ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0365.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Amazon deforestation; land use policy; Brazil NDC; Brazil Forest Code
Online: 21 March 2023 (02:16:00 CET)
In its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Brazil committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and restoring its forests. This study examines the challenges of fulfilling these commitments in Brazilian Amazonia. We carry out a detailed assessment of the current status of land tenure in the region and its relation to deforestation. After dealing with conflicts and overlaps between data from various sources, we produce a new map of public and private land tenure in Amazonia. Combining this map with Brazil's official data on deforestation, we find out how much natural vegetation has been preserved in each public or private area. The result is used to estimate how much deforestation is illegal. We also establish how much deforestation is associated with each land tenure type. Our results show that most deforestation inside rural properties is done by a few landowners, a finding that has important consequences for law enforcement. We then assess the challenges for reforestation in detail. To do so, we consider how much forest needs to be rehabilitated according to Brazil's Forest Code. Our analysis provides a comprehensive appraisal of the potential opportunity costs for forest restoration in the biome, considering farm size and land use. This analysis provides insights into targeted land use policies that can meet Brazil’s forest restoration goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Endocarditis; mortality; retrospective cohort; Brazil.
Online: 31 October 2023 (14:22:57 CET)
Background: Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the incidence and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) have increased in recent decades despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Studies on the risk factors for mortality in endocarditis in Latin America are scarce. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 240 patients diagnosed with IE according to the modified Duke criteria who were admitted to two university hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from January 2009 to June 2021. Poisson regression analysis was performed for trend tests. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of predictors of in-hospital mortality. Findings: The median age was 55 years (IQR: 39-66 years), 57% were male, and 41% had a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score > 3. Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (54%), left-sided native valve IE (77.5%), and staphylococcal IE (26%) predominated. Overall in-hospital mortality was 45.8%, and mortality was significantly higher in the following patients: aged ≥ 60 years (53%), CCI score ≥ 3 (60%), healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HAIE) (53%), left-sided IE (51%), and enterococcal IE (67%). Poisson regression analysis showed no trend in in-hospital mortality per year. The adjusted multivariate model determined that age ≥ 60 years was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality (HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.008). Interpretation: In this 12-year retrospective cohort, there was no evidence of an improvement in survival in patients with IE. Since older age is a risk factor for mortality, consensus is needed for the management of IE in this group of patients.
Online: 13 November 2019 (10:40:50 CET)
BACKGROUND: During the natural history, the incidence HTLV-1 related diseases were 0.5% until 10% after decades of infection. Despite relative low lethality, previous study observed that HTLV-1 infection is associated with significantly increased mortality. For example, the incidence of ATLL and HAM/TSP, co-infections with HIV and HCV, parasitic co-infection with Strongyloides stercoralis may increase morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Determine the mortality rate and its major variables as possible risk factors, analyzing the HTLV Clinic at Emilio Ribas Institute, a continuous open cohort of HTLV patients since 1997. METHODS: This cohort open cohort possesses new patients added at a rate of approximately 50 patients/year. There were 1100 HTLV-infected subjects identified by September 30th 2018. All clinical data including clinical and laboratory data, which have been updated on a regular basis over the last 22 years, were entered into a specific REDCap database. The Ethical Board of the IIER approved the protocol. RESULTS: Along 22 years of clinical care in the HTLV-out clinic, 727 HTLV-1-infected subjects and 248 HAM/TSP cases. Four-hundred sixty-eight patients of whom remaining under active follow up. The mean follow-up time of the cohort was 12 years. Twenty-seven patients died (median age of 51,5 years old). From this total, 13 was asymptomatic carriers and 14 HAM/TSP subjects, 12 of asymptomatic and seven HAM/TSP possess co-infected with HIV or/and HCV. Other seven presented HAM/TSP without co-infection, and all was female, and sepsis was the majority cases the majority of cases of sepsis were related to infection of the urinary tract (p=0.058) and to ulcers of decubitus (p=0.021), and it was associated with risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the mortality rate for HAM-TSP patients was six percent. The mean life expectancy in Brazil is about 78 years in 2018, twenty-two years higher than HAM/TSP patients without any other coinfection. This study highlights the possibility of higher death risk among HTLV-1-infected patients and HAM/TSP subjects in Brazil, and identified some risk factors for this outcome. Also, these patients may possess higher risk for morbidity, usually urinary tract infections and decubitus scars, which could increase risk for death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0624.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: cemetery; waste management; legislation; public health; Brazil
Online: 11 September 2023 (05:29:17 CEST)
Cemeteries can be compared to landfills since their leachate, also known as necroleachate, can be transported and pollute groundwater, surface waters, and soils. In Brazil, the cemeteries management is the responsibility of states and municipalities, to ensure that they do not generate negative environmental impacts and risks to public health. This article aims to discuss Brazilian sanitary-environmental legislation relating to cemetery waste management. Among the Brazilian states, half have sanitary-environmental legislation for cemeteries, and between the municipalities, only 19 have specific legislation. The legislation is broad and has many gaps, leading to environmental vulnerability and risk of contamination for the people who live in the surrounding area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1538.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Industrialized Foods; Epidemiologic Factors; Adolescent; Brazil; Review.
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:02:36 CEST)
Background: Considering its deleterious effects on health, as well as the importance of information to support actions, strategies and public policies, this study was aimed to identify and classify the risk factors for consumption of ultra-processed foods among Brazilian adolescents. Data sources: targeting observational studies involving samples of Brazilian adolescents (11 to 19 years old), which evaluated possible associations between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and individual, interpersonal, environmental and public policies variables, in October 2022, a systematic review was conducted, consulting electronic databases (Lilacs, Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science), Google Scholar and the reference lists of included articles. Data synthesis: The descriptive synthesis consisted of 11 papers, representing nine original studies. In general, the consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with different individual, interpersonal and environmental variables. More specifically, the following variables can be highlighted: sedentary behavior (specially screen time), studying at a private school, having a higher Body Mass Index and being female. Conclusions: Based on this evidence, it is important to direct actions, strategies and public policies aimed at confronting the consumption of ultra-processed foods for these groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0270.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Road accidents; Brazil; fractional integration; long memory
Online: 19 January 2022 (11:45:26 CET)
This paper deals with the analysis of trends in road accidents on major highways in Brazil. Using updated time series techniques, our results indicate that a low degree of long memory was detected in the series with shocks having transitory effects over time. We further find that the number of accidents taking place in Brazil has been reducing over time, though in the presence of negative shocks, the recovery is not going to be immediate due to the long memory nature of the data. Despite the absence of relevant investment relating to infrastructure expansion, it is worth mentioning the consolidation of a nationwide tolled road system in Brazil involving concessions to private administrators, alongside more severe traffic laws that can impose limitations on driving licences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0255.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Brazil; slavery; modern slavery; occupational hygiene; rural
Online: 21 May 2019 (03:04:03 CEST)
The Brazilian economy, the rural in particular, was until the end of the 19th century based on slave labour. In this research, it was intended to obtain, through a review of historical descriptive studies, a detailed picture of the occupational hygiene conditions related to the slaves’ work and their interactions with climatic and environmental conditions. The search was done in the following databases: Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Criminal Justice, Ebsco, Business Source Supplement, as well as original historical documents. Descriptive studies, without the restriction of language, were selected that involved the rural work of slaves in colonial and imperial Brazil. Working environmental conditions have been evaluated: environmental and occupational hygiene conditions to which the captive workers were exposed, as well as their accommodation and clothing. The analysed studies registered the existence of accommodation and similar dresses all over Brazil, regardless of the region's climate. In addition to these accommodation conditions, slaves were still exposed in a similar way to physical, chemical and biological agents throughout the country. Finally, it was also possible to identify a clear similarity with the occupational exposure conditions of the modern slaves in the 21st century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: adaptation; Brazil; climate change policy; mitigation; risks
Online: 7 July 2016 (10:54:49 CEST)
Subnational governments play a key role responding to climate change risks in terms of policy strategies and instruments. This article analyzes how Brazilian municipal and state governments have developed and implemented public policies to mitigate and to adapt to climate change risks. We surveyed all cities’ and states’ climate policies within the country. The methodological approach includes five main points of analysis: 1. mitigation targets and intentions; 2. adaptation actions; 3. stakeholders’ participation; 4. policy implementation; 5. participation in networks related to climate change. Our results suggest that even though subnational climate policies in Brazil are isolated initiatives within the national context, they play an important role responding to climate change risks in different scales and levels. The strongest Brazilian policies with both mitigation and adaptation actions counted on previous mobilization for the climate issue involving different stakeholders from several segments of the society. These governments have also participated in transnational cooperation networks related to climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: tungiasis; Brazil; rapid assessment; epidemiology; neglected tropical disease
Online: 22 March 2023 (03:21:06 CET)
Tungiasis has been included in the WHO list of Neglected Tropical Diseases, but systematic data on the occurrence are scarce. We analyzed data on the occurrence of tungiasis in the 184 munici-palities of Ceará State in Northeast Brazil, based on an online open rapid assessment question-naire focused on health professionals and other key stakeholders. Questions included the occur-rence of tungiasis, severe cases, cases in animals and seasonal variations of the disease. There were in total 1,265 individual data entries available (1 to 104 per municipality) from all munici-palities of the state. A total of 181 (98.3%) of municipalities reported the occurrence of tungiasis in the past or currently, 120 (65.2%) reported current occurrence, 155 (84.2%) severe cases in the past or currently; and 47 (25.5%) reported severe cases currently. A total of 132 (71.7%) municipalities reported tungiasis in animals, most commonly in dogs (97), pigs (80), cats (50), horses (20), cattle (8) and goats (6). Most municipalities mentioned the seasonality of tungiasis (n=146; 79.3%). There was no report of any specific tungiasis control program. Our data show that tungiasis and severe tungiasis commonly occur in Ceará state and that tungiasis is a significant public health issue for both humans and animals. An integrated One Health approach is needed to reduce dis-ease burden, including human and animal health, and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Meat consumption; Flexitarianism; Sustainable Development; Protein transition; Brazil
Online: 1 February 2023 (01:09:51 CET)
The flexitarian diet, which emphasizes a reduction in meat consumption, has been identified as a crucial factor in transitioning to sustainable food systems that can help combat climate change and improve food and nutritional security, particularly in areas where food choices are abundant. Despite Brazil being a major meat producer, meat consumption among Brazilians has been decreasing in recent years, with a growing portion of the population adopting meat-free and meat-reduced dietary models. In this study, we conducted the first non-industry funded scientific investigation of Brazilian flexitarians, with the goal of characterizing their socio-economic and demographic characteristics, motivations for adopting flexitarianism, frequency of animal-based meat consumption, and main substitutes consumed. Data was collected from 1029 self-identified flexitarians in Brazil. Our findings indicate that the flexitarian food model is primarily adopted by women and is motivated by concerns about the environmental impact of meat consumption, personal health, and animal welfare. Flexitarians were found to have a consumption profile that can be divided into three groups: low (consuming meat 36 times a week), medium (consuming meat 7 times a week), and high (consuming meat 4 times a week). The flexitarian meals pattern is characterized by lower consumption of beef (less than 2 times per week) and higher consumption of chicken (3 times per week) and is supplemented by plant-based protein sources and eggs as the main meat substitutes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0138.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: covid-19; epidemiology; epidemiological week; Brazil; coronavirus; viruses
Online: 8 May 2020 (08:08:40 CEST)
Amid the covid-19 pandemic, other diseases, including viruses, are still acting to the detriment of their seasonality and risk factors for contagion. For this reason, it is interesting to know the degree of impact of other viruses, mainly respiratory, in which they have similar symptoms, in diagnoses for contamination by the new coronavirus based on epidemiological surveys, via epidemiological weeks, in Brazil. To what extent there may be a hypothesis of confusion of contaminated data, harming the health system, with regard to the need for intensive care units and control of viruses, and negatively or positively implying in the control or uncontrolling of viruses in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0593.v1
Subject: Transplantation, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: hepatitis E; liver transplantation; prevalence; incidence; natural history; Brazil
Online: 11 December 2023 (03:08:40 CET)
Hepatitis E virus is a major etiological agent of chronic hepatitis in immunosuppressed individuals. Studies on HEV in the context of liver transplantation have produced mixed results, most of the data coming from studies conducted in high-income countries. This was a prospective cohort study of liver transplant recipients in southeastern Brazil. Recipients were systematically followed for one year, with the objective of determining the prevalence, incidence, genotype, and natural history of HEV infection in this population. We included 107 liver transplant recipients and 83 deceased donors. Positivity for anti-HEV IgG was detected in 11 (10.2%) of the recipients and in eight (9.7%) of the donors. None of the patients tested positive for HEV RNA at baseline or during follow-up. There were no episodes of reactivation or seroconversion, even in cases of serological donor-recipient mismatch or in recipients with acute hepatitis. Acute and chronic HEV infections seem to be rare events in the region studied. That could be attributable to social, economic, and environmental factors. Our data indicate that, among liver transplant recipients, hepatitis E should be investigated only when there are elevated levels of transaminases with no defined cause, as part of the differential diagnosis of seronegative hepatitis after transplantation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Brazil; wellbeing; mood; emotion; performance; elite sport; youth sport
Online: 23 November 2023 (03:38:05 CET)
Regular assessment of mood is used in Brazil for a wide variety of purposes, including screening athletes to provide an indicator of psychological wellbeing and risk of mental health issues. The present study tested the psychometric characteristics of the Brazil Mood Scale (BRAMS) using both “right now” and “past week” response time frames and investigated between-group differences in mood based on athlete sex, age, and social vulnerability. Participants were 898 athletes (511 male, 387 female, age range: 12–44 years) from eight sports. Structural equation modelling supported the BRAMS measurement model using both response time frames independently and in a multi-sample analysis. Subscale reliability was supported for both time frames. Fatigue, depression, and tension scores were higher using the past week time frame than the right now time frame. Males reported higher vigor scores than females, and younger participants (<18 years) reported lower scores for anger and depression than older participants (18+ years). No significant between-group differences emerged for social vulnerability. Findings supported the psychometric integrity of the BRAMS and its use as a screening measure for psychological wellbeing among youth and elite athletes in Brazil.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0582.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Ministry of Health; Public Health Surveillance; COVID-19; Brazil
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:15:40 CEST)
To describe the main health surveillance strategies for the control of COVID-19 in Brazil, with emphasis on decisions and actions taken at the federal level to prevent the infection caused by the new SARS-CoV-2. This is a scoping review study carried out from November 2019 to January 2021 using the DECS and MeSH health descriptors in Portuguese and English in four databases, in addition to the legislation found on the Brazilian Government's legislation portal. Based on the analysis of the documents, the actions describe non-pharmacological and pharmacological measures, measures related to decisions on closing and opening international borders, the acquisition of supplies and essential services. Although some strategies for containing the pandemic were identified, discrete and unnoticed surveillance measures are observed in view of the number of cases and number of deaths during the period of research analysis. The results show the absence of the federal level as support for the states and municipalities and imply decision-making and planning of actions by the Unified Health System to control the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Nyssorhynchus darlingi; insecticide resistance; Ace-1; VGSC; Brazil; Peru
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:43:58 CEST)
Indoor residual spray (IRS), mainly employing pyrethroid insecticides, is the most common intervention to prevent malaria transmission in many regions of Latin America; the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) has been more limited. Knockdown resistance (kdr) is a well-characterized target-site resistance mechanism associated with pyrethroid and DDT resistance. Most mutations detected in acetylcholinesterase-1 (Ace-1) and voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) genes are non-synonymous, resulting in a change of amino acid leading to non-binding of the insecticide. In the present study, we analyzed target-site resistance in Nyssorhynchus darlingi, the primary malaria vector in the Amazon, in multiple malaria endemic localities. We screened 988 wild-caught specimens of Ny. darlingi from three localities in Amazonian Peru and four in Amazonian Brazil. Collections were conducted between 2014-2021. Criteria were Amazonian localities with a recent history as malaria hotspots, primary transmission by Ny. darlingi and the use of both IRS and LLINs as interventions. Fragments of Ace-1 (456 bp) and VGSC (228 bp) were amplified, sequenced and aligned with Ny. darlingi sequences available in GenBank. We detected only synonymous mutations in the frequently reported Ace-1 codon 280 known to confer resistance to organophosphates and carbamates, but detected three non-synonymous mutations in other regions of the gene. Similarly, no mutations linked to insecticide resistance were detected in the frequently reported codon (995) at the S6 segment of domain II of VGSC. The lack of genotypic detection of IR mutations by sequencing the Ace-1 and VGSC genes from multiple Ny. darlingi populations in Brazil and Peru could be associated with low-intensity resistance, or possibly the main resistance mechanism is metabolic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1546.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Brazil; control measures; COVID-19; spatial analysis; temporal analysis
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:39:45 CEST)
Data on the temporal and spatial evolution of Sars-Cov-2, local control measures and their effects on morbidity and mortality patterns in rural Brazil are scarce. We analyzed data from case notification systems, epidemiological investigation reports, and municipal decrees in a small municipality in northeast Brazil. For spatial analysis, cases and deaths in the urban area were mapped. There were a total of 3,020 cases of COVID-19 from April 2020 to December 2021; 135 (4.5%) died. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates were 5,650.3 cases and 252.6 deaths per 100,000 population, respectively. The index case of Sars-Cov-2 in the city was diagnosed in March 2020. The first peak of cases and deaths occurred in May 2020. The second wave of infection peaked in May 2021, with the highest number of deaths in March 2021. In spatial analysis, the highest density of cases and deaths occurred in the urban area. The municipal government issued 69 decrees on restriction measures, surveillance, and maintenance of social isolation to address the spread of SarsCov-2. The spread of the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic in Itapajé mirrored the behavior observed in large metropolitan regions, from central neighborhoods to the periphery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0524.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: milk; cattle; toxic and essential trace elements; Pernambuco; Brazil
Online: 10 July 2023 (09:44:19 CEST)
The aim of this study was to provide information on the levels of toxic (Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu, Fe and Zn) elements in cow’s milk produced in the State of Pernambuco (Brazil). A total of 142 samples of raw milk were collected, and the concentrations of essential and toxic elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In almost 30 % of the samples analyzed, the Pb content exceeded the maximum level established in the Brazilian legislation (0.05 mg/l). By contrast, in all samples the Cd content was below the maximum allowable level (0.02 mg/L). The essential trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn were generally present at lower concentrations than reported in other studies and can be considered within the deficient range for cow’s milk. Statistical and chemometric procedures were used to evaluate the main factors influencing the metal concentrations (proximity to major roads, presence of effluents, and milking method). The study findings demonstrate that the proximity of the farms to major roads influences the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Cu and that this is the main factor explaining the Pb content of milk. In addition, the presence of effluents influenced the concentrations of Cu, while no relationship between the metal content and the milking method was observed. Thus, in accordance with the study findings, consumption of cow’s milk produced in the region can be considered a risk to public health due to the high concentrations of Pb and the low concentrations of other essential minerals such as Cu, Zn and Fe in some of the milk samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0256.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: marmoset; Neotropical; Brazil; biomedical; arbovirus; conservation; hybridization; biological invasion
Online: 18 February 2021 (15:52:32 CET)
We provide here a current overview of marmoset (Callithrix) evolution, hybridization, species biology, basic/biomedical research, and conservation initiatives. Composed of two subgroups, the aurita group (C. aurita and C. flaviceps) and the jacchus group (C. geoffroyi, C. jacchus, C. kuhlii and C. penicillata), this relatively young primate radiation is endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Significant impacts on Callithrix within these biomes resulting from anthropogenic activity include: (1) population declines, particularly for the aurita group; (2) widespread geographic displacement, biological invasions, and range expansions of C. jacchus and C. penicillata; (3) anthropogenic hybridization; and (4) epizootic Yellow Fever and Zika viral outbreaks. A number of Brazilian legal and conservation initiatives are now in place to protect the threatened aurita group and increase research about them. Due to their small size and rapid life history, marmosets are prized biomedical models. As a result, there are increasingly sophisticated genomic Callithrix resources available and burgeoning marmoset functional, immuno-, and epi- genomic research. In both the laboratory and the wild, marmosets have given us insight into cognition, social group dynamics, human disease, and pregnancy. Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata are emerging Neotropical primate models for arbovirus disease, including Dengue and Zika. Wild marmoset populations are helping us understand sylvatic transmission and human spillover of Zika and Yellow Fever viruses. All of these factors are positioning marmosets as preeminent models to facilitate understanding of facets of evolution, hybridization, conservation, human disease, and emerging infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Naegleria spp.; free-living amoeba; PCR; Monjolinho River; Brazil
Online: 4 December 2019 (04:27:21 CET)
The genus Naegleria, of free-living amoeba (FLA) group, has been investigated mainly due to its human health impact resulting in deadly infections and their worldwide distribution on freshwater systems. Naegleria fowleri, colloquially known as the “brain-eating amoeba”, is the most studied Naegleria species because it causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) of high lethality. The assessment of FLA biodiversity is fundamental to evaluate the presence of pathogenic species and the possibility of human contamination. However, the knowledge of FLA distribution in Brazil is unknown, and to rectify this situation we present a research on identifying Naegleria spp. in the Monjolinho River, as a model study. The river is a public Brazilian freshwater source that crosses the city of São Carlos. Five distinct sampling sites were examined through limnological features, trophozoites culturing and PCR against internal transcribed spacers (ITS) regions and 5.8S rRNA sequence. The results identified N. philippinensis, N. canariensisi, N. australiensis, N.gruberi, N. dobsoni sequences, as well as a Vahlkampfia sequence. The methodology delineated here represents the first Brazilian Naegleria spp. study on a freshwater system. Our result stresses the urgency of a large scale evaluation of the presence of free-living amoebas in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0998.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Histoplasmosis; Brazil; Epidemiology; HIV positive; AIDS; Immunosuppression; Culture; Serology; Mortality
Online: 26 April 2023 (14:58:17 CEST)
Background: Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis, present globally. We aimed to describe cases of histoplasmosis (Hc) and to establish a risk profile associated to Hc in HIV-infected patients (HIV+). Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with a clinical-. laboratorial diagnosis of Hc. Data was fed into REDCap and statistical analysis was done with R . Results: We included 99 records, 65 HIV+ and 34 HIV-. Average age was 39 years. Median time from onset to diagnosis was 8 weeks in HIV- and 22 weeks in HIV+. Disseminated histoplasmosis occurred in 79.4% HIV+, vs 36.4% HIV-. Median CD4 count was 70. Co-infection with tuberculosis was present in 20% of HIV+. Blood cultures were positive in 32.3% of HIV+ vs 11.8% of HIV- (p=0.025); bone marrow culture was positive in 36.9% vs 8.8%(p=0.003). Most HIV+ patients (71.4%) were hospitalized. On univariate analysis, anemia, leukopenia, intensive care, use of vasopressors and mechanical ventilation were associated with death in HIV+. Conclusions: Most of our patients with histoplasmosis were HIV+, presenting advanced AIDS. Diagnosis was late in HIV+ patients, and they frequently presented disseminated Hc, required hospitalization, and died. Early screening for Hc in HIV+ and drug induced immunosuppressed patients is crucial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: uterine cervical neoplasms; mortality; age-period-cohort analysis; forecasting; Brazil
Online: 16 February 2022 (05:03:16 CET)
Cervical cancer is a public health issue with high disease burden and mortality in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were analyzing age, period, and cohort effects on cervical cancer mortality in women 20 years old or older from 1980 to 2019 in the North, South, and Southeast Regions of Brazil; and evaluating whether the implementation of a national screening program and the expansion of access to public health services caused impacts over the examined period and reduced the risk of death over the past years and among younger cohorts. The effects were estimated by applying Poisson regression models with estimable functions. The highest mortality rate by 100,000 women was found in Amazonas (24.13), and the lowest in São Paulo (10.56). A positive gradient was obtained for death rates as women’s age increased. The states in the most developed regions (South and Southeast) showed a reduction in the risk of death in the period that followed the implementation of the screening program and in cohort from the 1960s onwards. The North Region showed a decreased risk of death only in Amapá (2000–2004) and Tocantins (1995–2004; 2010–2019). The findings indicated that health inequities remain in Brazil and suggested that the health system has limitations regarding decreasing mortality associated with this type of cancer in regions with lower socioeconomic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Brazil, agrarian reform policy, land less movement, rural social movements.
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:49:04 CEST)
In Brazil, during the four last administrations of Worker’s Party (PT) 2003-2015, the support to the agrarian reform seems to have stagnated, even with the influence of landless workers' movements. Thus in 2016, the impeachment President Dilma Roussef have marked a brutal stop in the agrarian reform process. How to explain that which seems at first to be a contradiction and has become a decadence of an important federal public policy?. Furthermore, how can we evaluate the debates within Brazilian society and the federal government on this theme? The article analyzes the tensions, debates, advances and impasses of the past fifteen years of agrarian reform policy in Brazil looking at the interaction between social movements and public policies. The method associates bibliography, official statistic synthesis and research results in Northeast, Amazônia and Cerrado regions among several projects. The first part results put on evidence the crescent reduction of agrarian reform settlements and beneficiary families since 2006. The second part presents the main reasons offering an analysis of government and society debates in Brazil about land reform. The analysis conclude to the less of power and representation in the society of the pro agrarian reform large and popular coalition.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Covid-19; Epidemiology; Chronic diseases; Serious or critical cases; Brazil; Coronavirus
Online: 8 May 2020 (12:33:24 CEST)
Chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs) have been a major public health concern worldwide, especially diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, in addition to obesity, which is even more worrying when the subject involves the covid-19 pandemic, because such incidences correlate with the need for intensive care units, including the possibility of death of the patient. Therefore, for countries with the highest numbers of critical cases, it is important to assess the incidence of these diseases to guide the public that most needs guidance on public policies for social isolation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0552.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Malaria; Amazon; Brazil; Anopheles darlingi; Plasmodium; Control; Challenges; Strategies; Conventional; Novel; Vector; Mosquito
Online: 23 September 2020 (15:26:43 CEST)
In Brazil, malaria transmission is mostly confined to the Amazon, where substantial progress has been achieved towards disease control in the past decade. Vector control has been historically considered a fundamental part of the main malaria control programs implemented in Brazil. However, the conventional vector-control tools have been insufficient to eliminate local vector populations due to the complexity of the Amazonian rainforest environment and ecological features of malaria vector species in the Amazon, especially Anopheles darlingi. Malaria elimination in Brazil and worldwide eradication will require a combination of conventional and new approaches that takes into account the regional specificities of vector populations and malaria transmission dynamics. Here we present an overview on both conventional and novel promising vector-focused tools to curb malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon. If well designed and employed, these new vector-based approaches may improve the implementation of malaria-control programs, particularly in remote or difficult-to-access areas and in regions where existing interventions have been unable to eliminate disease transmission. However, much effort still has to be put on research expanding the knowledge of neotropical malaria vectors to set the steppingstones for the development of such innovative tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0075.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality; eutrophication; tropic state index; Landsat-8, RapidEye, tropical inland water bodies, Brazil
Online: 13 November 2017 (03:33:35 CET)
We aimed at analyzing Chlorophyll-a and CDOM dynamics from field measurements and at assessing the potential of multispectral satellite data for retrieving water-quality parameters in three small surface reservoirs in the Brazilian semiarid region. More specifically, this work comprises i) analysis of Chl-a and trophic dynamics; ii) characterization of CDOM; iii) estimation of Chl-a and CDOM from OLI/Landsat-8 and RapidEye imagery. The monitoring lasted 20 months within a multi-year drought, which contributed to water-quality deterioration. Chl-a and trophic state analysis showed a highly eutrophic status for the perennial reservoir during the entire study period, while the non-perennial reservoirs ranged from oligotrophic to eutrophic, with changes associated with the first events of the rainy season. CDOM characterization suggests that the perennial reservoir is mostly influenced by autochthonous sources, while allochthonous sources dominate the non-perennial ones. Spectral-group classification assigned the perennial as CDOM-moderate and highly eutrophic reservoir, whereas the non-perennial ones were assigned as CDOM-rich and oligotrophic-dystrophic reservoirs. The remote sensing initiative was partially successful: the Chl-a was best modelled using RapidEye for the perennial; whereas CDOM performed best with Landsat-8 for non-perennial reservoirs. This investigation showed high potential for retrieving water quality parameters in dry areas with small reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0014.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Conditional Frontier Analysis; Multicriteria Decision Analysis; PROMETHEE II; Police Efficiency; Police Effectiveness; Crime; Pernambuco; Brazil.
Online: 1 December 2020 (11:22:46 CET)
Nonparametric assessments of police technical and scale efficiency is challenging because of the stochastic nature of criminal behavior and because of the subjective dependence on multiple decision criteria, which can lead to a more or less efficiency prospect depending on the regulation, necessity, or organizational objective. There is a trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness in many police performance assessments, i.e., efficient departments (producing more clear-ups with a given resource) are crime-specialized or cannot reproduce those good results effectively on more severe or complex occurrences. This study proposes a combined methodology for carrying out efficiency and effectiveness analysis of Police departments. A conditional non-parametric approach, which allows to include crime as an external factor in the analysis, is combined with a non-compensatory ranking based on the PROMETHEE II methodology for the approach illustrated on the multidimensional efficiency and effectiveness comparison of 145 Pernambuco (Brazil)'s police departments. The application results offer compelling perspectives for public administrations concerning the strategic prioritization of units for rewards or interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Convention on Biological Diversity; Nagoya Protocol; ABS access and benefit sharing; Brazil ABS law; genetic resources; associated traditional knowledge.
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:52:23 CET)
This study presents a detailed assessment on the impact of the Brazilian legal framework related to the access and benefit sharing provisions of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. The research is based on a comprehensive dataset that was systematically collected over several years, directly from the official government bodies responsible for its implementation. The aim of the study is to contribute to a fact-based discussion on the effectiveness of national ABS laws, focusing on the Brazilian legal framework, first established in the year 2000 and revised in 2015, as a case example. This study balances the costs and benefits of the Brazilian ABS system and assesses the regulatory challenges it poses to individuals, companies, and institutions that perform research, share knowledge, develop, manufacture or market products derived from Brazilian biodiversity. The study indicates that, after over 22 years of operation, the regulatory challenges are still real and relevant, and that the significant volume of data collected from users on access, prior commercialization and shipment of genetic materials abroad was never systematically assessed by the agencies in charge. Besides, it shows that the costs incurred by the government in managing the policy itself have been higher than the economic benefits it has made possible, and that the institutional mechanisms in place since 2015 have not been able to allocate the monetary benefits contributed by users to the National Benefit Sharing Fund to any projects aimed at developing sustainable uses or preserving Brazilian biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0506.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: Afro-Asian interactions, Asian Latin American literature and characters, Sanfancón, china mulata, “magical negro,” chinos mambises, Brazil, Cuba, transculturation, discourse of mestizaje
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:38:04 CEST)
This essay studies Afro-Asian sociocultural interactions in cultural production by or about Asian Latin Americans, with an emphasis on Cuba and Brazil. Among the recurrent characters are the black slave, the china mulata, or the black ally who expresses sympathy or even marries the Asian character. This reflects a common history of bondage shared by black slaves, Chinese coolies, and Japanese indentured workers, as well as a common history of marronage. These conflicts and alliances between Asians and blacks contest the official discourse of mestizaje (Spanish-indigenous dichotomies in Mexico and Andean countries, for example, or black and white binaries in Brazil and the Caribbean), which, under the guise of incorporating the Other, favored whiteness, all the while attempting to silence, ignore, or ultimately erase their worldviews and cultures.