 CEST)
Improper lifting measures of long-span spatial steel structures during construction process may delay the construction period and even cause safety accidents. Few studies on long-span spatial steel structures considered time-varying mechanical characteristic during construction process. In order to achieve safe and efficient installation in a long-span spatial steel structure, this research presents a time-varying mechanical analysis of the synchronous and asynchronous integral lifting and a single and interlaced point’s asynchronous integral lifting analysis method of a long-span spatial steel structure. The results showed that in the case of asynchronous lifting of single point, the displacement influence on other members is related to the distance. The closer the distance from the lifting point, the greater the influence. In asynchronous integral lifting, the lifting point with large lifting force is first installed to the specified position, and the lifting point with small lifting force is installed to the specified position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0059.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: hyperspectral image classiﬁcation; deep learning; channel-wise attention mechanism; spatial-wise attention mechanism
Online: 12 February 2020 (05:40:08 CET)
In recent years, researchers have paid increasing attention on hyperspectral image (HSI) classification using deep learning methods. To improve the accuracy and reduce the training samples, we propose a double-branch dual-attention mechanism network (DBDA) for HSI classification in this paper. Two branches are designed in DBDA to capture plenty of spectral and spatial features contained in HSI. Furthermore, a channel attention block and a spatial attention block are applied to these two branches respectively, which enables DBDA to refine and optimize the extracted feature maps. A series of experiments on four hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed framework has superior performance to the state-of-the-art algorithm, especially when the training samples are signally lacking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0027.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: remote sensing; image registration; multiple image features; different viewpoint; non-rigid distortion
Online: 13 June 2017 (09:52:10 CEST)
Remote sensing image registration plays an important role in military and civilian fields, such as natural disaster damage assessment, military damage assessment and ground targets identification, etc. However, due to the ground relief variations and imaging viewpoint changes, non-rigid geometric distortion occurs between remote sensing images with different viewpoint, which further increases the difficulty of remote sensing image registration. To address the problem, we propose a multi-viewpoint remote sensing image registration method which contains the following contributions. (i) A multiple features based finite mixture model is constructed for dealing with different types of image features. (ii) Three features are combined and substituted into the mixture model to form a feature complementation, i.e., the Euclidean distance and shape context are used to measure the similarity of geometric structure, and the SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform) distance which is endowed with the intensity information is used to measure the scale space extrema. (iii) To prevent the ill-posed problem, a geometric constraint term is introduced into the L2E-based energy function for better behaving the non-rigid transformation. We evaluated the performances of the proposed method by three series of remote sensing images obtained from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and Google Earth, and compared with five state-of-the-art methods where our method shows the best alignments in most cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0623.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Scaled boundary finite element method; Heat conduction; Abaqus UEL; Polygon; Quadtree; Semi-analytic
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:37:43 CEST)
This paper presents a steady-state and transient heat conduction analysis framework using the polygonal scaled boundary finite element method (PSBFEM) with polygon/quadtree meshes. The PSBFEM is implemented with commercial finite element code Abaqus by the User Element Subroutine (UEL) feature. The detailed implementation of the framework, defining the UEL element, and solving the stiffness/mass matrix by the eigenvalue decomposition are presented. Several benchmark problems from heat conduction are solved to validate the proposed implementation. Results show that the PSBFEM is reliable and accurate for solving heat conduction problems. Not only can the proposed implementation help engineering practitioners analyze the heat conduction problem using polygonal mesh in Abaqus, but it also provides a reference for developing the UEL to solve other problems using the scaled boundary finite element method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0489.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: diabetes mellitus; blood glucose; kidney; diabetic neuropathy; pancreas
Online: 22 October 2018 (10:45:08 CEST)
This present study was designed to find out whether the acankoreagenin showed the antidiabetic and renoprotective effects in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. Type I diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (70 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized and serum/plasma was separated for the determination of glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide, biochemical parameters, and kidney function. One kidney was used for determining glutathione, superoxide dismutas, malondialdehyde, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. The other kidney and pancreas were used for histopathological studies and immunohistochemical measurement of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) or NF-κB. Acankoreagenin (2 mg/kg) treatments led to a significant reduction in blood glucose assessed via oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in diabetic rats at 2 h. The treatment also resulted in improved body weight, decreased HbA1c, restored lipid profile, and renal oxidative stress. By inhibiting NF-κB, the release of proinflammatory cytokines was suppressed and by inhibiting TGF-β, the renal fibrosis was suppressed in STZ-induced diabetic rat model. Histopathological injury was also observed in pancreatic and renal tissues. These findings support the beneficial effect of acankoreagenin treatment in DN, which could be attributed to its antidiabetic and renoprotective effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: UAV backhaul networks; Stackelberg game; delay durance; resource allocation; energy efficiency
Online: 5 October 2018 (12:58:17 CEST)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) severing as the relay is an effective technology method to extend the coverage. It can also alleviate the congestion and increase the throughput, especially applied in UAV networks. However, since the energy of UAVs is limited and the resources in UAV networks are scarce, how to optimize the network delay performance under these constraints should be well investigated. Besides, the relationship among different resources, e.g. power and bandwidth, is coupled which makes the optimization more complex. This article investigates the problem of joint power and bandwidth allocation in UAV backhaul networks, which considers both the delay performance and the resource utilization efficiency. Considering the heterogeneous locations characteristics of different UAVs, we formulate the optimization problem as a Stackelberg game. The relay UAV acts as the leader and extended UAVs act as followers. Their utility functions take both the delay durance and the resource consumption into account. To capture the competitive relationship among followers, the sub-game is proved to be an exact potential game and exists Nash equilibriums (NE). The Stackelberg Equilibrium (SE) is proved afterwards. We utilize a hierarchical learning algorithm (HLA) to find out the best resource allocation strategies, which also reduces the computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Coronavirus; Deep learning; Drug screening; homology modeling; main protease
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:59:09 CET)
A novel coronavirus called 2019-nCoV was recently found in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, and now is spreading across China and other parts of the world. 2019-nCoV spreads more rapidly than SARS-CoV. Unfortunately, there is no drug to combat the virus. It is of high significance to develop a drug that can combat the virus effectively before the situation gets worse. It usually takes a much longer time to develop a drug using traditional methods. For 2019-nCoV, it is now better to rely on some alternative methods to develop drugs that can combat such a disease effectively since 2019-nCoV is highly homologous to SARS-CoV. In this paper, we first collected virus RNA sequences from the GISAID database, translated the RNA sequences into protein sequences, and built a protein 3D model using homology modeling. Coronavirus main protease is considered to be a major therapeutic target, thus this paper focused on drug screening based on the modeled 2019-nCov_main_protease structure. The deep learning based method DFCNN, developed by our group, can identify/rank the protein-ligand interactions with relatively high accuracy. DFCNN is capable of performing virtual screening quickly since no docking or molecular dynamic simulation is needed. DFCNN identifies potential drugs for 2019-nCoV protease by performing drug screening against 4 chemical compound databases. Also, we performed drug screening for all tripeptides against the binding site of 2019-nCov_main_protease since peptides often show better stability, more bio-availability and negligible immune responses. In the end, we provided the list of possible chemical ligands and peptide drugs for experimental validation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: aging; chronodisruption; clock genes; Bmal1; inflammaging; oxidative stress; mitochondria; skeletal muscle; sarcopenia; melatonin
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:02:46 CET)
Sarcopenia is an age-related condition that involves a progressive decline in muscle mass and function, leading to increased risks of falls, frailty, and mortality. Although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood, aging-related processes like inflammation, oxidative stress, reduced mitochondrial capacity, and cell apoptosis contribute to this decline. Disruption of the circadian system with age may initiate these pathways in skeletal muscle, preceding the onset of sarcopenia. At present, there is no pharmacological treatment for sarcopenia, only resistance exercise and proper nutrition may delay its onset. Melatonin, derived from tryptophan, emerges as an exceptional candidate for treating sarcopenia due to its chronobiotic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Its impact on mitochondria, organelle where it is synthesized and crucial in aging skeletal muscle, further highlights its potential. In this review, we discuss the influence of clock genes in muscular aging, with special reference to peripheral clock genes in the skeletal muscle, as well as their relationship with melatonin, which is proposed as a potential therapy against sarcopenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: rotating blade with a dovetail structure; fixed-interface component mode synthesis method; aerodynamic force; interface contact; dynamic characteristics
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:40:28 CEST)
Considering rotation-induced centrifugal stiffening, spin softening, and Coriolis effects, the three-dimensional finite element model of a rotating blade with a dovetail structure is built through the contact dynamics theory. The fixed-interface component mode synthesis method is then adopted to reduce the model for high computational efficiency and adequate model accuracy. The effects of the number of normal modes on the first-six-order modal characteristics of the model varying with the rotating speed are studied between the reduced and full models. Next, the influence of rotating speed and friction factor on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the model under the action of aerodynamic force are elaborately discussed. The results show that: (1) tenon-mortise joint contact-induced nonlinearity under low rotating speeds results in the intermittent interference of contact surfaces and frequency multiplications of aerodynamic excitation frequency in the spectrum cascades, while that under high rotating speeds causes the continuous interface contact and asynchronous excitation at the tenon-mortise joint; (2) the increase of friction factor results in a lower contact pressure distribution and the right shift of the resonance peak (i.e., hard nonlinearity).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0573.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cationic pillararenes; host–guest recognition; Au nanoparticles; L-carnitine
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:35:05 CEST)
A supramolecular host-guest interaction and sensing between cationic pillararenes (CP5) and L-carnitine were developed by the competitive host-guest recognition for the first time. The fluorescence sensing platform was constructed by CP5 functionalized Au nanoparticles (PP5@Au-NPs) as receptor and probe (rhodamine 123, R123), which shown a high sensitivity and selectivity to L-carnitine detection. Due to the property of the negative charge and molecular size of L-carnitine, it can be highly captured by the CP5 via electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions. The mechanism of host-guest between PP5 and L-carnitine was studied by 1H NMR and molecular docking, which indicated more affinity binding force of PP5 with L-carnitine. Therefore, a selective and sensitive fluorescent method was developed. It has a linear response of 0.1–2.0 and 2.0–25.0 μM and a detection limit of 0.067 μM (S/N = 3) for L-carnitine. The fluorescent sensing platform was also used to detect L-carnitine in human serum and milk samples, which provided potential applications of detection drugs of abuse, and had path for guarding a serious food safety issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0547.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Brown-marbled grouper; muscle; growth; RNA-seq
Online: 19 April 2023 (05:19:32 CEST)
Brown-marbled grouper is one of the most important mariculture species in China, which is used as an important crossbreeding parent in grouper industry. Enhancing growth rates is a key target in fish breeding, and gaining insight into the underlying mechanisms responsible for growth differences among individuals can aid in the improvement of grouper growth rates. However, the mechanism behind this difference in growth in this fish is unclear. The difference of transcriptome profiles of muscle tissue between fast- and slow-growing brown-marbled grouper was analyzed by RNA-Seq. 77 significantly up-regulated genes and 92 significantly down-regulated genes were identified in the growth extreme groups. The up-regulated of ghr and tnni2 and the down-regulated of stc2 led to the growth advantages of brown-marbled grouper. The differently expressed genes (DEGs) were used for GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. The results of GO enrichments indicated that the significantly upregulated genes in the fast-growing group were involved in protein folding, actin cytoskeleton, myosin complex, etc. The results of KEGG enrichments indicated that the significantly upregulated genes in the fast-growing group were involved in glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis, adipocytokine signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, carbon metabolism, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, etc. To analysis the difference gene sets between fast- and slow-growing group, the RNA-seq data were used by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The results showed that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was up-regulated in the fast-growing group. The up-regulated of this pathway could lead to higher nutrient absorption efficiency and lead to muscle growth in the fast-growing group. These results contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of fast growth and regulative pathways regulating growth in brown-marbled grouper.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: developmental transition; proteomics; Gossypium hirsutum; Gossypium arbadense
Online: 23 April 2019 (13:08:15 CEST)
Cotton fiber development transition from elongation to secondary cell wall biosynthesis is a critical growth shifting phase that affects cotton ﬁber final length, strength and other properties. Morphological dynamic analysis indicates that an asynchronous fiber developmental pattern between two cotton species. The critical time point for Gh and Gb fiber elongation termination is, respectively, 23 and 27 days post-anthesis (dpa). The temporal changes of protein expression at three representative development periods (15–19, 19–23, 23–27 dpa) were examined in both species with iTRAQ technics. Strikingly, a large proportion of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) was identified at 19–23 dpa in Gh or at 23–27 dpa in Gb, corresponding to their fiber developmental transition timing from elongation to secondary cell wall biosynthesis. To better understand fibers transitional development, we comparatively analyzed those DEPs in 19–23 dpa of Gh vs. in 23–27 dpa of Gb, and noted that these cotton species indeed share fundamentally similar fiber development features under the biological processes. It also showed that there have limited overlaps in both specific upregulated and downregulated proteins between the two species, suggesting specie-specific protein regulations in development. Proteomic profiling revealed dynamic changes of several key proteins and biological processes that potentially correlate with fiber development transition. During the transition, upregulated proteins mainly involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolism, oxidation-reduction, cytoskeleton, protein turnover, Ca2+ signaling etc, whereas important downregulated proteins mostly concentrated in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid secondary metabolism pathways. Several changed proteins in this key stage were also validated by qRT-PCR. Overall, the present study provides accurate pictures of the regulatory networks of functional proteins during the fiber developmental transition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0448.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: IR; laser printing; ITO; solid resist
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:27:46 CEST)
Deposition/printing of materials with sub-1 μm precision and size (cross sections) is required for optical and electrical micro-devices. Crystalline c-ITO (Indium tin oxide) nanostructures were patterned on glass with a precision that formed gaps of 20-50 nm between individual disks or lines of ∼ 250 nm diameter or width. The absorbed energy density [J/cm3] followed the second order dependence on pulse energy. This facilitated high resolution and precision for nanoscale laser writing at the 515 nm laser wavelength. Patterns for optical elements such as circular gratings and micro-disks were laser printed using ITO as a resist. Unexposed amorphous a-ITO was chemically removed in aqueous 1% vol. HF solution. This use of a-ITO as solid-resist is promising for metamaterial and micro-optical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: ricin; marker peptides; unambiguous identification; mass spectrometry
Online: 11 June 2019 (08:27:32 CEST)
Both ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), belonging to the type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs-Ⅱ), are derived from the seeds of castor bean plant. They share very similar amino acid sequences, but ricin is much more toxic than RCA120. It is urgently necessary to distinguish ricin and RCA120 in response to public safety. Currently, mass spectrometric assays are well established for unambiguous identification of ricin by accurate analysis of differentiated amino acid residues after trypsin digestion. However, diagnostic peptides are relatively limited for unambiguous identification of trace ricin, especially in complex matrices. Here, we demonstrate a digestion strategy of multiple proteinases to produce novel peptide markers for unambiguous identification of ricin. LC-HRMS was used to verified the resulting peptides, among which only the peptides with uniqueness and good MS response were selected as peptide markers. Seven novel peptide markers were obtained from tandem digestion of trypsin and endoproteinase Glu-C in PBS buffer. From the chymotrypsin digestion under reduction and non-reduction conditions, eight and seven novel peptides were selected respectively. Using pepsin under pH 1~2 and proteinase K digestion, 6 and 5 peptides were selected as novel peptide markers. In conclusion, the obtained novel peptides from the established digestion methods can be recommended for the unambiguous identification of ricin during the investigation of illegal use of the toxin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0698.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cold stress; skeletal muscle; transcriptome; Large White pig; Mashen pig; PRSS8
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:55:16 CEST)
Pigs are susceptible to cold stress due to the absence of brown fat caused by the partial deletion of uncoupling protein 1 during their evolution. Some local pig breeds in China, exhibit potential cold adaptability, but research has primarily focused on fat and intestinal tissues. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in adaptive thermogenesis in mammals, yet the molecular mechanism of cold adaptation in porcine skeletal muscle remains poorly understood. This study investigated the cold adaptability of two pig breeds, Mashen pigs (MS) and Large White pigs (LW), in a 4-day cold (4°C) or room temperature (25°C) environment. We recorded phenotypic changes and collected blood, and longissimus dorsi muscle for transcriptome sequencing. Finally, a candidate gene was randomly selected for functional exploration in porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells. A decrease in body temperature and body weight in both LW and MS pigs under cold stress, accompanied by increased shivering frequency and respiratory frequency. However, MS pigs demonstrated stable physiological homeostasis, indicating a certain level of cold adaptability. LW pigs primarily responded to cold stress by regulating heat production and Glycolipid energy metabolism. MS pigs exhibited a distinct response to cold stress, involving regulation of heat production, energy metabolism pathways, robust fatty acid oxidation ability, and stronger immune response. Furthermore, the functional exploration of PRSS8 in porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells revealed it affected cellular energy metabolism and thermogenesis by regulating ERK phosphorylation. These findings shed light on the diverse transcriptional responses of skeletal muscle in LW and MS pigs under cold stress, offering valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying cold adaptation in pigs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1256.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: supernovae; general; supernovae; individual: SN 2017fzw; transitional supernovae
Online: 17 May 2023 (14:21:28 CEST)
In this study, we analyzed the optical observations of a subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2017fzw, which exhibited high photospheric velocity (HV) at B-band maximum light. The absolute B-band peak magnitude was determined to be MBmax = -17.77 0.10 mag, similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia. The decline rate of the B-band light curve was estimated to be Dm15(B) = 1.60 0.06 mag. The spectra of SN 2017fzw were similar to those of 91bg-like SNe Ia, with prominent Ti II and Si II l5972 features at early phases, gradually transitioning to spectra resembling normal (mainly HV subclass) SNe Ia at later phases, with a stronger Ca II NIR feature. Notably, SN 2017fzw exhibited spectral evolution features similar to those of HV SNe Ia at all phases, with a maximum-light Si II l6355 velocity of 13, 786 414 km s