COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: diversity; inclusion; equity; fieldwork; research
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:55:47 CEST)
As a result of identity prejudice, certain individuals are at higher risk for conflict and violence when they are in the field. At-risk individuals include minority identities of the following: race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity, and/or religion. Everyone deserves to conduct fieldwork as safely as possible; therefore, it is paramount for anyone conducting fieldwork to be informed of the increased risk certain populations face when conducting field research and to define informed strategies. Research groups should adhere to best practices to minimize risk for all individuals who go into the field. Here we provide strategies that 1) acknowledge that some individuals encounter dangerous situations in the field due to their identity(ies), and 2) minimize the chance of conflict between and among researchers and other communities present at field sites. The inclusion of this document as a key resource in a research lab, a university department, or any active research or work environment sends a positive signal to at-risk individuals that their professional community acknowledges their risk and is willing to implement actions to ensure their safety. We suggest that this document be made freely available to anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in fieldwork. Supervisors who support the information in this document should publicly commit to promote a diverse and inclusive environment in order to maintain the safety of their researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Socio-Equity; Urban Transport; Policies; India
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:55:49 CEST)
Public Transport has been seen since ages as the most environmentally sustainable mode of transport. The users of public transport are diverse and have different socio-economic character. Hence the public transport which is not only supposed to be environmentally sustainable but also envisaged to ensure equity amongst various stakeholders of society like the females, elderly and other vulnerable groups through its service. Gender in binary terms of being differentiated based on men and women is a social construct. Public transport systems in developing countries like India witness socio-cultural factors that shape the experience of women in public spaces by social norms extant in society. Along with this, gender-based issues related to public transport are social and behavioural shortcomings as a consequence of a lack of gender sensitivity. On similar lines, elderly have a negative experience involving safety threats, physical and psychological discomfort while accessing public transport systems. The literature published regarding such issues on the gender and elderly question in public transport systems have been studied and has been brought forth under a stand- alone narrative literature review. A literature review is a prerequisite to conducting either stand-alone reviews or as a preliminary study to be supported with quantitative or qualitative analysis. Here, a stand-alone literature review concerning issues in the public transport system in India has been performed. A narrative type of review is conducted to provide an overview of pre- existing published literature. Narrative overviews are useful educational articles as they help present a broad perspective on a topic and often define the development of a problem and/or ways to manage it. The semi-systematic or narrative-review approach is designed for topics that have been theorized differently and studied within diverse disciplines making it unfavourable to study under a full systematic-review process which majorly caters to reviewing quantitative researches. As narrative-styled literature reviews prefer a semi- systematic data collection method, utmost care has been taken to include perspectives from diverse disciplines. The scope of this review is restricted to summarizing the Indian policies, schemes of public transport in light of socio-equity consideration while narrowing the inherent discrepancies within the socio-cultural ethos of the Indian society which influences socio-equity consideration in public spaces in general and the modes of public transport in particular. Research articles from electronic databases were selected based on relevance to understand the issues this viewpoint, their essential findings and possible recommendations are formulated to provide a comprehensive summary of previous researches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: bus rapid transit; employment; accessibility; equity
Online: 14 March 2019 (07:12:12 CET)
Investments in public transit infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean often aim to reduce spatial and social inequalities by improving accessibility to jobs and other opportunities for vulnerable populations. The Metropolitano, Lima’s Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) project had as one of its central goals to connect low-income populations living in the peripheries to jobs in the city center. We examine the contribution of Lima’s BRT system to accessibility to employment in the city, particularly for low-income public transit users. Building on secondary datasets of employment, household socio-demographics and Origin-Destination surveys before and after the BRT began operations, we assess its effects on potential accessibility to employment, comparing impacts amongst lower versus higher income populations. Findings suggest that the BRT line reduced travel times to reach jobs, in comparison with traditional public transport in the city, amongst populations living within walking distance of the system. However, we also find that the coverage of the BRT declines in areas with high concentrations of poor and extreme poor populations, limiting the equitability of the accessibility improvements. We analyze the distributional effects of BRT infrastructure and services, discussing policy avenues that can improve the prospects for BRT system investments to include the poor in their mobility benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0317.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: health equity; emergency care; determinants of health
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:24:42 CET)
Identifying health care equity indicators is an important first step in integrating the concept of equity into assessments of health care system performance, particularly in emergency care. We conducted a systematic review of administrative data-derived health care equity indicators and their association with socio-economic determinants of health (SEDH) in emergency care settings. Following PRISMA-Equity reporting guidelines, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. The outcomes of interest were indicators of health care equity and the associated SEDH they examine. Among 29 studies identified, 14 equity indicators were identified and grouped into four categories that reflect the patient emergency care pathway. Total emergency department (ED) visits and ambulatory care sensitive condition-related ED visits were the two most frequently used equity indicators. Despite some conflicting results, all identified SEDH (social deprivation, income, education level, social class, insurance coverage and health literacy) are associated with inequalities in access to and use of emergency care. In conclusion, the use of administrative data-derived indicators combined with identified SEDH could improve healthcare equity measurement in emergency care settings across health care systems worldwide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0457.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ethical; legal; artificial intelligence; health; equity; public health
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:59:55 CET)
Background: The potential of Artificial intelligent (AI) models to process and interpret large health datasets at scale could revolutionize public health and epidemiology, providing a foundation for public health. Ethics has been recognized as a priority concern in the development and deployment of AI. Because AI technology can jeopardize patient safety, privacy, and posing a new set of ethical problems that must be addressed. Objectives: We aim to provide a holistic view on what are the different ethical and legal principles that was addressed in the included studies regarding the use of AI in public health and what are the ethical challenges that can arise.Methods: Following PRISMA guideline, five bibliographic databases were used in our search: PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar from 2015 to February 2022. Four reviewers carried out study selection and data extraction, and the data extracted was synthesized by a narrative approach. Results: This review included 23 unique publications out of a total of 1123 items that were initially identified. Different ethical principles regarding the uses of AI in public health and community health were identified and discussed distinctly in the current review. The common ethical and legal themes that this review focused on are equity, bias, privacy and security, safety, transparency, confidentiality, accountability, social justice, and autonomy. In addition, five ethical challenges were mentioned. Conclusion: Research regarding ethical and legal principles and challenges about using AI in public health specifically consider a new filed, because all previous themes are concerning the physical and patients’ area where it focuses only on the clinical settings.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Undergraduate research experience; diversity; equity; inclusion; science communication
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:31:22 CET)
Ecology is working to face its colonial roots and institutional inequities. As we build more diverse, equitable, and inclusive (DEI) institutions we must work to support new ecologists by empowering them with the knowledge and tools to succeed. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) are critical for a student’s professional and interpersonal skill development and key for recruiting more diverse groups of students to ecology. Here, we highlight DEI dimensions of a URE in ecology, acknowledge safety considerations for field ecology, including harassment and assault, and provide tools to support the URE. This is written primarily for all URE students and secondarily for their advisors. We welcome students from underrepresented groups and encourage allyship from students from non-underrepresented groups. After reading this paper, we hope that all students feel more confident and excited about their URE and that advisors see how to improve DEI in their lab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0016.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: initial public offering; underpricing; private equity; brand value
Online: 9 July 2016 (11:02:46 CEST)
The present study aims at investigating the relationship between Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) variables mainly underpricing on one hand, and the brand value measures on the other. Our final data set is 104 international brand companies. We implement empirical approach using hierarchical OLS regression and descriptive statistics. We show that underpricing is positively related to brand value which emphasizes the marketing role of going public and underpricing in enhancing brand equity through the product market, which additionally confirms some information asymmetry models. We also find that on average brand companies had not been recognized as brands at the IPO time. Moreover, we show the positive role of private equity in enhancing brand value, additionally, the non-linear association between underpricing and brand value is not evident. Finally, we draw some policy implication and suggestions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0341.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Inequality; Lorenz Curve; Education; Equity; demand and supply; Ethiopia
Online: 24 June 2022 (16:03:48 CEST)
Globally, inequalities in educational provision are prevalent between genders, various geographical regions, and among different socio-economic backgrounds. Consequently, this study set-out to assess the level of disparity among the Federal Regional States of Ethiopia using Gini-coefficient and Lorenz curve from the statistical data of MoE. Moreover, data were collected from 656 respondents found in the sample regions. The result of the Gini-coefficient indicated that disparity in educational provision has been reduced over the past couple of decades both at primary (0.145 to 0.032) and secondary levels (0.277 to 0.126). Emerging regions are by far lagging behind the central and established regions. The sources of variation were mainly the demand-side variables, especially the economic and contextual related issues like drought and conflicts. Therefore, educational policies designed at the central level are advised to consider the strategies to bridge the existing inequalities through equitable provision of the education system to its citizen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0593.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: affordable housing; environmental justice; equity; green building; housing policy
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:45:31 CEST)
Research on green-certified buildings has often been focused on the benefits of green standards, such as energy efficiency, smart growth, resource conservation, and health protection. Recent studies suggest the adoption of a reductionist sustainability planning language can turn green-certified houses into luxury goods, attracting White, prime-age, college-educated households with some pro-environmental attitudes who replace existing long-term, lower-income residents in core urban areas. While many factors may work together in driving neighborhood change and gentrification in cities, the question this study aims to address is to what extent the supply of green-certified units can affect neighborhood change and gentrification? We use Central Virginia’s Multiple Listing Service (MLS) housing market transactions data and the U.S. Census Bureau’s socioeconomic data to present the differential effect of new construction of market-rate, green-certified units in a natural experiment using difference-in-differences estimates. We find that neighborhoods that include new, green-certified units have experienced a statistically significant increase in population, supporting new construction and positively affecting house prices. We also detect some negative effects on minorities and minority owners, but these effects have not yet reached statistical significance. This study finds strong evidence of green housing providing the conditions that make areas ripe for gentrification, but more studies should follow up to better measure and generalize this finding.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: mentorship; citations; bias; sexism; racism; equity; diversity; inclusion; wellbeing
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:17:45 CET)
Success and impact metrics in science are based on a system that perpetuates sexist and racist ‘rewards’ through prioritizing citations and impact factors. These metrics are flawed and biased against already marginalized groups and fail to accurately capture the breadth of individuals’ meaningful scientific impacts. We advocate shifting this outdated value system to advance science through principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. We outline pathways for a paradigm shift in academic values based on multidimensional mentorship and promoting mentee wellbeing. These actions will require collective efforts supported by academic leaders and administrators to drive essential systemic change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0250.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Customer Service Experience; Multichannel Retailing; Customer Journeys; Customer Equity
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:25:58 CET)
Spectacular shifts have been led to by The COVID-19 crisis in consumer behavior. Retailers will have to work hard to meet ever-evolving customer service experience with respect to the ways in which it may be differently affected by offline or online transactions in order to win and stay relevant. We suggest an integrative framework and construct customer service experience hypotheses, based on its antecedents and consequences that will contribute to academic study as well as managerial implications. The hypotheses are tested by a simultaneous equation model employing two data sets of the retail industry's offline and online customers. In this study, 571 samples of these businesses, 319 and 252 respondents from offline and online retail channels, respectively, were collected by means of an online web survey of consumers. The results show that the impact of consequences and antecedents of CSX differs based on the media utilized. The integrative framework of CSX in its online medium is far more effective than its explanatory power offline. The outcomes are reasonably counterintuitive in so far as they demonstrate that while most elements of CSX where a service is selected offline is the same in terms of customer loyalty and value equity, the emotional element related to the service provider is higher when the service is selected offline rather than online. These outcomes indicate that, contrary to popular fears, the online medium enables firms to develop a loyal customer foundation. These findings offer perceptivity into how an online channel could be used to better complement the offline channel, contributing towards new knowledge and understanding on CSX and how it may be utilized for managerial decision-making.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: microlearning; culturally-responsive teaching; inclusion; equity; life science education
Online: 18 December 2019 (04:27:11 CET)
Some of the key features of inclusive and equitable teaching approaches encourage prompt feedback, student cooperation in communities of learning, active learning, and promotes diverse ways of knowing in the classroom. In my article, I present step-bystep tips to help instructors create guided microlearning inquiry questions within an inclusive and equitable general biology classroom setting. Microlearning is a special approach that helps students complete a specific task linked to a specific learning objective that would be completed in a short time window around five minutes. The step-by-step tips presented in my article helps instructors to develop questions aligned to specific learning objective to help clarify unclear or confusing topics in general biology using the Kahoot e-Learning platform. This guided microlearning inquiry toolkit provides a blueprint for helping instructors to infuse student-centered approaches to help clarify difficult concepts in general biology and further develop avenues refine students’ critical thinking and experimental design in biology research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: ESG; State-owned equity; Top management incentives; Sustainability; Digital transformation
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:38:27 CEST)
This study examines the unique circumstances surrounding state-owned equity participation in non-state-controlled enterprises in China. Specifically, this study examines the impact of state-owned equity participation on the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance of non-state-controlled enterprises. Focusing on A-share listed firms on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges and using data from 2013 to 2021, empirical testing shows that state-owned equity participation can significantly improve the ESG performance of non-state-controlled enterprises, with this conclusion remaining reliable after a series of robustness tests. Top management incentives is a mediating mechanism for state-owned equity participation in enhancing ESG performance. This study also finds that when state-owned equity participates in large enterprises or companies with a high degree of digital transformation, the effect on ESG performance is greater than that of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or enterprises with a low level of digital transformation. The findings of this study add to the current body of the existing field of research on the factors influencing corporate ESG performance and the impact of state-owned equity on corporate non-financial performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1760.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ecosystem disservices; ecosystem services; environmental equity; landcover; urban forest governance
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:00:48 CEST)
Background: Public engagement is needed to make sure urban forestry management efforts align with the values of the public being served. Noting this, we determined current and desired urban forest access of Florida (United States) residents using the criteria from the 3-30-300 rule (i.e., 3 trees visible from home, 30% canopy in neighborhood, and a green space within 300 meters of home). Methods: A survey of 1,716 Florida residents was conducted to assess canopy coverage and green space access. Respondents were then asked if this level of urban forest access was sufficient for their needs. We also asked their perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of urban trees and whether they had any negative interactions with trees in the past. Results: We found that 37.3% of Florida residents met all three criteria of the 3-30-300 rule. Despite this, half the respondents would prefer more trees in their neighborhoods. When asked to name the top benefits provided by trees, the most common responses were shade, beauty, and attracting wildlife. The most common drawbacks to urban trees included risk to property, leaves/debris, and fears regarding storms and hurricanes. Conclusions: Florida residents largely value their urban forest and would like to see it maintained or enhanced. Improving access to greenspaces for recreation is the most pressing concern for urban forest managers in Florida looking to meet the requirements of the 3-30-300 rule. Results from this study can inform and test urban forest management at national and global scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0770.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Wikipedia, knowledge equity, Wikimedia, open culture, visual arts, cultural bias
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:16:07 CEST)
We explore gaps in Wikipedia's coverage of the visual arts by comparing the representation of 100 artists and 100 artworks from the Western canon against corresponding sets of notable artists and artworks from non-Western cultures. We measure the coverage of these two sets of topics across Wikipedia as a whole and for its individual language versions. We also compare the coverage for Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata, sister-projects of Wikipedia that host digital media and structured data. We show that all these platforms strongly favour the Western canon, giving many times more coverage to Western art. We highlight specific examples of differing coverage of visual art inside and outside the Western canon. We find that European language versions of Wikipedia are generally more "Western" in their coverage and Asian languages more "global", with interesting exceptions. We suggest how both Wikipedia and the wider cultural sector can address this gap in content and thus give Wikipedia a truly global perspective on the visual arts.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: public sector science; agriculture; equity; seed sovereignty; food security; intellectual property
Online: 26 January 2022 (12:48:26 CET)
Plant breeding is central to agriculture, and shifts in plant breeding practices (e.g., hybrid development) and selection goals (e.g., response to synthetic fertilizer) have catalyzed monumental and persistent changes in agricultural production systems of all scales with social, political, economic, and environmental repercussions. While plant breeders are largely trained in the sciences of biology, genetics, and statistics, we posit an ethical imperative to examine the degree of equity with which the benefits of new research and plant varieties are distributed. In the United States, the history of plant breeding parallels the colonial history of agriculture, which compels reflection by current plant breeders about their role in shaping our agricultural system. In this perspective essay, we examine longstanding ideas about equitable food systems through the lens of public plant breeding in the United States. We propose a framework for equitable public plant breeding with respect to both its process and outcomes, and we intend for the ideas presented herein to catalyze reflection, discussions, and actions as the plant breeding community seeks greater equity in the food and seed systems our work supports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intersectionality; gender equity; Intersectionality Walk; organisational change; inclusion; strategy; STEMM; diversity
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:48:59 CET)
. 1) Background: Intersectionality contests that individuals have multiple characteristics in their identity that cannot be siloed or deemed exclusive to each other. Understanding and utilising an intersectional lens in organisations can increase inclusion of individuals and organisational performance. An educational package known as the Intersectionality Walk (IW) was developed by the authors, piloted, and evaluated in order to break down the commonly held descriptors of diversity silos that fragments inclusion, and to understand how various identity characteristics compound disadvantage. The paper outlines the need to transition from siloed views of diversity to a more intrinsic view of identity to achieve inclusivity. 2) Methods: The IW was developed and trialled with a series of work-based scenarios and realistic multifaceted personas. Data collection occurred pre- and post- IW utilising a mixed methods approach. Responses to Likert scale surveys and open-ended questions were captured and analysed via inductive and ground theory perspectives. 3) Results: An improved awareness and understanding of individual knowledge, reflectivity and positionality relating to intersectionality and intersectional approaches was reported on completion of the IW. Further, responses reported how and why organisations can approach and improve inclusivity via using intersectional approaches. 4) Conclusions: The IW as an educational package has a positive impact and is a key linkage for all employers to build an inclusive culture and to harness the talent of all employees. Further research will occur to measure the implemented change in organisations following the IW.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial Constraints; Agency Cost; Equity Concentration; Holding Heterogeneity; Real Estate Industry
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:32:53 CEST)
Real estate industry is related to the national economy and people's livelihood，characterized by a high degree of financial intensity. The enterprises in this industry need certain financial ability and large shareholder controlling ability to support their survival. However，due to the multiple adverse impacts of current state policies，banks and private capital，the credit crunch，the sudden decrease in withdrawn funds and the limitation of internal financing，the problem of capital restraint of real estate enterprises has become more and more serious. From the perspective of corporate governance，this paper studies the interaction among financial constraints，ownership concentration and corporate performance under different shareholding states by analyzing the quantitative characteristics of equity structure，and looks for the appropriate range of the largest shareholder holding ratio，which has considered the financial performance and risk. It is found that raising the ownership concentration can effectively ease the financing constraints and improve the performance of enterprises，both of which are significant under the state of high ownership concentration， while the financial constraints play a significant intermediary effect under the State of absolute holding， while in the decentralized state of ownership，there is a significant regulatory effect，and the interaction of the three will be different due to the size of the enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: greenspace; NDVI; environmental justice; greenness; Sentinel; satellite; urban green; health equity
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:07:41 CEST)
This paper discusses the potential and limitations of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in environmental justice, health and inequality studies in urban areas. Very often the NDVI is correlated with socioeconomic and/or sociodemographic data to demonstrate the inequality in environmental settings that themselves influence individual health and questions of environmental justice. This paper addresses the limits of the NDVI for such applications and as well its potential, if applied properly. The overall goal is to make people of disciplines other than those that are geo-related aware of the characteristics, limits and potentials of satellite image-based information layers such as NDVI.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: environmental tax; tax principles; energy policy; equity; efficiency; simplicity; flexibility; accountability
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:13:28 CEST)
Energy and Environment Tax is used globally as a means of environment policy. Energy and Environment tax plays an important role as a driving force for the conversion to environmentally friendly energy. The basic tax principles considered in the design of energy and environmental taxation increases the efficiency of policy instruments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate South Korea’s energy and environmental taxation based on tax principles, namely, equity, efficiency, simplicity, flexibility, and accountability and to suggest directions for improvement. This study applied a methodology that provides policy implications, such as reviewing existing literature and comparing energy and environmental taxes. Results of this study show that South Korea’s energy and environmental taxation is negative in terms of equity, simplicity, and accountability. South Korea’s current energy and environmental tax is regressive to income classes and complex tax structures and it does not objectively measure the impact of energy and environmental taxation. However, energy and environmental taxation is evaluated positively in terms of efficiency and flexibility because it meets the greenhouse gas reduction policy and operates a flexible tax rate. The results of this analysis provide policy implications for reorganizing South Korea’s energy and environmental taxation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0066.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: energy tax; tax principles; energy policy; equity; efficiency; simplicity; flexibility; accountability
Online: 5 March 2019 (13:46:38 CET)
Energy taxation is used globally as a means of energy policy. Energy tax plays an important role as a driving force for the conversion to environmentally friendly energy. The basic tax principles considered in the design of energy taxation increases the efficiency of policy instruments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate South Korea’s energy taxation based on tax principles, namely, equity, efficiency, simplicity, flexibility, and accountability and suggest directions for improvement. This study applied a methodology that provides policy implications, such as reviewing existing literature and comparing energy taxes. Results of this study show that South Korea’s energy taxation is negative in terms of equity, simplicity, and accountability. South Korea’s current energy tax is regressive to income classes and complex tax structures and it does not objectively measure the impact of energy taxation. However, energy taxation is evaluated positively in terms of efficiency and flexibility because it meets the greenhouse gas reduction policy and operates a flexible tax rate. The results of this analysis provide policy implications for reorganizing South Korea’s energy taxation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0053.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: seasoned equity offerings; sustainable development; cumulative abnormal return; operational structure change
Online: 18 December 2017 (10:51:56 CET)
Sustainability is directly linked to firms’ survival in competitive markets. To survive, firms need extra capital, and seasoned equity offerings (SEOs) are one sustainability strategy. Additional resources from SEOs leads to changes in firms’ operational structure, which brings future sustainability. This study investigates whether there is sustainability in firms’ operational structure and the effects of sustainable development on operational performance and market reaction. We measure the operational structure change of firms as three proxies: 1) the rate of increase in the number of operating segments, 2) the Berry–Herfindahl index using the ratio of sales of each operating segment out of total sales, and 3) the size of net investment in plant and equipment. Our results show that operational structure change has a statistically significant and positive correlation with long-term operating performance. In addition, there is no significant stock price response at first, but the operating performance in the next term is perceived as a favorable factor after 3 years. The results show that there are different responses in the stock market toward operational structure change. The empirical results confirm that firms with SEO have sustainable development in operational structure and that markets recognize firms’ sustainability strategy arising from SEOs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0190.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: built environment; health equity; insect vectors; public health; social determinants of health
Online: 29 February 2020 (11:01:03 CET)
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are primary vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Ae. aegypti is highly anthropophilic and relies nearly exclusively on human blood meals and habitats for reproduction. Socioeconomic factors may influence the spread of Ae. aegypti due to its close relationship with humans. This paper describes and summarizes the published literature on how socioeconomic variables influence the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the mainland United States. A comprehensive search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO Academic Search Complete through June 12, 2019 was used to retrieve all articles published in English on the association of socioeconomic factors and the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Additionally, a hand search of mosquito control association websites was conducted in an attempt to identify relevant grey literature. Articles were screened for eligibility using the process described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Initially, 3,493 articles were identified through the database searches and previously known literature. After checking for duplicates, 2,145 articles remained. 570 additional records were identified through the grey literature search for a total of 2,715 articles. These articles were screened for eligibility using their titles and abstracts, and 2,677 articles were excluded for not meeting the eligibility criteria. Finally, the full text for each of the remaining articles (n = 38) was read to determine eligibility. Through this screening process, 11 articles were identified for inclusion in this review. The findings for these 11 studies revealed inconsistent relationships between the studied socioeconomic factors and the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti. The findings of this review suggest a gap in the literature and understanding of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ae. aegypti that could hinder efforts to implement effective public health prevention and control strategies should a disease outbreak occur.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: health equity; implementation; obesity; systematic review; CFIR; qualitative review; school-based interventions; children; facilitators
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:59:34 CET)
Background: Health inequity (HI) remains a major challenge in public health. Improving the health of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) can help to reduce overall HI in children. Childhood obesity is a global problem, entailing several adverse health effects. It is crucial to assess influencing factors for adoption, implementation and sustainment of interventions. This review aims to identify articles reporting about influencing factors for the implementation of school-based interventions promoting obesity prevention behaviors in children with low SES. It aims to critically appraise the articles’ quality, assess influencing factors, categorize and evaluate them, and to discuss possible implications. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 7 databases with the following main inclusion criteria: 1) school-based interventions and 2) target group aged 5–14 years. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, its five domains (intervention characteristics, inner setting, outer setting, characteristics of individuals, process) along with 39 constructs within these domains were used to deductively analyze the data. We grouped the articles with regard to the characteristics of the interventions in simple and complex interventions. For each domain, and for the groups of simple and complex interventions, the most commonly reported influencing factors are identified. Results: 6452 articles were screened, and 16 met all eligibility criteria. Included articles applied mixed methods (n=10), qualitative (n=5) and quantitative design (n=1). Of these, five were considered to report simple interventions and eleven were considered to report complex interventions. In total, 295 influencing factors were assessed. Aspects of the inner setting were reported in every study, aspects of the outer setting were the least reported domain, and in the group of simple interventions not reported at all. In the inner setting, most reported influencing factors were time (n=7), scheduling (n=6) and communication (n=6). Conclusion: This review found a wide range of influencing factors for implementation. Most important influencing factors need to be assessed for every setting. Including all stakeholders involved in the implementation process enhances the prioritization of the most important influencing factors for the specific setting. More empirical research and practical guidance are needed to promote obesity prevention behaviors among children with low SES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: IMR( Infant Mortality rate), MMR( Maternal Mortality rate), Equity, Social Empowerment, Marginalized , Social exclusion
Online: 21 June 2020 (16:39:41 CEST)
Introduction and Background: Bangladesh as a country could prove its development potential over the past several years with its thriving economic growth and also with a significant level of positive changes made possible in its significantly important health and social indicators including MMR, IMR, Child nutrition, fertility regulation, child survival and Infectious disease prevalence. 1,2,3 The country could make a commendable contribution in achieving Global development goal (MDG) at a significant level and also aiming to continue its effort to sustain that status quo and also making progressive changes consistently to be contributory to SDG goals and indicators towards positive development.2,3 Purpose: This lyrical critic is an attempt to uphold the facts and evidences embedded in social development reality where the implementations are in constant challenge with urgency, need and continuity. Methodology: A quick and intensive desk review and web search made to capture the insights from secondary data facts, stories, evidences, news features and the findings blended with personal insights and experiences. Finally, compilation of insights and views through a laid over narrative analytics and described in a descriptive lyrical format. Purposefully ignored the figure and quantity data reflection in the write up as this write up is considered more as a social development lyric rather than a scientific write up. Conclusion: Our diversified marginalized community people are of vital importance from a social inclusion and exclusion point of view, to look into this more deeply whether they are socially, epidemiologically, statistically, economic indicator wise fall into the embracing practice of our democracy and inclusion culture of addressing the marginalized. This posed our country in a very challenging situation, a dilemma in between morality vs reality, emotion vs equity, social response vs political standpoint and so on. With a long end history of community responsive and socially sensitive works within /among our generalized poor, poverty stricken and marginalized people group, where the sustainable and ethically driven, gender sensitive social empowerment is still a far cry! The diversity in nature always claims to add on beauty, tranquility and completeness towards the sense of Equity management, but it’s very true that this diversity word has a very opposite and different connotation while it is relevant to diversity in marginalization and appears in a more critical and complex dynamics to seek solution. Therefore, the ultimate empowerment of community specially the marginalized people remain entrapped into the social development process of enduring response in embracing urgency in community care where the right response may not get right weightage into the community development priority response and also the development actors priority agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0320.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: consumer-based brand equity, social media, cultural institutions, factor analysis, CBBE, 3C Sustainable System
Online: 17 September 2018 (15:07:33 CEST)
In the second decade of the 21st century, social media changed the nature of communication and cooperation between participants of the culture services market. They became, among other things, an important marketing instrument in the area of contact with the customers of the cultural offer. However, despite their growing importance in various areas of activity of organisations in the cultural sector, the issue of building the cultural institution's brand equity by social media users is relatively seldom raised. Research on the impact of online consumer activity on brand equity is at an early stage of development. Therefore, this article is an attempt to fill the research gap in this area. The article presents the results of a survey conducted in 2018 on a group of 1021 consumers of cultural services, who at the same time regularly used social media. The statistical analysis carried out and the research results obtained prove that the 3C sustainable system developed by the authors, concerning the activity of consumers of cultural services in social media, stimulates the consumer-based brand equity (CBBE). Statistically significant relations have been observed in particular for CBBE components related to the awareness of a cultural institution's brand and for the relationship related to the perception of its quality. The study opens a review of literature on social media and consumer-based brand equity (CBBE). Next, based on the COBRA model (consumer's online brand-related activities), a proposal of the 3C sustainable system, concerning the activity of consumers of cultural services in social media, has been presented. The further part of the article presents research hypotheses, a conceptual model, research methodology as well as results and conclusions. The last part of the article discusses the results obtained and indicates the existing management implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0620.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Urban green space; COVID-19; urban parks; open space; New York City; urban infrastructure; equity
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:00:40 CEST)
Urban green spaces provide a range of environmental and health benefits, which may become even more critical during times of crisis such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, with a radical shift in mobility, additional concerns over safety, and access temporarily restricted during the implementation of social distancing policies, the experience and use of urban green spaces may be reduced. This is particularly concerning for densely populated cities like New York, considered the first U.S. epicenter or vanguard of the outbreak. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 on the perception and use of urban green spaces, we conducted a social survey during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic in New York City (May 13 - June 15, 2020). The results of the survey show respondents continued to use urban green spaces during the pandemic and consider them to be more important for mental and physical health than before the pandemic began. However, the study revealed a pattern of concerns residents have about green space accessibility and safety, and found key differences between the concerns and needs of different populations, suggesting a crucial role for inclusive decision-making, support for additional management strategies, and urban ecosystem governance that reflect the differential values, needs and concerns of communities across the City. As urban centers face looming budget cuts and reduced capacity, this study provides some empirical evidence to illustrate the value of urban green spaces as critical urban infrastructure, and may have implications for funding, policy, and management, of urban green spaces in NYC, with potential applications to other cities, particularly during times of crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0196.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Pricing currency risk; regime-switching; sectors equity markets; state of economy; C-Vine copulas; developed; emerging
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:32:45 CEST)
This paper investigates whether currency risk is priced differently in the different sectors (industrial, financial, and basic materials) of equity markets in a sample of developed United States of America (USA) and developing economies (Brazil, India, Poland, and South Africa). The paper makes use of the following techniques: (i) Univariate Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average and Exponential General Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (ARFIMA-EGARCH), (ii) the Markov-Switching method (MS), and (iii) the Canonical Vine Copulas (C-Vine) techniques. Using a sample of daily data made of the foreign exchange rate against the domestic currency and equity market sectors; our findings show that there is an asymmetry effect between equities markets and the foreign exchange rate: there is a heterogeneous, strong, and positive dependence between the two. Higher equities prices are associated with depreciation of local currencies, according to US dollar (USD) exchange rates. In addition, we find that the selected emerging economies are pricing a positive and considerable currency risk. The pricing of currency risk has a varied effect in both regimes representing the states of the economy. In fact, when currency risk pricing has a beneficial impact on certain sectors of the economy, investors predict better returns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0106.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: social ecological system; tree canopy goal; urban conservation; urban forest equity; urban forest goals; urban tree canopy
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:08:20 CEST)
Urban forests are critical infrastructure for mitigating environmental and social challenges cities face. Municipalities and non-governmental entities, among others, often set goals (e.g., tree planting or canopy targets) to support urban forests and their benefits. We focus on canopy goals and develop conceptual underpinnings for an analysis of where additional canopy, as one important dimension of the urban forest, can fit within the landscape, while considering factors that influence where trees can be planted and where canopy can grow – ‘practical canopy.’ We apply this in New York City (NYC) to inform the setting of a canopy goal by the NYC Urban Forest Task Force (UFTF) for the NYC Urban Forest Agenda, which may trigger a virtuous cycle that supports the urban forest there. We further develop framing for a ‘priority canopy’ analysis to understand where urban forest expansion should be prioritized given more context (e.g., environmental hazards, local preferences), which can inform how expansion of the urban forest is achieved. We estimate an opportunity for 15,899 ha of new canopy in NYC given existing opportunities and constraints (practical canopy), which, if leveraged, could result in nearly doubling the canopy as of 2017 (17,253 ha). However, like existing canopy, practical canopy is not evenly distributed, in general, or across jurisdictions and land uses. Relying solely on areas identified as practical canopy to expand the urban forest would exacerbate inequities in its distribution. We discuss how the NYC UFTF established an aspirational but achievable goal of 30% canopy cover by 2035, which was informed by this analysis and guided by priorities of equity, health, and resilience. Achievement of this goal will ultimately require a combination of protecting and stewarding the existing resource, and leveraging opportunities for tree planting. Achieving a more equitable urban forest will also require identification of priority canopy, and, in cases, creation of new opportunities for tree planting and canopy expansion. Overall, the collaborative establishment of such goals based on local context can be instrumental in creating a virtuous cycle, moving conservation actors toward exercising influence and agency within the social ecological system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0336.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; economic development; equity; socially-equitable development; resilient and sustainable infrastructure; resilient and sustainable communities; disaster management
Online: 19 April 2020 (07:09:12 CEST)
This paper aims to provoke fundamental thinking and action around the value and importance of socially-equitable development to the economic advancement, resilience, and prosperity of communities, as we contend with the 21st Century grand challenge of the changing climate and disasters. As local communities and the global community have experienced an increased frequency, intensity and duration of natural and man-made disasters over the past several decades, opportunities have also grown to identify and reap the benefits of socially-equitable economic development. Reflecting on the COVID-19 pandemic, we discuss the critical importance of socially-equitable economic development to the resilience and sustainability of communities and the infrastructure that supports them. To this end, we: (1) examine what constitutes socially-equitable economic development at different spatial scales of community; (2) explore whether socially-equitable development can occur at different scales of community; (3) explicate the importance of formally considering the inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes for socially-equitable development; (4) explain why the pursuit of equal distribution of the benefits and burdens of development is a necessary but not sufficient endeavor for socially-equitable economic development; (5) analyze the relationships between socially-equitable development, and resilient and sustainable infrastructure and communities; (6) explain why socially-equitable development should be a key component of infrastructure and community resilience strategies in the 21st Century; and, (7) explain why socially-equitable development can ultimately be viewed as a long-term strategy for prosperity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0275.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Healthcare Priority-setting; Health Technology Assessment; Essential Health Packages, Low to Middle Income Countries; Equity; Efficiency; Evidence-Informed Decision Making
Online: 12 August 2021 (13:14:51 CEST)
There is a systematic exclusion of gender-based violence, safe abortion, reproductive cancers, infertility services, comprehensive sexuality education, sexuality services, and STI’s other than HIV in essential health packages in LMICs. To accelerate progress on sexual reproductive health (SRH), the Guttmacher–Lancet Commission proposed the adoption of these interventions into an essential health package of SRH services that should be universally available. In this commentary, we use a healthcare priority-setting processes lens to review the importance of these services for universal health coverage. We isolate inherent challenges in social value judgments for terminal, process and content evidence for their healthcare priority-setting. We then advance promising emerging practical examples from low to middle-income countries on evidence-informed decision-making processes. We recommend capacity development through regional support, generating equity and efficiency evidence and strengthening political and publicly acceptable processes to institutionalise and operationalise evidence-informed decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0498.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP); Green Deal; blue economy; fishing communities; fisheries co-management; climate change; local development; evolutionary governance; commonisation; blue equity; blue justice; Greece
Online: 29 April 2023 (05:06:02 CEST)
Appropriate governance structures are extremely important for the fishery dependent communities to develop integrated territorial development strategies and adaptive capacity to change, including the climate one. This paper assesses to what extent fisheries co-management schemes (e.g Fisheries LAGs, being regional/local governance instruments in fishing communities) are strengthening sustainability. The latter includes improving energy efficiency, promoting renewable energy sources (RES), coping with climate crisis, minimizing environmental impacts, and promoting sustainable blue economy. For detecting policy aspects of aligning climate neutrality and sustainable blue economy, the research lens focuses on the Greek Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGs) given that these are mostly located in coastal/marine and insular territories with significant blue growth potential. To map and assess their capacity and efficiency in pursuing Green Deal objectives, a co-development process with FLAG managers was put in place. The results and findings of this process reveal the scarcity of sustainability and blue economy related strategies. Key conclusion is that transition to a post-carbon blue economy on a local level, requires the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of fisheries co-management schemes. The latter, being multi-sectoral structures, may boost dialogue and cooperation to harmonize local development strategies and EU policies. Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) as an evolutionary governance process itself, can be a driver for making FLAGs evolve, and strengthen commonization and blue justice and equity for fishers.