Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

The G119S Acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1) Target Site Mutation Confers Carbamate Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae from Cameroon: A Challenge for the Coming IRS Implementation

Version 1 : Received: 31 August 2019 / Approved: 1 September 2019 / Online: 1 September 2019 (12:43:29 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 7 October 2019 / Approved: 8 October 2019 / Online: 8 October 2019 (11:49:05 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Elanga-Ndille, E.; Nouage, L.; Ndo, C.; Binyang, A.; Assatse, T.; Nguiffo-Nguete, D.; Djonabaye, D.; Irwing, H.; Tene-Fossog, B.; Wondji, C.S. The G119S Acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1) Target Site Mutation Confers Carbamate Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae from Cameroon: A Challenge for the Coming IRS Implementation. Genes 2019, 10, 790. Elanga-Ndille, E.; Nouage, L.; Ndo, C.; Binyang, A.; Assatse, T.; Nguiffo-Nguete, D.; Djonabaye, D.; Irwing, H.; Tene-Fossog, B.; Wondji, C.S. The G119S Acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1) Target Site Mutation Confers Carbamate Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae from Cameroon: A Challenge for the Coming IRS Implementation. Genes 2019, 10, 790.

Journal reference: Genes 2019, 10, 790
DOI: 10.3390/genes10100790

Abstract

Growing resistance is reported to carbamate insecticides in malaria vectors in Cameroon. However, the contribution of acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1) to this resistance remains uncharacterised. Here, we established that the G119S mutation is driving resistance to carbamates in Anopheles gambiae populations from Cameroon. Insecticide bioassay on field collected mosquitoes from Bankeng, a locality in southern Cameroon, showed high resistance to the carbamates bendiocarb (64.8 ± 3.5 % mortality) and propoxur (55.71 ± 2.9 %) but a full susceptibility to the organophosphate fenithrothion. The TaqMan genotyping of the G119S mutation in field-collected adults revealed the presence of this resistance allele (39%). A significant correlation was observed between the Ace-1R and carbamate resistance at allelic [(bendiocarb; OR = 75.9; P<0.0001) and (propoxur; OR= 1514; P<0.0001)] and genotypic [RR vs SS (bendiocarb; OR = 120.8; P<0.0001) and (propoxur; OR= 3277; P<0.0001) levels. Furthermore, the presence of the mutation was confirmed by sequencing an Ace-1 portion flanking codon 119. The cloning of this fragment revealed a likely duplication of Ace-1 in Cameroon as mosquitoes exhibited at least three distinct haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the predominant Ace-1R allele is identical to that from West Africa suggesting a recent introduction of this allele in Central Africa from the West. The spread of this Ace-1R represents a serious challenge to future implementation of IRS-based interventions using carbamates or organophosphates in Cameroon

Subject Areas

Ace-1 G119S mutation; insecticide resistance; Anopheles gambiae; Cameroon; malaria

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 8 October 2019
Commenter: Emmanuel N'DILLE
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Some changes were made in the manuscript according to the comments from the reviewers. For example, as aksed by one reviewer, we performed additional analysis which is presented in figure 5 added. This analysis will bring some important information and will increase the power of data presented in the manuscript.
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