ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0675.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: bragg mirror, bragg reflector, porous silicon, abele's matrix
Online: 27 May 2021 (14:02:24 CEST)
A distributed bragg reflector is designed to get an optical reflectance on visible electromagnetic spectrum i.e. ~800 nm in this work. Device is realized based on Abele’s matrix for TE mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0174.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Cattaneo-Vernotte; waves; Bragg
Online: 12 October 2021 (10:21:55 CEST)
We present a numerical calculation of the heat transport in a Bragg mirror configuration made of materials that do not obey Fourier's law of heat conduction. The Bragg mirror is made of materials that are described by the Cattaneo-Vernotte equation. By analyzing the Cattaneo-Vernotte equation's solutions, we define the thermal wave surface impedance to design highly reflective thermal Bragg mirrors. Even for mirrors with a few layers, very high reflectance is achieved ($>90\%$). The Bragg mirror configuration is also a system that makes evident the wave-like nature of the solution of the Cattaneo-Vernotte equation by showing frequency pass-bands that are absent if the materials obey the usual Fourier's law.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0627.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Fiber Bragg Structure; microwave photonics; vibration; fiber optic sensor; Address Fiber Bragg Grating
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:56:51 CET)
The paper presents the results of a study of the concept of address fiber Bragg structures in the problem of vibration control. The mathematical model of measuring transformation is presented; the experimental study of a vibration diagnostics system based on Address Fiber Bragg Gratings is carried out; the quantitative and qualitative comparative assessment with electronic accelerometers is made; the gain by an order of magnitude in some parameters is shown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: addressed fiber Bragg structure; fiber Bragg grating; fiber-optic sensor; microwave photonics; microwave-photonic sensor systems
Online: 9 October 2022 (08:10:39 CEST)
Five years ago, the concept of addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) was proposed, which simultaneously perform the functions of a two-frequency radiation shaper, the difference frequency of which is the AFBS address, and a sensitive element, since the value of the difference frequency is invariant to measured physical fields, and the set of difference frequencies, moreover, is orthogonal in the array of such sensors, enabling their address multiplexing. In this article, we provide an overview of the theory and technology of AFBS, including the structures with three or more spectral components with various combinations of difference frequencies, symmetrical and asymmetric, performing the functions of the address and converting information signals to the low-frequency range at the same time, along with other functions. The subjects of interrogation of these structures, their fabrication and calibration are discussed as well. We also consider a wide range of applications in which AFBS can be used, covering such areas as oil and gas production, power engineering, transport, medicine, etc. In addition, the prospects of AFBS further development are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: transparent electrode; organic photovoltaic; distributed Bragg reflector
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:09:37 CEST)
We demonstrated an ITO-free, highly transparent organic solar cell with the potential to be integrated into window panes for energy harvesting purposes. A transparent, conductive ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrode and a Ag:Ca thin film electrode were used in this transparent device as the bottom and top electrode, respectively. To further improve the transmittance of the solar cell, the thickness of the top ZnO layer was investigated by both experiment and simulation. An average visible transmittance of > 60% was reached, with a maximum transmittance of 73% at 556 nm. Both top and bottom illumination of the solar cell generated comparable power conversion efficiencies, which indicates the wide application of this solar cell structure. In addition, we fabricated distributed Bragg reflector mirrors with sputtered SiO2 and TiO2, which efficiently increased the power conversion efficiency over 20% for the solar cells on glass and PET substrates,
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0180.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Waveguide; photonic crystal; optical fiber; Bragg gratings; temperature; sensor; COVID
Online: 10 February 2023 (04:46:18 CET)
Current generation witnesses a huge interest in optical waveguide due to their salient feature such as low cost, immune to electromagnetic interference, easy to multiplex, compact size, etc. These features of the optical fibers makes it an useful tool for various sensing applications including medicine, automotive, biotechnology, food quality control, aerospace, physical and chemical monitoring etc. Among all the reported application, the device has been widely exploited to measure the physical and chemical variation in surrounding environment. Optical fiber based temperature sensor plays a crucial role in this decade to detect high fever and tackle COVID like pandemic. Recognizing the major developments in the field of the optical fibers, this article aims to provide recent progress in temperature sensor utilizing several sensing configuration including standard fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and Bragg grating fibers. Additionally, the article also highlights the advantages, limitations, and future possibilities in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: environmental monitoring; greenhouse gases; multi-sensor system; combined fiber optic sensors; fiber Bragg grating; addressed fiber Bragg structure; Fabry-Perot resonator; Carunen-Loeff transforms
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:26:11 CEST)
The design and usage of the addressed combined fiber-optic sensors (ACFOS) and the multisensory control systems of the greenhouse gas concentration on their basis are investigated. The main development trend of the combined fiber-optic sensors (CFOS), consisting of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the Fabry-Perot resonator (FPR), which are successively formed at the optical fiber end, is highlighted. The addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) usage instead of the FBG in the CFOS leads not only to significant cheapening of the sensor system due to microwave photonics interrogating methods, but also to increasing its metrological characteristics. The structural scheme of the multisensory gas concentration monitoring system is suggested. The suggested scheme allows detecting four types of the greenhouse gases (СО2, NO2, CH4, OX) depending on the material and thickness of the polymer film, which is the FPR sensitive element. The usage of Karunen-Loeff transform (KLT), which allows separating each component contribution to the reflected spectrum according to its efficiency, is proposed. In the future, it allows determining the gas concentration at the AFBS address frequencies. The estimations have shown that the ACFOS design in the multisensory system allows measuring the environment temperature in the range of −60…+300 °C with an accuracy of 0.1–0.01 °C, and the gas concentration in the range of 10…90% with the accuracy of 0.1–0.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Fiber optics sensors; Fiber Bragg gratings; Clinical applications; Medical optics instrumentation
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:57:50 CEST)
Placing the needle inside the epidural space for locoregional anesthesia is a challenging procedure, which even today is left to the expertise of the operator. Recently, we have demonstrated that the use of optically sensorized needles significantly improve the effectiveness of such procedure. Here we propose an optimized configuration, where the optical fiber strain sensor is directly integrated inside the epidural catheter. The new design allows to solve the biocompatibility issues and increases the versatility of the former configuration. Through an in vivo study carried out on a porcine model we confirm the reliability of our approach, which also opens the way to catheter monitoring during its insertion inside biological spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0586.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: nonlinear spectrum distortions; signal exposition time; fiber Bragg grating; fiber Bragg sensors; fiber optic sensors; fiber optic interrogator; optical spectrum analyzer; charge-coupled device elements; CCD
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:50:46 CET)
Abstract: Nonlinear spectrum distortions are caused by the peculiarities of the operation of charge-coupled device elements (CCD), in which the signal exposition time (TINT) is one of the significant parameters. A change of TINT on a CCD leads to a nonlinear distortion of the resulting spectrum. Nonlinear distortion of the spectrum, in its turn, leads to errors in determining the central wavelength of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) and spectrally sensitive sensors, which, in general, negatively affects the accuracy of measuring systems. The paper proposes an algorithm for correcting nonlinear distortions of the spectrum obtained on a spectrum analyzer using CCD as a receiver. It is shown that preliminary calibration of the optical spectrum analyzer with subsequent mathematical processing of the signal makes it possible to make corrections in the resulting spectrum, thereby leveling the errors caused by measurements at different TINT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: bragg grating sensor; auxetic sensor; silica helical core; wrap angle; braid angle
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:08:12 CEST)
This study's objective was to propose the use of textile braiding manufacturing methods, thus facilitating the application of the high precision and accurate measurability of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to various structures. The purpose of this study was to Combine 3d braid processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor's accurate metrology. Out of limits of the sensor's epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can make applicable scope diversify. The braiding processing is capable of designing a 3D fabric module processing, multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangement, and material characteristics. Optical stress-strain response conditions were explored through the optimization of design elements between the Bragg grating sensor and braiding. For this study, Bragg grating sensors were located 75% apart from the fiber center. The sensor core structure is helical of 1.54 pitch. A polyurethane synthetic yarn was braided together with the sensor on the Weaving machine core part in a braiding. Prototyping results, a negative Poisson's ratio makes curled the braided Bragg grating sensor. The number of polyurethane string yarns has been conducted the role of wrap angle in braiding. The 12 strands condition showed an increase in double stress-strain response rate at a Poisson ratio of 1.3%, and 16 strands condition was found to affect the sensor with noise at a Poisson ratio of 1.5%. This study can suggest applying braid processing of the Bragg grating sensor, which is expected to create and develop a new monitoring sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Bragg grating sensor; auxtic sensor; silica helical core; wrap angle; braid angle
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:01:16 CEST)
This study's objective was to propose the use of textile braiding manufacturing methods, thus facilitating the application of the high precision and accurate measurability of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to various structures.The purpose of this study was to Combine 3d braid processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor's accurate metrology. Out of limits of the sensor's epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can make applicable scope diversify. The braiding processing is capable of designing a 3D fabric module processing, multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangement, and material characteristics. Optical stress-strain response conditions were explored through the optimization of design elements between the Bragg grating sensor and braiding. For this study, Bragg grating sensors were located 75% apart from the fiber center. The sensor core structure is helical of 1.54 pitch. A polyurethane synthetic yarn was braided together with the sensor on the Weaving machine core part in a braiding.Prototyping results, a negative Poisson's ratio makes curled the braided Bragg grating sensor. The number of polyurethan string yarns has been conducted the role of wrap angle in braiding. The 12 strands condition showed an increase in double stress-strain response rate at a Poisson ratio of 1.3%, and 16 strands condition was found to affect the sensor with noise at a Poisson ratio of 1.5%. This study can suggest applying braid processing of the Bragg grating sensor, which is expected to create and develop a new monitoring sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0385.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Wireless Sensors Networks; Fiber Bragg Grating; Pressure; Speed; Wheelbase distance; Weight; Vehicle; Identification.
Online: 22 September 2021 (13:27:42 CEST)
Due to the renewed variation in government and political systems inside and outside countries, and with the high tariffs at borders, the latter have become an outlet for terrorism and smugglers. Therefore, each country seeks to develop its own protection system, and the technologies used in these systems vary according to the severity and the importance of the installations to be protected, it is found that some of them are expensive and unnecessary, but other have good and variable levels of efficiency. Consequently, the idea of designing a surveillance system that can monitor and control access becomes indispensable. In the same context, this work is of crucial strategic and geopolitical importance. It combines pre-existing alarm and monitoring methods and revolutionary Internet of Things (IoT) application products, of which Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS) are part of this application. This article presents the distribution of wireless radar nodes accompanying with a Bragg fiber sensor to identify each rolling intruder incoming the zone to be monitored, from the determination of its speed, weight and wheelbase distance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0747.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: gas sensor; photonic crystal fiber; tunable laser; fiber Bragg Grating; carbon dioxide monitoring
Online: 31 October 2018 (10:16:13 CET)
A realistic implementation of an all-fiber CO2 sensor, using 74 cm of hollow core PCF fiber as the cavity for light/gas interaction, has been implemented. It is based on CO2 absorbance in the 2 μm region. The working range is from 2% to 100% CO2 concentration at 1 atm total pressure. The response time obtained was 10 min. The use of an FBG tuned fiber ring laser, specifically designed for this application, is discussed and preliminary results with this laser are also presented.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: di-silicate ceramics; fiber lasers; Fiber Bragg Grating; Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
Online: 5 November 2017 (11:47:29 CET)
Background: Lithium di-silicate dental ceramics bonding, realized by using different resins, is strictly dependent on micro-mechanical retention and chemical adhesion. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the capability of a 1070 nm fiber laser for their surface treatment. Methods: Samples were irradiated by a pulsed fiber laser at 1070 nm with different parameters (Peak Power from 5 kW to 5 kW, RR 20 kHz, speed from 10 to 50 mm/s, total Energy Density from 1.3 to 27 kW/cm2) and the thermal elevation during the experiment was recorded by a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) temperature sensor. Subsequently, the surface modifications were analysed by optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Results: With a Peak Power of 5 kW, RR of 20 kHz and speed of 50 mm/s, the microscopic observation of the irradiated surface showed increased roughness with small areas of melting and carbonization. EDS analysis revealed that, with these parameters, there are no evident differences between laser-processed samples and controls. Thermal elevation during laser irradiation ranged between 5 °C and 9 °C. Conclusions: 1070 nm fiber laser can be considered as a good device to increase the adhesion of Lithium di-silicate ceramics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: prestress monitoring; prestress loss; pre-tensioning; post-tensioning; long-gauge fiber Bragg grating; strain distribution
Online: 2 November 2018 (02:19:31 CET)
Prestress loss evaluation in prestressed strand is essential for prestressed structures. However, the sensors installed outside the duct can only measure the total prestress loss. The sensors attached on strand inside the duct also have several problems, such as inadequate durability in an aggressive environment, vulnerable damage at tensioning and so on. This paper proposes a new installation method for long-gauge fiber Bragg grating (LFBG) sensor to prevent accidental damage. Then the itemized prestress losses were determined in each stage of the pre-tensioning and post-tensioning according to the LFBG measurements. We verified the applicability of the LFBG sensors for prestress monitoring and the accuracy of the proposed prestress loss calculation method during pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. In the pre-tensioning case, the calculated prestress losses had less deviation from the true losses than those obtained from foil-strain gauges, and the durability of the LFBG sensors was better than foil-strain gauges, whereas in post-tensioning case, the calculated prestress losses were close to those derived from theoretical predictions. Finally, we monitored prestress variation in the strand for 90 days. The itemized prestress losses at each stages of post-tensioning were obtained by the proposed calculation method to show the prospect of the LFBG sensors in practical evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fiber Bragg grating; photonic crystal fiber; photosensitivity; FBG magnetic field sensor; olive oil; optical adhesive
Online: 17 November 2016 (10:44:44 CET)
In this project, four of fibers Bragg gratings were fabricated by injecting different volumes of liquids (star line Glass Mechanix optical adhesive material, olive oil diluted with ethanol) into the hollow core fiber. The amplitude splitting interferometric technique with a high resolution specially designed translation stage was used for the fabrication process. The fabrication was done using ultraviolet laser operated at wavelength 405nm. The fabricated Bragg length of the four fibers is equal to 3.8 cm. The results presented fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with successful fabrication at 653.3 nm Bragg reflected wavelength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic sensor system; numerical simulation; addressed fiber Bragg structures; load sensing bearings; vehicle dynamics control
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:11:45 CEST)
The work presents an approach to instrument the load sensing bearings for automotive applications for estimation of the loads acting on the wheels. The system comprises fiber-optic sensors based on addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) with two symmetrical phase shifts. A mathematical model for load-deformation relation is presented, and the AFBS interrogation principle is described. The simulation includes (i) modeling of vehicle dynamics in a split-mu braking test, during which the longitudinal wheel loads are obtained, (ii) the subsequent estimation of bearing outer ring deformation using a beam model with simply supported boundary conditions, (iii) the conversion of strain into central wavelength shift of AFBS, and (iv) modeling of the beating signal at the photodetector. The simulation results show that the estimation error of the longitudinal wheel force from the strain data acquired from a single measurement point was 5.44% with root-mean-square error of 113.64 N. A prototype load sensing bearing was instrumented with a single AFBS sensor and mounted in a front right wheel hub of an experimental vehicle. The experimental setup demonstrated comparable results with the simulation during the braking test. The proposed system with load-sensing bearings is aimed at estimation of the loads acting on the wheels, which serve as input parameters for active safety systems, such as automatic braking, adaptive cruise control, or fully automated driving, in order to enhance their effectiveness and safety of the vehicle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0367.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical steganography; optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA); free space optics (FSO); chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG)
Online: 21 August 2018 (05:21:33 CEST)
A new optical steganography scheme is proposed that transmits a stealth optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) signal through a public binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) channel. Polarization beam splitters and arrayed waveguide gratings are used to implement a spectral-polarization coding (SPC) system with an incoherent optical source. We employ a Walsh–Hadamard code as the signature code of the user who wants to transmit stealth information using the system. A free space optical link applied to this system maintains the polarization states of light during propagation. The secret data is extracted using correlation detection and balanced subtraction in the OCDMA decoder of the intended receiver, and the other signal from the public channel is reduced by the OCDMA decoder. At the demodulator of the public channel, BPSK demodulation eliminates the stealth signal so that the public channel is not affected by the stealth signal. The two signals cannot interfere with each other. The results of this study show that our proposed optical steganography system is highly secure. The stealth signal can be favorably hidden in the public channel when the average source power of the stealth signal, public noise, and public signal are −5, −3, and 0 dBm, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: kinematic model; fiber Bragg grating; deformations; machine tools calibration; predicted model; multiple regression analysis; finite element analysis
Online: 29 December 2016 (07:39:26 CET)
Structural deformations are one of the most significant factor that affects machine tool (MT) positioning accuracy. These induced errors are complex to be represented by a model, nevertheless they need to be evaluated and predicted in order to increase the machining performance. This paper presents a novel approach to calibrate a machine tool in real-time, analyzing the thermo-mechanical errors through Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors embedded in the MT frame. The proposed configuration consists of an adaptronic structure of passive materials, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP), equipped by FBG sensors that are able to measure in real-time the deformed conditions of the frame. By using a proper thermo-mechanical kinematic model, the displacement of the end effector may be predicted and corrected when it is subjected to external undesired factors. By starting from a set of FE simulations to develop a model able to describe the MT structure stresses, a prototype has been fabricated and tested. The scope was to compare the numerical model with the experimental tests using FBG sensors. The experimental campaign has been performed varying the structure temperature over time and measuring the tool tip point (TTP) positions. The obtained results showed a substantial matching between the real and the predicted position of TTP confirming the effectiveness of the proposed calibration system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart Home (SH); Prediction; Artificial Neural Network (ANN); Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG); occupancy; number of person recognition; Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG)
Online: 4 January 2020 (08:32:18 CET)
This article introduces a new way of using a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor for detecting the presence and number of occupants in the monitored space in a Smart Home (SH). CO2 sensors are used to determine the CO2 concentration of the monitored rooms in an SH. CO2 sensors can also be used for occupancy recognition of the monitored spaces in SH. To determine the presence of occupants in the monitored rooms of the SH, the newly devised method of CO2 prediction, by means of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with a Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) algorithm using measurements of typical operational technical quantities (indoor temperature, relative humidity indoor and CO2 concentration in the SH) is used. The goal of the experiments is to verify the possibility of using the FBG sensor in order to unambiguously detect the number of occupants in the selected room (R104) and, at the same time, to harness the newly proposed method of CO2 prediction with ANN SCG for recognition of the SH occupancy status and the SH spatial location (rooms R104, R203, and R204) of an occupant. The designed experiments will verify the possibility of using a minimum number of sensors for measuring the non-electric quantities of indoor temperature and indoor relative humidity and the possibility of monitoring the presence of occupants in the SH using CO2 prediction by means of the ANN SCG method with ANN learning for the data obtained from only one room (R203). The prediction accuracy exceeded 90% in certain experiments. The uniqueness and innovativeness of the described solution lie in the integrated multidisciplinary application of technological procedures (the BACnet technology control SH, FBG sensors) and mathematical methods (ANN prediction with SCG algorithm, the Adaptive Filtration with of LMS algorithm) employed for the recognition of number persons and occupancy recognition of selected monitored rooms of SH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: twisted optical fiber; chirality; laser beam profile; differential mode delay; laser-based few-mode optical signal transmission; fiber Bragg grating; few-mode effects
Online: 30 March 2022 (15:17:48 CEST)
This work presents results of property researches of fabricated samples of silica few-mode optical fiber (FMF) with induced chirality under twisting 10 and 66 revolutions per meter, core diameter 11 µm, typical “telecommunication” cladding diameter 125 µm and improved height of quasi-step refractive index profile. Proposed FMF supports 4 guided modes over “C”-band. We represent results of computed characteristics, as well as experimentally measured spectral responses of laser-excited optical signals, including researches and analysis of few-mode effects, occurring after fiber Bragg grating writing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deformation monitoring; distributed monitoring; single-cell box girder; long-gage strain; long-gage Fiber Bragg Grating; strain distribution; shear lag effect; shear action
Online: 12 June 2018 (05:47:08 CEST)
Distributed deformation based on Fiber Bragg Grating sensors or other kinds of strain sensors can be used to evaluate safety in operating periods of bridges. However, most of the published researches about distributed deformation monitoring are focused on solid rectangular beam rather than box girder—a kind of typical hollow beam widely employed in actual bridges. Considering that the entire deformation of a single-cell box girder contains not only bending deflection but also two additional deformations respectively caused by shear lag and shearing action, this paper again revises the improved conjugated beam method (ICBM) based on the LFBG sensors to satisfy the requirements for monitoring two mentioned additional deformations. The best choice for the LFBG sensor placement in box gilder is also proposed in this paper due to strain fluctuation on flange caused by shear lag effect. Results from numerical simulations show that most of the theoretical monitoring errors of the revised ICBM are 0.3%~1.5%, and the maximum error is 2.4%. A loading experiment for a single-cell box gilder monitored by LFBG sensors show that most of the practical monitoring errors are 6%~8%, and the maximum error is 11%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0150.v2
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: silicon photonics; evanescent optical field sensor; label-free SOI biosensor; Mach-Zehnder interferometer; ring resonator; photonic crystal; Bragg grating; sub-wavelength grating; lab-on-a-chip; microfluidics
Online: 10 October 2018 (08:45:49 CEST)
Thanks to advanced semiconductor microfabrication technology, chip-scale integration and miniaturization of lab-on-a-chip components, silicon-based optical biosensors have made significant progress for the purpose of point-of-care diagnosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in evanescent field biosensing technologies including interferometer, microcavity, photonic crystal, and Bragg grating waveguide-based sensors. Their sensing mechanisms and sensor performances, as well as real biomarkers for label-free detection, are exhibited and compared. We also review the development of chip-level integration for lab-on-a-chip photonic sensing platforms, which consist of the optical sensing device, flow delivery system, optical input and readout equipment. At last, some advanced system-level CMOS-chip packaging examples are presented, indicating the commercialization potential for the low cost, high yield, portable biosensing platform leveraging CMOS processes.