ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: self-conscious emotions; shame; embarrassment; guilt; moral emotions; anterior insula
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:30:53 CET)
Self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, play a fundamental role in regulating moral behavior and in promoting the welfare of the society. Despite their relevance, the neural bases of these emotions are uncertain. In the present meta-analysis, we performed a systematic literature review in order to single out functional neuroimaging studies on healthy individuals specifically investigating the neural substrates of shame, embarrassment and guilt. Seventeen studies investigating the neural correlates of shame/embarrassment, and seventeen studies investigating guilt brain representation met our inclusion criteria. The analyses revealed that both guilt and shame/embarrassment were associated with the activation of the left anterior insula, involved in emotional awareness processing, and arousal. Guilt specific areas were located within the left temporo-parietal junction, which is thought to be involved in social cognitive processes. Moreover, specific activations for shame/embarrassment involved areas related to social pain (dorsal anterior cingulate, insula, thalamus), behavioral inhibition (premotor cortex) networks. This pattern of results might reflect distinct action tendencies associated with the two emotions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes; Emotions; Emotional Intelligence; Health Behaviour; Emotions, Diabetes Management.
Online: 26 February 2021 (14:04:29 CET)
The functioning of the parents’ emotional sphere is very important to a child’s mental and physical health. This study focused on investigating the association between mothers’ emotional intelligence (EI) and paediatric type I diabetes (T1DM) disease management in their children. We hypothesized that mothers’ EI is associated with T1DM outcomes. Mothers of children with T1DM aged 6-12 years were surveyed. One hundred and thirty-four mothers, the main caregivers of their diabetic children, provided measures of EI and completed a demographic questionnaire. The primary indicator of diabetes management was haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; the main form of glycosylated haemoglobin). EI scales and subscales were associated with glycaemic management indices. Logistic regression analysis was applied for the assessment of the association between parents’ EI and their paediatric with T1DM disease management. The analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between T1DM management and mothers’ ability to understand and control own emotions, to transform their own negative emotions into positive and to control own negative emotions. Mothers’ EI scales and subscales of understanding and regulating their own emotions, subscales of transforming their own negative emotions into positive ones and controlling their own negative emotions were statistically reliable predictors of glycaemic control in children with T1DM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0443.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Expressions; Lie detection; Emotions; Micro expressions
Online: 23 December 2022 (04:20:53 CET)
In our day-to-day life, Lie detection has a significant concern. We human beings are very much inaccurate while detecting the liars and We believe in what we are told. Lie detection is important in today’s life, because Concealing the information or faking it can sometimes take you to huge problems. In any areas like airport management, criminal investigations, counterterrorism, etc this concept has great importance. It is an evergreen challenging and changing topic. This paper presents the common technique which was followed up till now and why it was not considered effective and a review of Robust solutions to detection of deception. People generally do not always believe on what someone says but also try to visualize their facial expressions. While in Robust solution these facial micro-expressions are identified, which are tiny, natural expressions seen on the individual’s face, when they try to conceal or suppress emotions. In addition, the article also provides the year-wise assessment and analysis of research articles published in the area of Lie detection from 2011 to 2022. In the end, our proposed framework for lie detection system is also presented. This paper cover up current issues as well as challenges that could be helpful to resolve in future research works. The review paper closes up by supporting future directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1453.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Discourteous Behavior; Extra-role performance; Emotions; Hardiness
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:02:34 CEST)
This study examined the effect of colleagues uncivil behavior on extra-role performance of teachers. The study further explored the mediating role of emotional exhaustion to intensify the effect. In parallel, moderation of psychological hardiness to absorb the negative shocks was also determined. For examining the direct, mediating, and moderating effects, primary data were collected through mailed questionnaires. To overcome the issues of common method biases, dyadic and time lagged approaches were used for collection of data. Responses were collected in three phases, with appropriate time intervals. Data of independent, mediating, and moderating variables were collected from teachers while of dependent variable form their immediate supervisors, i.e. HoDs. The study found a significant effect of colleagues’ discourteous behavior on extra-role performance of victims at job. Significant mediation of emotional exhaustion in the effect was also observed. In the meantime, hardiness of targets absolutely moderated the effect to minimize the associated consequences. Based on results, several policy implication and interventions were suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: emotions; emotional intelligence; intellectual performance; learning; stress
Online: 16 May 2023 (08:57:25 CEST)
Emotional instability and stress are main disturbances that condition the learning process, affecting both teachers and students. The main objective of this review is to analyze the influence of stress and emotions (as part of stress) on the learning process. The quality and intensity of emotions will not depend exclusively on a particular situation, but also on the subjective evaluation that the person makes of the situation in terms of a set of assessment dimensions. Emotions lead to sentimental, cognitive, behavioral and physiological changes, which will have a strong influence on intellectual performance. Stress is a physiological mechanism that the organism develops to adapt and survive in external and internal environments. Although it seems that it is a general pattern of response to emotions, it could be assumed that each emotion seems to have its own pattern of physiological reaction. In conclusion, extreme stress situations can generate anxiety and frustration in students. The activation of coping strategies constitutes a key mechanism for dealing positively with problems and challenges, generating positive emotions essential for the self-regulation of learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: physical education, emotions, social skills, primary education
Online: 19 April 2018 (16:43:03 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore the intensity of emotions and social skills in a physical education teaching unit (PE). Two instruments of analysis are used: the GES (Games and Emotion Scale) to evaluate emotions and an ad-hoc questionnaire to measure the social skills of 21 students in the sixth year of primary education. The data analysis was carried out using a generalised estimating equation model (GEE), taking into account the correlation between the different scores of the same subject and the asymmetry of the data. The results show positive emotions to be significantly more intense than negative ones and ambiguous emotions are revealed throughout all the PE sessions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0232.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: customer emotions; cosmetic products; luxury products; online shopping
Online: 23 February 2023 (02:30:36 CET)
Most buying decisions are affected by the customer's analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the product and its emotional aspects. Psychological and marketing studies have confirmed the role of customer emotions in various stages of the purchasing process. The present study aims to identify the dimensions and factors that potentially influence customer emotions in buying luxury cosmetics. First, in order to identify the various aspects of customer emotions, a qualitative study was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 customers of luxury cosmetics and health products in Telegram groups. This study led to the identification of various dimensions of customer emotions and a list of factors that potentially act as antecedents of emotions in the target population. In the next step, based on group consensus, the antecedents affecting customer emotions were determined. The members of the panel at this stage included 15 specialists and experts in the fields of marketing, psychology, companies importing luxury cosmetics and hygiene products which are active in online networks, as well as managers of luxury cosmetics and hygiene groups in online spaces. The consensus of experts was reached in three stages and 36 factors affecting customers' emotions were determined and ranked based on the relevance or strength of the perceived effect from the point of view of experts. Finally, they were classified into three categories as group and product variables, situational variables, and individual variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0477.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: emotions; sentiment analysis; machine learning; fake news; disinformation
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:29:52 CEST)
Researchers are concerned about the impact of fake news on democracy, while it could also escalate to life-threatening problems. Fake news continues to spread, so does people's behaviour and emotions about fake news via social media. This opens up the back door for cyber-criminals to entice people (i.e. taking advantage of victims' emotional and behavioural aspects) to click on fraudulent links (e.g. phishing links) associated with fake news when reading. Therefore, we investigate how people's emotional and behavioural features influence reading and diffusing fake news on social media. We proposed a classification model incorporating people's behavioural features and their emotions to better detect fake news in social media. Our results reveal that fake news has more negative emotions than legitimate ones and both title and the content of the news/posts are equally important. Furthermore, we have identified that there exist strong correlations between some of the behavioural and emotional features. Finally, we concluded that emotional and behavioural features are important for fake news classifications as they improve the accuracy of detecting fake news, and the findings of our study can ultimately be used to develop a risk score prediction model for fake news in social media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1894.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: Personality change; organ transplant; heart transplant; temperament; emotions; preferences
Online: 27 September 2023 (11:08:09 CEST)
Personality changes have been reported to occur following organ transplantation, and most commonly among heart transplant recipients. We set out to examine whether personality changes do occur following transplantation, and specifically, what types of changes occur among heart transplant recipients compared to other organ recipients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2022, in which 47 participants (23 heart recipients and 24 other organ recipients) completed an online survey. In this study, 89% of all transplant recipients reported experiencing personality changes after receiving their organ transplant, which was similar for heart and other organ recipients. With the exception of physical attributes, the types of personality changes reported were similar between the two groups. These finding indicate that heart transplant recipients are not unique in their reported experience of personality changes following organ transplantation. Further studies are needed to deepen our understanding of what causes these personality changes following organ transplantation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0369.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: usable security; fake news; emotions; sentiment analysis; machine learning
Online: 27 November 2020 (16:43:48 CET)
Social media giants like Facebook are struggling to keep up with fake news, in the light of the fact that disinformation diffuses at lightning speed. For example, the COVID-19 (i.e. Coronavirus) pandemic is testing the citizens' ability to distinguish real news from falsifying facts (i.e. disinformation). Cyber-criminals take advantage of the inability to cope with fake news diffusion on social media platforms. Fake news, created as a means to manipulate readers to perform various malicious IT activities such as clicking on fraudulent links associated with the fake news/posts. However, no previous study has investigated the strategies used to create fake news on social media. Therefore, we have analysed five data-sets using Machine Learning (ML) that contain online news articles (i.e. both fake and legitimate news) to investigate strategies of creating fake news on social media platforms. Our study findings revealed a threat model understanding strategies of crafting fake news which may highly likely diffuse on social media platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0170.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Edith Stein; care ethics; personalism; feminism; empathy; emotions; caring; phenomenology
Online: 18 April 2022 (11:41:18 CEST)
The personalist ethics of Edith Stein and her feminist thought are intrinsically interrelated. This unique connection constitutes perhaps the main novelty of Stein’s ethical thought that makes her a forerunner of some recent developments in feminist ethics, particularly ethics of care. A few scholars noticed the resemblance between Stein’s feminist personalism and care ethics, yet none of them have properly explored it. This paper offers an in-depth discussion of the overlaps and differences between Stein’s ethical insights and the core ideas of care ethics. It argues that both Stein and care ethicists relocate a certain set of practices, values and attitudes from the periphery to the center of ethical reflection. This includes relationality, emotionality and care. The paper finally argues that it is plausible and fruitful to read Stein’s advocacy of ‘woman’s values and attitudes’ in a critical feminist way, rather than as an instance of essentialist difference feminism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: callous-unemotional traits; eye-tracking; emotions; conduct problems; emotion recognition.
Online: 3 September 2021 (13:36:40 CEST)
The ability to efficiently recognize the emotions on others’ faces is something that most of us take for granted. Children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and impulsivity/conduct problems (ICP), such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, have been previously described as being “fear blind”. This is also associated with looking less at the eye regions of fearful faces, which are highly diagnostic. Previous attempts to intervene into emotion recognition strategies have not had lasting effects on participants’ fear recognition abilities. Here we present both (a) additional evidence that there is a two-part causal chain, from personality traits to face recognition strategies using the eyes, then from strategies to rates of recognizing fear in others; and (b) a pilot intervention that had persistent effects for weeks after the end of instruction. Further, the intervention led to more change in those with the highest CU traits. This both clarifies the specific mechanisms linking personality to emotion recognition and shows that the process is fundamentally malleable. It is possible that such training could promote empathy and reduce the rates of antisocial behavior in specific populations in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0571.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Destination Social Responsibility; Tourists’ Emotions; Tourist Satisfaction; Hoi An, Vietnam
Online: 30 July 2018 (09:39:20 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to define destination social responsibility as a multidimensional construct and examine the relationships among DSR, tourists’ emotions, and their satisfaction through the lens of corporate social responsibility. A model was empirically tested with a sample of 359 random foreign tourists caught in Hoi An, Vietnam. The results indicate that all DSR dimensions, including economic, environmental, legal-ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities significantly enhance tourists’ emotions while only legal-ethical and philanthropic responsibilities directly affect tourists’ satisfaction. The findings also confirm the mediating effect of emotions between destination social responsibility and tourists’ overall satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0779.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Emotions; Iran; National Survey; Online Study; Psychological Impact
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:17:09 CEST)
Identifying the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the general population can help with planning and preparing for future pandemics. The main objective of the current study was to examine the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic among Iranian citizens in 2021. The current study used an online cross-sectional survey via web-based questionnaires among Iranian citizens. Perceived feelings during the COVID-19 pandemic were measured by the validated self-reported inventory by Reynolds et al, 2007. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including percent, mean, and standard deviation, as well as inferential statistics, including, correlation, chi-square, independent t-test, and analysis of variances (ANOVA) by SPSS.22. The average age of the respondents was 34.62 (±11.86). The most frequent feelings experienced by Iranian citizens were boredom (44.0%), nostalgia (40.6%), anxiety (35.3%), and nervousness (34.1%). Female participants, younger respondents, unemployed, single individuals, and those living in the urban areas experienced significantly higher levels of the negative feelings. The results of the study showed the high prevalence of the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iranian citizens, particularly among women, single, and unemployed people. Therefore, we need to develop more supportive and consultative packages for future pandemics as well as implement psychological rehabilitation after the crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0528.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Health; Emotions; Materials; Physical Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional Education; Elderly
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:46:14 CEST)
This research is aimed at the knowledge of the effectiveness of the material resources in the sensa-tions of exploratory procedures in 365 older people who take part in the physical activity that the Sport Municipal Institute (SMI) offers in the different sports centers assigned to it in the city of Se-ville, using a descriptive design and with a questionnaire developed and validated previously by the Delphi method; showing the relationship between the basic emotions that seniors experience when handling sport, and the materials. So it is claimed that exist a relation between older people, which practice exercise with the materials that they use on it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0561.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: environmental identity; environmental collective action; emotions; moral conviction; group efficacy beliefs.
Online: 24 February 2021 (17:13:27 CET)
The deterioration and destruction of the environment is becoming more and more considerable and greater efforts are needed to stop it. To accomplish this feat, all members of society must identify with environmental problems, with collective environmental action being one of the most relevant means of doing so. From this perspective, the analysis of the psychosocial factors that lead to participation in environmental collective action emerges as a priority objective in the research agenda. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the role of "environmental identity" as conceptualized by Clayton, as a central axis for explaining environmental collective action. The inclusion of the latter in the theoretical framework of the SIMCA model gives rise to the model that we have called EIMECA. Two studies were conducted, and the results reveal that environmental identity, a variety of negative affects, as well as group efficacy accompanied by hope for a simultaneous additive effect, are critical when it comes to predicting environmental collective action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: animal emotions; animal welfare; sensors; animal-based measures; affective states; emotion modelling
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:20:22 CET)
Emotions or affective states recognition in farm animals is an underexplored research domain. Despite significant advances in the animal welfare research, the animal affective computing through the development and application of devices and platforms that can not only recognize but interpret and process the emotions, are in nascent stage. By capitalizing on the immense potential of biometric sensors, the artificial intelligence enabled big data methods substantially offers advancement of animal welfare standards and meet the urgent need of caretakers to respond effectively to maintain the wellbeing of their animals. Farm animals, numbering over 70 billion worldwide, are increasingly managed in large-scale, intensive farms. With both public awareness and scientific evidence growing that farm animals experience suffering, as well as affective states such as fear, frustration and distress, there is an urgent need to develop efficient and accurate methods for monitoring their welfare. At present, there are no scientifically validated ‘benchmarks’ for quantifying transient emotional (affective) states in farm animals, and no established measures of good welfare, only indicators of poor welfare, such as injury, pain and fear. Conventional approaches to monitoring livestock welfare are time consuming, interrupt farming processes and involve subjective judgments. Biometric sensors data enabled by Artificial Intelligence are an emerging smart solution to unobtrusively monitoring livestock, but their potential for quantifying affective states and groundbreaking solutions in their application are yet to be realized. This review provides innovative methods for collecting big data on farm animal emotions, which can be used to train artificial intelligence models to classify, quantify and predict affective states in individual pigs and cows. Extending this to the group level, social network analysis can be applied to model emotional dynamics and contagion among animals. Finally, ‘digital twins’ of animals capable of simulating and predicting their affective states and be-havior in real time are a near-term possibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Tics; Emotions; Basal ganglia; Tourette's syndrome; dopamine; HPA-axis; Premontory sensory phenomena
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:28:48 CET)
Tics can be associated with neurological disorders and are thought to be the result of dysfunctional basal ganglia pathways. In Tourette Syndrome (TS), excess dopamine in the striatum is thought to excite the thalamo-cortical circuits, producing tics. When external stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, more dopamine is produced, furthering the excitation of tic-producing pathways. Emotional processing structures in the limbic are also activated during tics, providing further evidence of a possible emotional component in motor ticking behaviors. The purpose of the review is to better understand the relationship between emotional states and ticking behavior. We found support for the notion that premonitory-sensory phenomena (PSP), sensory stimulation, and other environmental stressors that impact the HPA-axis can influence tics through dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopamine plays a vital role in cognition and motor control, and is an important neurotransmitter in the pathophysiology of other disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which tend to be comorbid with ticking disorders and are thought to use similar pathways. It is concluded that there is an emotional component to ticking behaviors. Emotions primarily involving anxiety, tension, stress, and frustration have been associated with exacerbated tics, with PSP contributing to these feelings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0568.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: service accessibility; dementia knowledge; affordability; carer role strain; self-criticism; negative emotions
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:15:14 CET)
Because of an often complicated and difficult-to-access care system, help-seeking for people with suspected dementia can be stressful. Difficulty in help-seeking may contribute to carer burden, in addition to other known stressors in dementia care. This study examined the relationship between perceived help-seeking difficulty and carer burden, and the barriers contributing to perceived difficulty. We interviewed 110 carers accessing a community-based dementia assessment service for suspected dementia of a family member for their perceived difficulty, delays, and barriers in help-seeking, and carers burden in terms of role strain, self-criticism, and negative emotions. Linear regression models showed that perceived help-seeking difficulty is associated with carer self-criticism, while carer role strain and negative emotions are associated with symptom severity of the person with dementia but not help-seeking difficulty. Inadequate knowledge about symptoms, service accessibility, and affordability together explained more than half of the variance in perceived help-seeking difficulty (Nagelkerke R2 = .56). Public awareness about symptoms, support in navigating service, and financial support may reduce perceived difficulty in help-seeking, which in turn may reduce carer self-criticism during the early course of illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1975.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; mixed method; family well-being; emotions; coping strategies; mother; children; adolescents
Online: 29 August 2023 (14:15:12 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused many enduring changes in everyday life of families with negative effects on parents’ and children well-being. However, literature lacks of studies exploring emotional reactions and coping strategies of both mothers and children of different ages. Furthermore, most studies used only self-reports. This study aimed to identify the emotions and coping strategies of children, adolescents and their mothers and to verify the association between maternal and children well-being. A mixed-method design using interviews and questionnaires was applied to collect information on well-being (emotional reactions, behavioral/emotional problems) and coping strategies of both mothers (n=65), and their children (n=35, 8-10 year; n=30, 11-13 year) during the second wave of the pandemic (December 2020). No differences between the groups emerged concerning the emotional reactions reported. In contrast, mothers and children of different ages reported different self-regulation and other-regulation strategies. Moreover, maternal strategies had different effects on children well-being. The integration of qualitative and quantitative results was informative to understand how families adapted to the radical changes of everyday life caused by the pandemic. Implications for developing interventions in such similar stressful situations to promote family well-being are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Secondary emotions; emotional speech synthesis; fundamental frequency contour; Fujisaki model; low-resource; empathetic speech
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:29:37 CET)
A low-resource emotional speech synthesis system for empathetic speech synthesis based on modelling prosody features is presented here. Secondary emotions, identified to be needed for empathetic speech, are modelled and synthesised in this paper. As secondary emotions are subtle in nature, they are difficult to model compared to primary emotions. They are also less explored, and this is one of the few studies that model secondary emotions in speech. Current speech synthesis research uses large databases and deep learning techniques to develop emotion models. There are many secondary emotions, and hence, developing large databases for each of the secondary emotions is expensive. This research presents a proof-of-concept using hand-crafted feature extraction and modelling of these features using a low resource-intensive machine learning approach, thus creating synthetic speech with secondary emotions. Here, a quantitative model-based transformation is used to shape the emotional speech fundamental frequency contour. Speech rate and mean intensity are modelled via rule-based approaches. Using these models, an emotional text-to-speech synthesis system to synthesise five secondary emotions - anxious, apologetic, confident, enthusiastic and worried is developed. A perception test to evaluate the synthesised emotional speech is also conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: body expression; self-concept; pre-service training; physical activity; physical education; COVID-19 pandemic; emotions
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:23:17 CET)
Body Expression (BE) has been defined in the past decades as a discipline within Physical Education (PE) with very particular characteristics and a strong emotional component. In this study, a programme of this discipline was applied to university Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (PASS) students from six consecutive academic years: three prior to and three during the pandemic. A pre-post design was used to determine how the BE programme affected the university students' self-concept (SC). To do so, a questionnaire with a multidimensional approach to this construct was administered, whose dimensions were closely related to the BE programme's characteristics. The results revealed significant improvements in the final SC, compared to the initial SC. Men reported lower SC values than women before the programme implementation, but higher at the end. Therefore, the change was larger in men, so the programme may have had an equalising effect between groups. It was also verified that the pandemic had particularly affected women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Deepfake; Animal Welfare; Animal Emotions; Artificial Intelligence; Digital Farming; Animal Based Measures; Emotion Modeling; Livestock Health
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:49:38 CEST)
Deepfake technologies are known for the creation of forged celebrity pornography, face and voice swaps, and other fake media content. Despite the negative connotations the technology bears, the underlying machine learning algorithms have a huge potential that could be applied to not just digital media, but also to medicine, biology, affective science, and agriculture, just to name a few. Due to the ability to generate big datasets based on real data distributions, deepfake could also be used to positively impact non-human animals such as livestock. Generated data using Generative Adversarial Networks, one of the algorithms that deepfake is based on, could be used to train models to accurately identify and monitor animal health and emotions. Through data augmentation, using digital twins, and maybe even displaying digital conspecifics where social interactions are enhanced, deepfake technologies have the potential to increase animal health, emotionality, sociality, animal-human and animal-computer interactions and thereby animal welfare, productivity, and sustainability of the farming industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0010.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project Based Learning; Scientific education; Preservice primary teacher; Emotions; Active Methodologies; Higher Education for Sustainable Development
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:13:23 CET)
The emotional dimension in education has become increasingly important in recent decades. Enhancing the emotional dimension of prospective teachers in science subjects is higher education stuff responsibility. The implementation of active methodologies could modify the traditional student-teacher roles that are encouraged by the educational policies implemented in the Bologna Process. The principal aim of this work is to describe a Project Based Learning methodology and to introduce it as potential resource for the emotional and cognitive improvement of 19 prospective primary teachers enrolled in a scientific subject. This is a qualitative study with a transversal sustainability approach in the context of a research line focused on Higher Education for Sustainable Development. A questionnaire was designed and filled by the students at two different times, before and after implementation of the activity. The initial feedback from students was surprisingly enthusiastic by the fact that they were working with rockets, despite of this is not a common emotion in the science field. The results show the emotional improvement of prospective teachers after the implementation. It is concluded that a correct science education is necessary during the training of teachers taking into account their emotional dimension and the social repercussion due to the future transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0131.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: foreign mental contents; human sclera; reception of pointing gestures; self-conscious emotions; Theory-of-Mind; vicarious expectations
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:54:13 CEST)
Abstract. Can we nowadays keep a qualitative difference between the primitive and advanced Theory-of-Mind? The old criteria have become blurry. In addition, it is clear that in ‘apes’ lifestyle’ it is not necessary to use the communicative-cognitive basic abilities which became indispensable in ‘the new lifestyle’. Thus, it is usual to conclude that apes would have to some degree such abilities. However, this article tries to reformulate and defend that qualitative difference. Thus, after underlining the contrast between two kinds of mental states (‘contents’ and ‘expectations’), I apply it to the detection of foreign mental states as well. Then, three points are proposed: First, ‘vicarious expectations’ sustain the primitive ToM; second, a subject can have no expectation of inner states which are intrinsically impossible for him; third, the state of interacting with ourselves as with a different person –e.g., the thinking what others think of us– cannot be a vicarious expectation of ours, but it requires the estimation of foreign contents. From this hypothesis, I deduce that vicarious expectations are unable to sustain self-conscious emotions or the really effective reception of pointing gestures. These abilities could appear only when ‘the estimation of foreign contents’ –i.e., the origin of the advanced ToM– arose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0050.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Emotions Mining; Context Mining; Sensory Mining; Artificial Intelligence; Information extraction; Text classification; Fairy tales; Olfactory Cultural Heritage
Online: 2 August 2022 (07:57:35 CEST)
This paper presents an Artificial Intelligence approach to mining context and emotions related to olfactory cultural heritage narratives, in particular to fairy tales. We provide an overview of the role of smell and emotions in literature, as well as highlight the importance of olfactory experience and emotions from psychology and linguistic perspectives. We introduce a methodology for extracting smells and emotions from text, as well as demonstrate the context-based visualizations related to smells and emotions implemented in a novel Smell Tracker tool. The evaluation is performed using a collection of fairy tales from Grimm and Andersen. We find out that fairy tales often connect smell with emotional charge of situations. The experimental results show that we can detect smells and emotions with F1 score of 92.7 and 79.2, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0073.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: emotions; planning; participation; digital participation; physiological sensors; galvanic skin response; GSR; stress levels; emotional layer; urban; city
Online: 4 July 2018 (11:53:17 CEST)
Although our emotional connection with the physical urban setting is often valued, it is rarely recognised or used as a resource to understand future actions in city planning. Yet, despite the importance of emotion, citizens’ emotions are typically seen as difficult to quantify and individualistic, even though knowledge about people’s response to space could help planners understand people’s behaviours and learn about how citizens use and live in the city. The study explores the relationship between the physical space and emotions through identifying the links between stress levels, and specific features of the urban environment. This study aims to show the potential of integrating the use of galvanic skin response (GSR) within urban spatial analysis and city planning, in order to address the relationship between emotions and urban spaces. This method involved participants using a (GSR) device linked to location data to measure participant’s emotional responses along a walking route in a city centre environment. Findings show correlations between characteristics of environment and stress levels, as well as how specific features of the city spaces such as road crossing create stress ‘hotspots’. We suggest that the data obtained could contribute to citizens creating their own information layer - an emotional layer- that could inform urban planning decision-making. The implications of this application of this method as an approach to public participation in urban planning are also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dental care; emotions; health personnel; health services; human needs; motivation; patient reported outcome measures; patient satisfaction; personal satisfaction; theory of satisfaction
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:44:11 CEST)
There is little understanding of patients' experiences and perceptions with satisfaction by health professionals such as medical and dental clinicians. Furthermore, patient satisfaction is not well understood. The objective of this article is to better understand patients' satisfaction with their medical and dental care. The methods of the current article are based on a narrative review of the literature strategy. Patient satisfaction's multidimensional nature has been established since the perceived reasons for satisfaction varied widely among patients. Many aspects of the treatment influence participant satisfaction at different stages of the intervention's process. An improved understanding of the basis for managing patients' expectations with information reiteratively and efficiently may ultimately reduce patients' potential for negative feelings toward the medical and dental treatment experience. The consumerist method may misrepresent the concept of satisfaction in health service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1098.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; COVID-19; Digital Media, Emotions Detection; Machine Learning; Medical Informatics; Mental Health; Natural language Processing; SARS-COV-2; Social Media; Supervised Learning; Vaccination
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:16:20 CEST)
Global rapidly evolving events, e.g., COVID-19, are usually followed by countermeasures and policies. As a reaction, the public tends to express their emotions on social media platforms. Therefore, predicting emotional responses to events is critical to put a plan to avoid risky behaviors. This paper proposes a machine learning-based framework to detect public emotions based on social media posts in response to specific events. It presents a precise measurement of population-level emotions which can aid governance in monitoring public response and guide it to put in place strategies such as targeted monitoring of mental health, to react to a rise in negative emotions in response to lockdowns, or information campaigns, for instance in response to elevated rates of fear in response to vaccination programs. We evaluate our framework by extracting 15,455 tweets. We annotate and categorize the emotions into 11 categories based on Plutchik’s study of emotion and extract the features using a combination of Bag of Words and Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency. We filter 813 COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets and use them to demonstrate our framework’s effectiveness. Numerical evaluation of emotions prediction using Random Forest and Logistic Regression shows that our framework predicts emotions with an accuracy up to 95%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neuroscience; thalamus; basal ganglia; cortical layers; hippocampus; cerebellum; habenula; claustrum; amygdala; inhibition; predictions; automaticity; dopamine; serotonin; acetylcholine; opioids; oxytocin; crh; glucocorticoids; cannabinoids; orexin; melanin-concentrating hormone; mirror neuron; place cells; grid cells; language; imagery; working memory; attention; consciousness; emotions
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:35:51 CEST)
Understanding brain function is one of the most important problems in human history. At present, there is no concrete theory for how the brain works. Here, a theory is presented that provides a detailed mechanistic biological account of the brain's capacities, including motor control, functional states, language, and thinking. Brain function is managed by a well-defined response (R) process that is generally similar to the process underlying the immune system. The R process is strongly reflected in the brain's anatomy, physiology, and external interactions. Different R process stages are supported by distinct excitatory networks located in different cortical layers, hippocampal fields, and bagal ganglia paths, by distinct coordination networks comprised of GABAergic interneurons, and by distinct molecular agents. The roles of norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and acetylcholine is to promote the alert, planning, goal-setting and execution R process modes, respectively. Opioids and oxytocin promote termination by success, failure, fight or run, while glucocorticoids and cannabinoids suppress acute responses to protect cells. The R process has two instances occurring at different time scales. The millisecond-scale Quax process implements the execution of hierarchical sequences of movements and thoughts, in which the selection of the next action is determined via interaction between top-down predictions and sensory inputs. The slower Need process controls the satisfaction of internal and external needs. The theory differs from the existing standard accounts in many of the major topics (e.g., the basal ganglia, dopamine, language), and shows how cognition results from biological processes.