ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: childhood trauma; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; sex difference; age
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:39:57 CEST)
Background. We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report was investigated. Methods. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used the data documented in the electronic medical records of patients who were hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. The CM was assessed using the 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which evaluates emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. The linear and logistic regression models were used (α = 0.01). Results. Three hundred thirty five patients with MDD (255 women and 80 men) and 168 with BD (97 women and 71 men) were included. In both samples, considerable CM rates were identified, but no statistically significant sex differences were detected in the variety of CTQ-based CM aspects. There was a significant association, with no sex differences, between the increasing patients’ age and a decreasing burden of CM. Conclusion. Both women and men with MDD or BD experienced a similar and considerable CM burden. Our findings support the routine CM assessment in psychiatric clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: voltage-gated calcium channels; major depressive disorder; autism spectrum disorder; schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder; anxiety; calcium channel modulators; psychiatric disorders; auxiliary subunits; genetic risk variations
Online: 20 June 2019 (04:16:52 CEST)
Psychiatric disorders are mental, behavioral or emotional disorders. These conditions are prevalent, one in four adults suffer from any type of psychiatric disorders world-wide. It has always been observed that psychiatric disorders have a genetic component, however new methods to sequence full genomes of large cohorts have identified with high precision genetic risk loci for these conditions. Psychiatric disorders include, but are not limited to, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Several risk loci for psychiatric disorders fall within genes that encode for voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs). Calcium entering through CaVs is key for multiple neuronal processes. In this review, we will summarize recent findings that link CaVs and their auxiliary subunits to psychiatric disorders. First, we will provide a general overview of CaVs structure, classification, function, expression and pharmacology. Next, we will summarize tools and databases to study risk loci associated with psychiatric disorders. We will examine functional studies of risk variations in CaV genes when available. We will review pharmacological evidence of the use of CaV modulators to treat psychiatric disorders. Our review will be of interest for those studying pathophysiological aspects of CaVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0938.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; infectious diseases; upper respiratory infections; lower respiratory infections; lung-brain axis; gut-brain axis
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:23:28 CEST)
Mood disorders are among the commonest mental disorders worldwide. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that there are close links between infectious diseases and mood disorders, but the strength and direction of these association remain largely unknown. Theoretical models have attempted to explain this link based on evolutionary or immune-related factors, but these have not been empirically verified. The current study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the incidence of infectious diseases and mood disorders, while correcting for climate and economic factors, based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Studies, 1990-2019. It was found that major depressive disorder was positively associated with lower respiratory infections, while bipolar disorder was positively associated with upper respiratory infections and negatively associated with enteric and tropical infections, both cross-sectionally and over a period of thirty years. These results suggest that a complex, bidirectional relationship exists between these disorders. This relationship may be mediated through the immune system as well as through the gut-brain and lung-brain axes. Understanding the mechanisms that link these groups of disorders could lead to advances in the prevention and treatment of both.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ischemic stroke; MRI; morphometry; post-stroke cognitive impairment, post-stroke depressive disorder; cortisol; α-amylase; interleukin-6; multiple hit hypothesis; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; sympathoadrenal system
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:06:30 CET)
Post-stroke depressive disorders (PSD) and post-stroke cognitive impairments (PCI) are frequent consequences of ischemic stroke (IS). The study was focused on exploring possible associations between relative volumes of cortical and limbic brain structures during the acute period of IS, and changes in biochemical indices of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, sympathoadrenal medullary and inflammatory systems, with the development of PSD or PCI after mild or moderate IS. Patients developing PSD later on had significantly smaller relative volumes of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal pole versus patients without depressive symptoms. PCI development was associated with significantly smaller volumes of temporal pole and supramarginal gyrus versus patients without cognitive changes. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed higher likelihood of developing PSD in patients with smaller temporal pole volume (β0=10.9; β=-4.27; p=0.04) and increased salivary α-amylase activity (β0=-3.55; β=2.68e-05; p=0.02,). PCI likelihood was higher in patients with smaller supramarginal gyrus volume (β0=3.41; β=-0.99; p=0.047), smaller temporal pole volume (β0=3.41; β=-3.12; p=0. 06), and increased hair cortisol concentration at admission (index of accumulated stress load within a month before IS; β0=3.41; β=-0.05; p=0.08). The data support the hypothesis suggesting predisposition to PSD and PCI and multi hit scenarios of their pathogenesis with IS providing a final hit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Circadian rhythm; Adolescent; Depressive disorder; chronicity
Online: 16 November 2023 (14:38:55 CET)
Circadian rhythm disruptions are a hallmark feature of mood disorders. Patients experiencing acute depressive episodes report noticeable changes in their sleep-wake cycles. This research explains the association between depression and various circadian rhythm metrics, explicitly focusing on adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders. Adolescence is a critical period marked by significant physiological and psychological changes, making it imperative to understand how mood disorders manifest during this phase. However, there have been minimal specific studies in pediatric populations to determine whether circadian rhythm changes differ between adolescents with first- and multiple-recurrent depressive episodes. Our study involved a group of 61 adolescents aged between 13 and 18. We performed a cross-sectional study of a clinical popu-lation of patients presenting to a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic diagnosed with depression. Participants were asked to complete self-report evaluations using several tools: The Korean ver-sion of the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (K-BRIAN), the Korean Translation of Composite Scale to Measure Morningness-Eveningness (KtCS), and the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Tools such as the Children's Depression In-ventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and K-Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ) were employed for the assessment of clinical characteristics of depression. Based on the frequency of their depressive episodes, participants were bifurcated into two distinct groups: those experi-encing their first episode (n=22, mean age: 15.09±1.44 years) and those with recurrent episodes (n=39, mean age: 15.95±1.26 years). At first, the two groups' data revealed no significant differences regarding mood or circadian rhythm metrics (CDI: first-episode 26.18±10.54 and recurrent episode 25.90±10.59, STAI-S: first-episode 56.91±12.12 and recurrent episode 57.49±11.93, STAI-T: first-episode 60.36±11.63 and recurrent episode 59.09±12.10, SPAQ-total: first-episode 6.59±4.86 and recurrent episode 6.77±5.23, KtCS: first-episode 30.32±5.83 and recurrent episode 28.13±7.36). However, we observed significant correlations between circadian rhythm disruptions and depression scales (CDI with SPAQ-weight (r=0.26), KtCS (r=-0.48), K-BRIAN-sleep (r=0.58), K-BRIAN-activity (r=0.64), K-BRIAN-social (r=0.71) and K-BRIAN-eating (r=0.40)). These correlations were especially pronounced in the recurrent episode group, suggesting that with the progression and chronicity of depression, the relationship between circadian rhythms and depression becomes more intertwined and evident. In conclusion, especially in adolescents, as the severity and chronicity of depression increase, the interplay between circadian rhythms and mood disorders becomes more pronounced, warranting further research and clinical attention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: major depressive disorder; mass spectrometry; metabolomics; biomarkers
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:46:28 CEST)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious mental illness with a heavy social burden, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics is providing new insights into the heterogeneous pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of MDD by revealing multi-parametric biomarker signatures at the metabolite level. In this comprehensive review, recent developments of MS-based metabolomics in MDD research are summarized from the perspective of analytical platforms (liquid chromatography-MS, gas chromatography-MS, supercritical fluid chromatography-MS, etc.), strategies (untargeted, targeted, and pseudotargeted metabolomics), key metabolite changes (monoamine neurotransmitters, amino acids, lipids, etc.), and antidepressant treatments (both western and traditional Chinese medicines). Depression sub-phenotypes, comorbid depression, and multi-omics approaches are also highlighted to stimulate further advances in MS-based metabolomics in the field of MDD research.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cariprazine; Tourette syndrome; major depressive disorder; ADHD; tics
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:21:48 CEST)
Tourette syndrome is a complex neuropsychiatric condition that manifests in childhood and is often associated with other psychiatric comorbidities. This case describes a young male with Tourette syndrome with major depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who experienced troublesome side-effects due to his existing medications (escitalopram, risperidone and methylphenidate). In order to control his tics, ameliorate depressive symptoms, and eliminate side-effects of stiffness and sedation, risperidone was switched to cariprazine, a third-generation antipsychotic medication with D3-D2 partial agonism. In addition, the antidepressant dose was also increased. With the new combination, the patient reported good control of his tics, together with significant improvement in depressive symptoms and no side-effects. Based on this case and the reviewed literature, cariprazine might be a viable option for patients with Tourette syndrome with other comorbid illnesses, whom are prone to side effects of medication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: savoring; mindfulness; depressive symptoms; emerging adults; positive experiences
Online: 2 March 2023 (04:11:09 CET)
The links between mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms have been well-established in the literature. Nevertheless, little has been done to disentangle the prospective relations among these constructs. Clarifying the longitudinal relations is crucial, as it enables researchers and practitioners to discern potential trajectories of mental health interventions. In this study, 180 emerging adults between 18 and 27 years old were recruited twice at 3 months apart to complete self-reported measures including mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms. Cross-lagged path analysis indicated that savoring the moment was predictive of mindfulness three months later, whereas depressive symptoms were predictive of both mindfulness and savoring the moment three months later, above and beyond the effects of age, gender, and family income. Additionally, mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated at baseline. The present study evidenced short-term inversed effects of depressive symptoms on mindfulness and savoring the moment, as well as a positive effect of savoring the moment on mindfulness. Hence, interventions gearing towards symptom reduction of depression are likely to carry concurrent and prospective benefits of psychological functioning, namely the ability to be present in the moment and to savor. Taken together, reducing depressive symptoms may be crucial in fostering psychological well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mobile Application; Psychological well-being; Depressive symptoms; Adolescents
Online: 22 January 2023 (04:26:40 CET)
Background: Depressive symptoms often occurred during the adolescence period. This situation affected their psychological well-being, which is an important element for a positive youth development. Thus, there is an urgent need to prevent such mental health problems and promote psychological health outcomes among adolescents. Mobile health has been created as a platform to promote mental health to adolescents to ensure ongoing safety and effectiveness. Despite the positive evidence to support the mobile health, tailored mobile health to promote mental health and prevent psychological symptoms among adolescents in Thailand is lacking.This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of delivering digital technology intervention prototype called “MU-My-Mind Mobile Application (MU-My-mind App)” among Thai adolescents and evaluate the efficacy of this application in improving psychological health outcomes. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental research was conducted in secondary school students in Thailand. A convenience sample was recruited and participants were asked to download the MU-My-Mind App on their smart phone. Health outcomes were also evaluated by self-administered questions and focus group interview at baseline and post-intervention. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and pair t-test. Qualitative data were analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Thirty students completed the MU-My-Mind application. Quantitative data suggested significant improvements on mindfulness, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress. Qualitative data derived into six themes: a) overall feedback of the program, b) learning to manage stress and challenges, c) elevating relaxation responses and calmness, d) heightened mindfulness and concentration, e) increased awareness and management of emotions, and f) altering perspectives and managing thoughts. Overall, data suggested the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Conclusion: The “MU My Mind Mobile Application” prototype was demonstrated feasible and well acceptable among Thai adolescents to promote their psychological health outcome. However, there are some limitation and suggestion emerged during this pilot testing. Future research should be explored in a larger sample size with comparison control group and over a longer duration with a range of diverse samples to ensure the efficacy of this application.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: major depressive disorder; functionalized solid lipid nanoparticles; CBR1
Online: 3 July 2019 (12:03:31 CEST)
Nanoparticles offer available tools for MDD research. In this assay, we applied CBR1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) knockout (CB1-/-) mice to study whether functionalized solid lipid nanoparticles loading with curcumin and dexanabinol (Cur/SLNs-HU-211) exhibited anti-depressant outcomes through CBR1. Wild-type (CB1+/+) animals together with CBR1 knockout (CB1-/-) animals received daily injections of Corticosterone (CORT) for 3 weeks to obtain MDD mice model, and then the therapeutic action of Cur/SLNs-HU-211 were evaluated, respectively. Our work show that Cur/SLNs-HU-211 nanoparticles in the existence of CBR1 facilitate an efficient motor function improvement in CORT-induced MDD mice model. Cur/SLNs-HU-211 nanoparticles alleviated symptoms on CB1+/+ MDD mice and resulted in dopamine and norepinephrine recovery following CORT-induced neurotoxicity. In conclusion, the possible mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of Cur/SLNs-HU-211 might be the induction of CB1 expression and downstream RASGEF1C and Egr1 expression, together with a significantly upregulation of neuron-specific genes in CB1+/+ mice only. In conclusion, CBR1 is necessary during the process of antidepressant activities of Cur/SLNs-HU-211 nanoparticles. This study confirms that Cur/SLNs-HU-211 nanoparticles based CBR1 in vivo targeting would be a potentially feasible and safe way to motivate future therapeutic strategies of Major Depressive Disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0920.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive symptoms; older adults; geriatric depression scale; depression screening
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:07:25 CEST)
Although the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a well-established instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in older adults, this has not been validated specifically for Portuguese cognitively impaired persons. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of two Portuguese versions of the GDS (GDS-27 and GDS-15) in a Portuguese mild-to-moderate cognitively impaired sample. Clinicians assessed for major depressive disorder and cognitive functioning in 117 participants with mild to moderate cognitive decline (76.9% female, Mage = 83.66 years). The internal consistency of GDS-27 and GDS-15 were 0.874 and 0.812, respectively. There was a significant correlation between GDS-27 and GDS-15 with Beck Depression Inventory-II GDS-27: rho = 0.738, p < 0.001; GDS-15: rho = 0.760, p < 0.001), suggesting good validity. A cutoff point of 15/16 in GDS-27 and 8/9 in GDS-15 resulted in identification of persons with depression (GDS-27: sensitivity 100%, specificity 63%; GDS-15: sensitivity 90%, specificity 62%). Overall, the GDS-27 and GDS-15 are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of depression in Portuguese-speaking cognitively impaired persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0075.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: living alone; depressive symptoms; widows; socioeconomic status; social ties
Online: 18 September 2017 (09:02:55 CEST)
We examined the relationship between living alone and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older Korean widows and assessed the individual contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. The study was a secondary analysis using data from widows 65 years of age and older who participated in the Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS). A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. Working status and equivalent household income were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both those living with others and those living alone. Adjustment for health status and social ties did not change the impact of living alone on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, adjustment for equivalent household income eliminated the negative association between living alone and depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that economic resources are more important than health and social ties for alleviating the negative impact of living alone on the development of depressive symptoms in older widows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Adolescence; Major depressive disorder; Cognitive disorder; Cortisol; IL-1β; Probiotics
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:19:51 CEST)
To investigate effects of probiotics on cognitive function and regulation of cortisol and IL-1β in adolescents with depression. All 180 participants were randomly assigned into study group(treated by probiotics combined with sertraline hydrochloride) and control group(treated by sertraline hydrochloride). The repetitive Neuropsychological State Test (RBANS) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were administered in MDD patients. The levels of serum cortisol and IL-1β were detected by ELISA kit. Except speech function, immediate memory, visual span, attention function, delayed memory and RBANS in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The cortisol and interleukin1β in the study group were significantly downregulated than those in the control group. Except speech function, cortisol level was negatively correlated with RBANS total score and other factors in the study group. Interleukin-1β was negatively correlated with the total score of RBANS and each factor score. Cortisol and interleukin-1β were predictors of RBANS total score, which explained 46.80% of the variance. Cortisol had significant predictive effects on attention function and delayed memory, and interleukin-1β had significant predictive effects on visual span and speech function. It could concluded that probiotics can improve cognitive function in adolescents with depression by regulating cortisol and IL-1β levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0028.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Deep Learning; Depression; Electroencephalogram; EEG; Depressive Disorders; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 10 November 2021 (15:29:25 CET)
Depression is considered by WHO as the main contributor to global disability and it poses dangerous threats to approximately all aspects of human life, in particular public and private health. This mental disorder is usually characterized by considerable changes in feelings, routines, or thoughts. With respect to the fact that early diagnosis of this illness would be of critical importance ineffective treatment, some development has occurred in the purpose of depression detection. EEG signals reflect the working status of the human brain by which are considered the most proper tools for a depression diagnosis. Deep learning algorithms have the capacity of pattern discovery and extracting features from the raw data which is fed into them. Owing to this significant characteristic of deep learning, recently, these methods have intensely utilized in the diverse field of researches, specifically medicine and healthcare. Thereby, in this article, we aimed to review all papers concentrated on using deep learning to detect or predict depressive subjects with the help of EEG signals as input data. Regarding the adopted search method, we finally evaluated 22 articles between 2016 and 2021. This article which is organized according to the systematic literature review (SLR) method, provides complete summaries of all exploited studies and compares the noticeable aspects of them. Moreover, some statistical analysis performs to gain a depth perception of the general ideas of the latest researches in this area. A pattern of a five-step procedure was also established by which almost all reviewed articles fulfilled the goal of depression detection. Finally, open issues and challenges in this way of depression diagnosis or prediction and suggested works as the future directions discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: fruit; vegetables; depressive symptoms; depression; young people; young adult; nutrition; diet
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:18:23 CET)
Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of various chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain cancers. Recently, fruit and vegetable intake has also been linked with mental health, including depression. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depressive symptoms in young people and adults aged 15-45. The systematic review focused on peer-reviewed cohort studies published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2020 using searches of six electronic databases. The exposure was fruit and vegetable consumption analysed both separately and/or together, and the outcome was depression or depressive symptoms. Data from eligible studies were extracted according to predefined criteria and the studies were appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Cohort Studies to evaluate for study quality and risk of bias. To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 9667 potentially relevant studies that were screened for title and abstracts, 144 full text studies were evaluated, and 12 studies from seven countries were deemed eligible and included in the qualitative synthesis. Using the NOS framework one study was categorised as ‘very good’ quality, ten studies were ‘good’ quality, and two studies were ‘moderate’ quality. With respect to combined fruit and vegetable consumption, two studies demonstrated an inverse association with depression. When the effects of fruit and vegetable on depression were analysed separately, five studies showed significant associations in fruit consumption, and two studies showed significant associations in vegetable consumption. Four studies showed no association between combined fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, one study showed no association between fruit consumption and depression, and two studies showed no association between vegetable consumption and depression. Despite some contradictory results in the studies included in this review, the evidence seems to be building that a possible association exists, and this may have implications for addressing the burden of mental illness in young people and adults aged 15-45 years. Well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to provide more robust evidence on the diet-depression relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: major depressive disorder, microglia, cytokines, neuro-immune, chronic fatigue, oxidative stress
Online: 4 February 2019 (11:41:22 CET)
In 2011, it was reviewed that there is a strong co-occurrence between major depression and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms being key symptoms of depression, and depressive symptoms appearing during the course of CFS. Moreover, the comorbidity between both conditions may in part be explained by activated immune-inflammatory pathways, including increased translocation of Gram-negative bacteria and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of activated microglia in this comorbidity has remained unclear. This paper aims to review microglial disturbances in major depression, CFS and their comorbidity. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed / MEDLINE database to identify studies that are relevant to this current review. Depressed patients present neuroinflammatory alterations, probably related to microglial activation, while animal models show that a microglial response to immune challenges including lipopolysaccharides is accompanied by depressive-like behaviors. Recent evidence from preclinical studies indicate that activated microglia have a key role in the onset of fatigue. In chronic inflammatory conditions, such as infections and senescence, microglia orchestrate an inflammatory microenvironment thereby causing fatigue. In conclusion, based on our review we may posit that shared immune-inflammatory pathways and activated microglia underpin comorbid depression and CFS and that activated microglia are the main orchestrators of this comorbidity. As such, microglial activation and neuro-inflammation may be promising targets to treat the overlapping manifestations of both depression and CFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0756.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: DSM-5; Natural Language Processing; Morphological analysis; labeling; classification; Embedding; depressive disorders
Online: 12 June 2023 (04:41:21 CEST)
Depressive disorder is a disease that causes a decrease in daily function, and the prevalence of depressive disorder in Korea is the highest among OECD countries. However, due to lack of manpower and negative social awareness, timely treatment is not being performed properly. As a solution to this, AI counseling chatbots are emerging, and it is essential to use labeled datasets to create chatbots. Currently, many countries around the world, including Korea, use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition, DSM-5, but there are no nine labeled datasets according to the DSM-5 depression disorder diagnosis criteria. This study collects sympathetic datasets, analyzes morphemes using Kind Korean Morpheme Analyzer and augments and builds a word dictionary using Word2Vec. As a result, we have labeled the dataset with nine criteria for diagnosing DSM-5 depressive disorder, which will enhance the performance of the counseling chatbot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Major depressive disorder (MDD), ketoprofen, TGF-β1, INF-γ, IDO, immune, inflammation
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:52:50 CET)
Major Depression Disorder (MDD) is accompanied by an immune response characterized by increased levels of pro-inflammatory and immune-regulatory cytokines and cytokine-induced stimulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). There is also some evidence that anti-inflammatory drugs may have a clinical efficacy in MDD.The aim of this study is to examine the clinical effects of an eight-week combinatorial treatment of ketoprofen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) combined or not with sertraline, on serum levels of IDO, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in association with changes in the Beck-Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The study included 140 MDD patients and 40 normal controls. The pre-treatment serum levels of IDO, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-4 were significantly higher in MDD patients compared with the control group. Treatment with sertraline with or without ketoprofen significantly reduced the increased baseline production of all 4 biomarkers to levels which were similar as those of normal controls. Ketoprofen add-on had a significantly greater effect on IDO and BDI-II as compared with placebo. The reductions in IDO, IL-4 and TGF-β1 during treatment were significantly associated with those in the BDI-II.In conclusion, the clinical efficacy of both sertraline + ketoprofen may be ascribed at least in part to attenuated IDO levels and immune-inflammatory responses in MDD. Moreover, add-on treatment with ketoprofen may augment the efficacy of sertraline by attenuating IDO. However, these treatments may also significantly reduce the more beneficial properties of T helper-2 and T regulatory (Treg) immune subsets. Future research should develop immune treatments that target the immune-inflammatory response in MDD, while enhancing the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0691.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Adverse childhood experiences; Depressive symptoms; Anxiety symptoms; Non-suicidal self-injury; Suicidal behaviors
Online: 8 August 2023 (14:50:49 CEST)
Many researches have identified that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality. However, most studies have been restricted to a few types of ACEs. This study aims to investigate associations of 13 common types of ACEs with NSSI, suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA), as well as the mediation of depressive and anxiety symptoms therein. A total of 1771 students aged 11-16 years who participated in the baseline survey of the Chinese Adolescent Health Growth Cohort study were included for the analysis. ACEs, SI, SA, depressive and anxiety symptoms were recorded by standard questionnaire. Of included participants, 92.0% reported one or more category of ACEs. Smoking, parent-child separation, emotional abuse, physical abuse and being bullied were positively associated with NSSI, with the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.41(95%CI, 1.01-5.75), 1.80(1.28-2.54), 1.69(1.21-2.37), 2.08(1.44-3.01) and 1.87(1.35-2.59), respectively; smoking (4.03, 1.66-9.81), parent-child separation (1.42, 1.07-1.90), emotional abuse (1.91, 1.41-2.59), physical abuse (1.80, 1.27-2.57), emotional neglect (1.78, 1.28-2.49) and being bullied (2.08, 1.54-2.81) were positively associated with SI; smoking(4.30, 1.67-11.10), emotional abuse (2.42, 1.58-3.72) and being bullied (1.75, 1.17-2.60) were positively associated with SA. The associations of ACEs with NSSI, SI and SA were each partially or completely mediated through depressive and anxiety symptoms. Children and adolescents who had experiences of smoking, physical abuse and being bullied during childhood are consistently and independently associated with NSSI and suicidality, and these associations may be largely mediated through depressive and anxiety symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: connectome; dynamic functional connectivity; dynamic brain network; schizophrenia; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder
Online: 7 February 2023 (07:23:31 CET)
Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and multilayer dynamic network model, the quantified temporal stability of brain network has shown potentials in predicting altered brain functions. The present review focuses on summarizing current knowledge on the commonly-used measures of brain network’s temporal stability and the clinical research progress on them. There are a variety of widely used measures of temporal stability such as the variance/standard deviation of dynamic functional connectivity strengths, the temporal variability, the flexibility (switching rate), and the temporal clustering coefficient, while there is no consensus to date that which measure is the best. The temporal stability of human brain networks may be associated with several factors such as sex, age, cognitive functions, head motion, and data preprocessing/analyzing strategies, which should be considered in the clinical studies. Multiple common psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder have been found to be related to altered temporal stability, especially during the resting state; generally, both excessively decreased and increased temporal stabilities were thought to reflect disease-related brain dysfunctions. However, the measures of temporal stability are still far from applications in clinical diagnoses for neuropsychiatric diseases partly because of the divergent results, and further studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, structural MRI, grey matter volume, voxel-based morphometry
Online: 8 February 2019 (09:30:12 CET)
Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine whether and to what extent mood disorders, comprising major depression and bipolar disorder, are accompanied by structural changes in the brain as measured using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: We have performed a VBM study using a 3Т MRI system (GE Discovery 750w) in patients with mood disorders (n=50), namely 39 with major depression and 11 with bipolar disorder, compared to 42 age, sex and education matched healthy controls. Results: Our results show that depression was associated with significant decreases in grey matter (GM) volume restricted to regions located in medial frontal and anterior cingulate cortex on the left side and middle frontal gyrus, medial orbital gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus (triangular and orbital parts), and middle temporal gyrus (extending to the superior temporal gyrus) on the right side. When the patient group was separated into bipolar disorder and major depression the reductions remained significant only for the patients with major depressive disorder. Conclusions: Using VBM the present study was able to replicate decreases in GM volume restricted to frontal and temporal regions in patients with mood disorders mainly major depression, as compared with healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: depressive-like behavior; prefrontal cortex; fluoxetine; metabolomics; ROC curve; support vector machine-linear kernel
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:35:47 CEST)
The increasing prevalence of depression worldwide requires more effectiveness in therapy approaches and a molecular understanding of antidepressants mode of action. We carried out untargeted metabolomics of the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to chronic social isolation (CSIS), a rat model of depression, and/or fluoxetine treatment using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The behavioral phenotype was assessed by the forced swim test. To analyze metabolomics data, univariate and multivariate analysis and biomarker capacity assessment using the classical receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used. Support vector machine-linear kernel (SVM-LK), as a machine-learning algorithm was performed for binary classification. Upregulated myo-inositol following CSIS may represent a potential marker of depressive phenotype. Effective fluoxetine treatment reversed depressive-like behavior and increased sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, hypotaurine, and acetyl-L-carnitine contents, which were identified as potential markers. We identified 4 or 10 marker candidates with ROC curve greater than 0.9 for CSIS or fluoxetine effectiveness designation. SVM-LK has given accuracy of 61.50%, or 93.30%, and 7 or 25 predictive metabolites for CSIS vs. control and fluoxetine-treated CSIS vs. CSIS classification. Overall, metabolic fingerprints combined with ROC curve and SVM-LK may represent a new approach to identifying potential markers or predicting metabolites for group designation or classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive disorder; omega-3 fatty acids; lipid profile; fluidity of membrane; children and adolescents
Online: 20 August 2020 (05:48:48 CEST)
Depressive disorder (DD) is a psychiatric disorder whose molecular basis is not fully understood. It is assumed that reduced consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) is associated with DD. Other lipids like total cholesterol (TCH), LDL- and HDL-cholesterols (LDL-CH, HDL-CH) also play a role in depression. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between depressive disorder symptoms and lipid profile, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol subfractions, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in 58 depressive children and adolescents, as well as the effect of omega-3 FA on the monitored parameters. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), lipid profile by standard biochemical procedures, LDL- and HDL-subfractions by the Lipoprint system. Basic biochemical parameters including lipid profile were compared with levels in 20 healthy children and were in the physiological range. We are the first to report that omega-3 FAs increase after 12 weeks of supplementation large HDL subfractions (anti-atherogenic) and decrease small HDL subfractions (pro-atherogenic) in depressed children. We found a negative correlation between CDI score and HDL-CH and large HDL subfraction, but not LDL-CH subfractions. CDI score was not associated with erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Our results suggest that HDL-CH and its subfractions, but not LDL-CH may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorder.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0800.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; depressive disorder; anxiety disorder; bipolar disorder; electric stimulation; translational research
Online: 12 October 2023 (08:38:27 CEST)
Revealing the underlying pathomechanisms of neurological and psychiatric disorders, searching for new biomarkers, and developing novel therapeutics all require translational research. In vivo and in vitro disease models have been instrumental in casting light on complex polygenic, multifactorial, and heterogeneous disease mechanisms. In the most recent years, advanced preclinical models have revealed the intriguing interaction of sex/gender and aging with the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of psychiatric and neurological diseases. However, despite these advancements, there is still a great deal of work to be done to fully comprehend the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and to develop treatments that can significantly improve the lives of those who suffer from them. The current challenge in the field of neurological and psychiatric diseases is to develop disease-modifying, effective treatments for these complex and long-lasting debilitating conditions with a high burden of disease.The first edition of the research topic ‘Emerging Translational Research in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases: From In Vitro to In Vivo Models’ reinforces translational research playing a critical role in bridging the gap between basic research and clinical applications. Also, it provides a platform for researchers to share their findings and advancements in translational research in this field. This new collection gathers 25 papers offering insights into the latest advancements in translational research and potential new avenues for treatments. These papers cover various topics, including the development of new preclinical models, the use of in vitro and in vivo methods, and the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs); major depressive disorder (MDD); obesity; metabolic dysregulation; comorbidities
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:54:21 CEST)
The co-occurrence of depression and obesity has become a significant public health concern worldwide. Recent studies have shown that metabolic dysfunction, which is commonly observed in obese individuals and characterized by inflammation, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hypertension, is a critical risk factor for depression. This dysfunction may induce structural and functional changes in the brain, ultimately contributing to depression's development. Given that obesity and depression mutually increase each other's risk of development by 50-60%, there is a need for effective interventions that address both conditions. The comorbidity of depression with obesity and metabolic dysregulation is thought to be related to chronic low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and C-reactive protein (CRP). As pharmacotherapy fails in at least 30-40% of cases to adequately treat major depressive disorder, a nutritional approach is emerging as a promising alternative. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are a promising dietary intervention that can reduce inflammatory biomarkers, particularly in patients with high levels of inflammation, including pregnant women with gestational diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight individuals with major depressive disorder. Further effort directed to implement these strategies in clinical practice could contribute to improved outcomes in patients with depression and comorbid obesity and/or metabolic dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1110.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ultra-processed food; Nova food classification system; major depressive disorder; nutritional psychiatry; secondary analysis; randomised controlled trial
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:38:10 CEST)
Background: In this secondary analysis of the Supporting the Modification of Lifestyle In Lowered Emotional States (SMILES) randomised controlled trial, we investigated if the beneficial effects of a dietary intervention on clinical depression were driven, in part, by reducing the consumption of foods classified as ultra-processed.Methods: The SMILES trial enrolled 67 adults with major depressive disorder, randomly assigning them to either a 12-week modified Mediterranean dietary intervention or a social support control. Our analysis included 44 participants with non-missing dietary data and at least one valid Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) assessment at 12 weeks of follow-up. The Nova food classification system was used to estimate the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the overall diet (percentage of grams) based on data from seven-day food diaries. We fitted linear regression models under blinded conditions to determine whether ultra-processed food intake-change from baseline to 12 weeks moderated the dietary intervention effects on depressive symptoms. We estimated mean differences in depressive symptoms along with ninety-five per cent confidence intervals (95%CIs).Results: For participants in the dietary intervention, there was an additional 2.5-point improvement in MADRS scores for each 10% reduction in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods compared to participants in the control group (between-group mean differences in depressive symptoms: −2.46, 95%CIs −4.71 to −0.20, p=0.039, η p 2 of 0.10).Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that the therapeutic benefit of a dietary intervention for depression may stem, at least in part, from reductions in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0023.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Depression; Major depressive disorder; Diet; Nutrition; Randomized controlled trial, Randomized controlled pilot trial; Healthy Nordic diet; Mental health; Palatability; Food liking
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:31:47 CET)
Healthy diet interventions have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, but there is a need for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that are double-blind and investigate biological mechanisms. The primary objectives of this randomized controlled pilot trial were to test the palatability of the meals and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a future 8-week RCT which will investigate whether a healthy Nordic diet improves depressive symptoms in individuals with major depressive disorder, and associated biological mechanisms. Depressed (n=10) and non-depressed (n=6) women and men were randomized to receive either a healthy Nordic diet (ND) or a control diet (CD) for 8 days. Participants were blinded to diet allocation and study hypotheses. Health questionnaires were completed before and after the intervention, and, throughout the study, questionnaires assessed ratings of liking and sensory properties of the meals, adherence, and open-ended feedback. In the ND group, 75% of participants consumed no non-study foods, compared to 50% of CD participants. The meals of both diets, on average, received good ratings for liking and sensory properties, though the ND ratings were somewhat higher. Overall, results were positive and informative, indicating that the planned RCT will be feasible and well-accepted, with some proposed modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; brain derived neurotrophic factor; cortisol; tumor necrosis factor-α; lacrimal fluid; blood serum; focal epilepsy; major depressive disorder; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:16:57 CEST)
Our previous studies showed that in patients with brain diseases neurotrophic factors in lacrimal fluid (LF) may change more prominently than in blood serum (BS). Since glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is involved in control of neuronal networks in epileptic brain, we aimed to assess GDNF levels in LF and BS as well as BDNF, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and inflammation indices in BS of patients with focal epilepsy (PWFE), epilepsy and comorbid depression (PWFE+MDD) compared with major depressive disorder (PWMDD) and healthy controls (HC). GDNF levels in BS were similar in patients and HC and higher in PWFE taking valproates. GDNF levels in LF were significantly lower in all patient groups compared to controls, and independent of drugs used. LF and BS GDNF concentrations positively correlated in HC, but not patient groups. BDNF level was lower in BS of patients compared with HC and higher in PWFE+MDD taking valproates. Logistic regression models demonstrated that GDNF decrease in LF may be an important predictor of focal epilepsy. Probability of focal epilepsy can be evaluated using GDNF in LF and BDNF in BS; MDD - GDNF in LF, cortisol and TNF-α in BS; epilepsy with MDD - GDNF in LF, TNF-α and BDNF in BS.