REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0160.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE; ACE2; Angiotensin II; Bradykinin; RAS inhibitors; ACE inhibitors; AT1 receptor blockers; Losartan; Bradykinin Antagonists; Ang II loading; Giapreza; Icatibant.
Online: 14 April 2020 (14:34:43 CEST)
As the world grapples with a pandemic with various and expanding epicenters, a flurry of medical and scientific activity has gained speed and momentum in a race to halt COVID-19. A controversial topic has been the connection between COVID-19 and the Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS). COVID-19, like Sars before it, enters by way of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues in the body serving as the doorway by which the virus can enter and spread causing inflammatory havoc. Demographic evidence coming out of China and other locations make it clear that the elderly and those suffering cardiovascular complications such as hypertension etc are most at risk. The connection to RAS and the demographic nature of the data coming out has led many to advance hypothesis, recommendations and even therapies based on existing RAS inhibitors and other components of the renin-Angiotensin system. It is pertinent to review the literature in the context of our understanding of the renin-angiotesnin system to allow better judgements to be made as well as lines of research initiated advancing a quick resolution to COVID-19. Covid-19 appears invincible as if dipped in the river Styx, but even Achilles had a vulnerable heel. Understanding the homeostatic balance that the coronavirus disrupts, we can discover the arrow in corona’s heel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ACE-2; nicotine; smoke; cigarette; epithelial cells.
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:43:40 CEST)
Prevalence studies of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients demonstrated an unexpectedly low prevalence of current smoking among patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present proposal was to evaluate the effect of smoke from cigarettes on ACE-2 in bronchial epithelial cells. Normal bronchial epithelial cells (H292) were exposed to smoke by an air-liquid-interface (ALI) system and ACE-2 membrane protein expression was evaluated after 24 hours from exposure. Our transcriptomics data analysis showed a significant selective reduction of membrane ACE-2 expression (about 25%) following smoking exposure. Interestingly, we observed a positive direct correlation between ACE-2 reduction and nicotine delivery. Furthermore, by stratifying GSE52237 as a function of ACE-2 gene expression levels, we highlighted 1012 genes related to ACE-2 in smokers and 855 in non-smokers. Furthermore, we showed that 161 genes involved in the endocytosis process were highlighted using the online pathway tool KEGG. Finally, 11 genes were in common between the ACE-2 pathway in smokers and the genes regulated during endocytosis, while 12 genes with non-smokers. Interestingly, six in non-smokers and four genes in smokers were closely involved during the viral internalization process. Our data may offer a pharmaceutical role of nicotine as potential treatment option in COVID-19.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0400.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ACE-2
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:48:01 CET)
The world is currently going through a serious pandemic of viral infection with SARS-CoV-2, a new isolate of coronavirus, resembling and surpassing the crisis that occurred in 2002 and 2013 with SARS and MERS, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 has currently infected more than 142,000 people, causing 5,000 deaths and reaching more than 130 countries worldwide. The very large spreading capacity of the virus clearly demonstrates the potential threat of respiratory viruses to human health, alarming governments around the world that preventive health policies and scientific research are pivotal to overcoming the crisis. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes flu-like symptoms in most cases. However, approximately 15% of patients will need hospitalization, and 5% require assisted ventilation, depending on the cohorts studied. What is intriguing, however, is the higher susceptibility of elderly individuals, especially those who are more than 60 years old and have comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. In fact, the death rate in this group may be up to 10-12%. Interestingly, children are somehow protected and not included as a risk group.Thus, here, we discuss some possibilities of molecular and cellular mechanisms by which elderly subjects may be more susceptible to severe COVID-19. In this sense, we raise two main points: i) increased ACE-2 expression in pulmonary and heart tissue of chronic angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker users and hypertensive individuals and ii) antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) after previous exposure to other circulating coronaviruses. We believe these are pivotal points for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and must be addressed with attention by physicians and scientists in the field.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Mass spectrometry; RAS; ACE; ACE2; CPN; bradykinin; hypertension; cardiovascular disease; antihypertensiva; ACE inhibitors; angiotensin receptor blockers; bradykinin; neuropeptide re-porter assay
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:13:10 CEST)
(1) Background: Co-morbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease are major risk factors for severe COVID-19. The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) is critically involved in their pathophysiology and is counterbalanced by both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, and the kallikrein-kinin-system (KKS). Considerable research interest with respect to COVID-19 treatment is, thus, currently directed towards the components of these systems. In an earlier study, we noticed significantly reduced carboxypeptidase N (CPN, KKS member) activity and partially excessive angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, RAS member) activity in the sera of both hospitalized (HoP) COVID-19 patients and a sub-group of covalescent patients, while in the majority of the probands recovering from the disease these values had returned to normal. The data had been obtained using bradykinin (BK) as a reporter peptide, which is a target of both CPN and ACE, and they were supplemented by serum proteomics of the same patient cohort. We hypothesized that the data could be indicative of Long COVID, which had not been fully appreciated at the time of our study.; (2) Methods: The data were re-evaluated in the light of Long COVID. The recent literature on the RAS in COVID-19, antihypertensiva, and Long COVID was briefly reviewed.; (3) Results: While the levels of the BK serum degradation products should return to normal concentrations during convalescence, this was not true for some patients. This could be due to persisting liver problems, because CPN is synthesized there, but also to a dysregulated RAS. This was not reflected in the levels of selected RAS/KKS serum proteins like angiotensinogen (AGT), although AGT correlated with disease severity in HoP. However, standard tests in routine patient care in Long COVID often come back normal, and it may be that BK degradation is specific in some pathophysiologies. Moreover, the HoP group was sub-divided based on the serum protein profiles and COVID-19 severity.; (4) Conclusions: We point out two insights: 1) Sensitive technology such as omics methods might provide unexpected significant differences within the pre-defined patient groups of a clinical study. Those can only be explored, if the cohorts are large enough and properly matched with respect to the parameters known beforehand (e.g., age, gender, co-morbidities). 2) Results of the BK-reporter serum protease activity assay could be indicative of persisting liver problems and/or potentially of Long COVID. Clinical studies are required to test this hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0369.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein; ACE; ACE2
Online: 20 April 2020 (16:01:29 CEST)
Background: Respiratory transmission is the primary route of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the known receptor of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein for entry into human cells. A recent study reported absent to low ACE2 promoter activity in a variety of human lung epithelial cell samples. Three bioprojects (PRJEB4337, PRJNA270632 and PRJNA280600) invariably found abundant expression of ACE in human lungs compared to very low expression of ACE2. Methods: In silico tools were applied to assess potential interaction of SARS-CoV-2 surface spike protein with human ACE as well as predict the drugs that may block SARS-CoV-2 interaction with host receptor. Results: Although it is not obvious from the primary sequence alignment of ACE2 and its homolog ACE (also known as ACE1), comparison of X-ray crystallographic structures show striking similarity in the regions of these proteins which is known (for ACE2) to interact with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Critical amino acids that mediate interaction with the viral spike protein in ACE2 are organized in the same order in ACE. In silico analyses predicts comparable interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ACE2 and ACE. In addition, this study predicts and selects already approved drugs from a list of 1263, which may interfere with the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to ACE2 and/or ACE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0708.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Phytochemicals; SARS-CoV-2; S-Protein; Molecular docking; ACE 2
Online: 28 December 2020 (16:51:12 CET)
Since December 2019, the worldwide spread of COVID-19 has brought the majority of the world to a standstill, affecting daily lives as well as economy. Under these conditions, it is imperative to develop a cure as soon as possible. On account of some of the adverse side effects of the existing conventional drugs, researchers all around the world are screening natural antiviral phytochemicals as potential therapeutic agents against COVID-19. This paper aims to review interactions of some specific phytochemicals with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest their possible therapeutic applications. Literature search was done based on the wide array of in-silico studies conducted using broad spectrum phytochemicals against SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. We shortlisted 26 such phytochemicals specifically targeting the S protein and its interactions with host receptors. To validate the previously published results, we also conducted molecular docking using the AutoDockVina application and identified 6 high potential phytochemicals for therapeutic use based on their binding energies. Besides this, availability of these compounds, their mode of action, toxicity data and cost-effectiveness were also taken into consideration. Our review specifically identifies 6 phytochemicals that can be used as potential treatments for COVID-19 based on their availability, toxicology results and low costs of production. However, all these compounds need to be further validated by wet lab experiments and should be approved for clinical use only after appropriate trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0012.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Ace-1 G119S mutation; insecticide resistance; Anopheles gambiae; Cameroon; malaria
Online: 8 October 2019 (11:49:05 CEST)
Growing resistance is reported to carbamate insecticides in malaria vectors in Cameroon. However, the contribution of acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1) to this resistance remains uncharacterised. Here, we established that the G119S mutation is driving resistance to carbamates in Anopheles gambiae populations from Cameroon. Insecticide bioassay on field collected mosquitoes from Bankeng, a locality in southern Cameroon, showed high resistance to the carbamates bendiocarb (64.8 ± 3.5 % mortality) and propoxur (55.71 ± 2.9 %) but a full susceptibility to the organophosphate fenithrothion. The TaqMan genotyping of the G119S mutation in field-collected adults revealed the presence of this resistance allele (39%). A significant correlation was observed between the Ace-1R and carbamate resistance at allelic [(bendiocarb; OR = 75.9; P<0.0001) and (propoxur; OR= 1514; P<0.0001)] and genotypic [RR vs SS (bendiocarb; OR = 120.8; P<0.0001) and (propoxur; OR= 3277; P<0.0001) levels. Furthermore, the presence of the mutation was confirmed by sequencing an Ace-1 portion flanking codon 119. The cloning of this fragment revealed a likely duplication of Ace-1 in Cameroon as mosquitoes exhibited at least three distinct haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the predominant Ace-1R allele is identical to that from West Africa suggesting a recent introduction of this allele in Central Africa from the West. The spread of this Ace-1R represents a serious challenge to future implementation of IRS-based interventions using carbamates or organophosphates in Cameroon
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); antipsychotic medication; polymorphism, insertion/deletion; treatment response
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:12:20 CEST)
We investigated whether a functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) influenced antipsychotic treatment. At baseline, and after 8 weeks of treatment with various antipsychotic medications, we assessed patients’ Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, PANSS factors, and metabolic syndrome-related parameters (fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels, and body mass index). A total of 186 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients or nonadherent chronic psychosis individuals (99 males and 87 females) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The ACE-I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with changes in PANSS psychopathology only (p < 0.05). Compared to ACE-II homozygous males, ACE-DD homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous males manifested significantly greater decreases in PANSS positive score, PANSS excitement factor, and PANSS cognitive factor. ACE-DD homozygous females manifested higher decreases in PANSS depression factor compared to ACE-II homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous females. The polymorphism’s effect size was estimated as moderate to strong, while its contribution to the PANSS psychopathology ranged from ~5.4–8.7%, with the lowest contribution observed for PANSS positive score changes and the highest for PANSS depressive factor changes. Our results indicated that ACE-I/D polymorphism had a statistically significant but weak gender-specific impact on psychopathology data and showed no association between ACE-I/D polymorphism and metabolic syndrome-related parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 RBD; Ubrogepant; ACE-2; MD simulation
Online: 31 March 2020 (22:50:27 CEST)
Background: COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global pandemic affecting approximately 490,000 people and accounting for more than 22,000 deaths and has no generally acceptable cure. Here, the recently resolved 3D structure of SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) in complex with its receptor-the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) have provided the basis for screening chemical database for novel entry inhibitors. Methods: Molecular docking protocols have been used to rapidly screen FDA database for high affinity interaction at the SARS-CoV-2-RBD/ACE-2 interface. One of the top candidates, ubrogepant has been selected and further studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation method. Results: Molecular docking result showed that ubrogepant (UBR) and darunavir have binding energies of -10.4 kcal/mol. MMPBSA free energy analyses of UBR bound to RBD, ACE-2 and RBD/ACE-2 revealed RBD/ACE-2 > ACE-2 > RBD preference. Network analysis showed that interaction captured in the crystal structure were disrupted in UBR-bound state, hydration of the interface and increased atomic fluctuation within the RBD oligomerization interface and ACE-2 zinc binding site. Conclusions: The ability of ubrogepant to rupture the interaction at the RBD/ACE-2 interface residues of SARS-CoV-2 RBD/ACE-2 complex may result in loss of protein function with direct implication on oligomerization formation in RBD and loss of function in ACE-2 thus, making binding, cellular receptor recognition impossible. General Significance: Ubrogepant represents a new therapeutic candidate in the fight against COVID-19, as it binds with relatively high affinity with free RBD, ACE-2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 RBD/ACE-2 complex based on binding affinity calculations.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Darunavir; ACE-2; Receptor Binding Domain; Metastable Conformation; FDA database
Online: 7 March 2020 (16:28:05 CET)
The transnational spread of coronavirus (2019-nCoV) first detected in Wuhan is causing global panic; thus, accelerated research into clinical intervention is of high necessity. The spike glycoprotein structure has been resolved, and its affinity to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) has been experimentally validated. Here, using computational methods, a metastable conformation of 2019-nCoV-RBD/ACE-2 complex has been revealed and FDA-database of approved drugs have been docked into the interface. Darunavir has been discovered as high ligand affinity candidate capable of disrupting communication between 2019-nCoV-RBD and ACE-2. Darunavir, in addition to its previously known anti-HIV protease inhibitor is now repurposeable for the treatment 2019-nCoV disease acting via disruption of cellular recognition, binding and invasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ACE-inhibition; antioxidant potential; processed cheddar cheese; water soluble extract; ethanol soluble extract
Online: 22 June 2021 (07:45:25 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to develop an in-vitro digestion protocol to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the peptides found in processed cheddar cheese using digestion enzymes. We studied first antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antioxidant activities of processed cheddar cheese with the addition of spices e.g. cumin, clove and black pepper made from buffalo milk and ripened for 9 months. Then we conducted an in vitro digestion of processed cheddar cheese by gastric and duodenal enzymes. Freeze dried water (WSE) and ethanol soluble fractions (ESE) of processed cheddar cheese were also monitored for their ACE inhibition activity and antioxidant activities. In our preliminary experiments, different levels of spices (cumin, clove and black pepper) were tested into cheese matrix and only one level 0.2g/100g (0.2%) on the basis of cheese weight was considered good concerning sensory evaluation. Significant increase in ACE-inhibition (%) of processed Cheddar cheese as well as its WSE and ESE was obtained. Lower IC50 values were found after duodenal phase digestion compared to oral phase digestion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme; I/D polymorphism; ACE; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19 mortality rate; testing intensity
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:04:35 CEST)
A literature review was conducted to summarize the frequency of the D-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 in all countries with available data. Using an ecological study design limited to high income countries, we found that the country-level frequency of the D-allele was associated with increased COVID-19 incidence and mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0377.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aa = amino acids; ACE-2 = receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; cDNA = complementary DNA; mRNA = messenger RNA; orf = open reading frame; RBD = receptor binding protein; S-protein = Spike protein; SARS-CoV-2 = severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Vaccines.
Online: 22 June 2021 (11:53:34 CEST)
The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV (Coronavirus)-2 S(spike)-protein mRNA/cDNA currently being used as vaccines are antigenic but not antigens against SARS-CoV-2, that causes COVID (Coronavirus Disease) -19. Furthermore, the mRNA and cDNA antigenic vaccines also have potentials for homologous as well as heterologous recombination, primarily into the somatic cell DNA of the vaccine recipients. On the contrary, a SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein antigen, a part of the S-protein, will directly stimulate antibody production against SARS-CoV-2. Hence, a vaccine composed of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein as a safer, fast acting, and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and thus against COVID-19. This is also useful for some immune compromised individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine side effect; vaccines and Heart rhythm disorders; Spike Protein and cardiac arrhythmias; ACE system and heart conduction; Angiotensin II and cardiac arrhythmias
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:40:58 CEST)
-529391451442Citation: To be added by editorial staff during production. Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Revised: date Accepted: date Published: date Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).0Citation: To be added by editorial staff during production. Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Revised: date Accepted: date Published: date Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination offered the opportunity to get out of the pandemic and thereby worldwide health, social, and economic disasters. However, in addition to efficacy, safety is an important issue for any vaccine. The mRNA-based vaccine platform is considered to be safe but side effects are being reported more frequently as more and more people around the world become treated. Myo-pericarditis is the major, but not the only cardiovascular complication of this vaccine, hence it is important not to underestimate other side effects. We report a case series of patients affected by cardiac arrhythmias post mRNA vaccine from our clinical practice and the literature. Reviewing the official vigilance database emerged that heart rhythm disorders after Covid vaccination are not uncommon and deserve more clinical and scientific attention. Since Covid vaccine is the only vaccination to have been related to this side effect questions arose about whether these vaccines could affect heart conduction. Although the risk-benefit is clearly in favor of vaccination heart rhythm disorders are not a negligible issue and there are red flags in the literature about the risk of post-vaccination malignant arrhythmias in some predisposed patients. In light of these findings, we investigated the potential mechanism for the Covid vaccine to impact on cardiac electrophysiology and cause heart rhythm disorders.