ARTICLE Download: 39| View: 191| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0375.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Liquid phase transformation; Ag flakes; Ag meshes, elastic electrodes
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:20:04 CEST)
Flexible and stretchable conductive materials have received significant attention in several applications such as flexible displays and sensors. In this paper, we report a highly dispersed porous Ag nanoflakes with clean surfaces were fabricated through an explosive growth process. The evolution process from silver nanoflakes to nanomeshes occurred by the novel “dissolution–recrystallization” solvothermal process. The as-obtained Ag meshes have the dual nature of nanoflakes and nanoparticles, which could create an intercross and interpenetration conductive network structures between silver and polymer in the printed elastic conductor, therefore, the silver meshes as conductive fillers used in elastic conductor simultaneously exhibit high conductivity and mechanical durability.
Fri, 24 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 19| View: 167| Comments: 0
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Sepiapterin; triacetyl-β-cyclodextrin (TAβCD); hydrophilic drug/cyclodextrin complexes; spray-drying; methoxy-poly(ethylene-glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) nanoparticles
Online: 24 May 2019 (11:42:42 CEST)
In this work, we investigated for the first time the complexation of sepiapterin (SP), the natural precursor of the natural essential cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, that displays mild water-solubility and short biological half-life, with the hydrophobic triacetyl-β-cyclodextrin (TAβCD) to improve its encapsulation within methoxy-poly(ethylene-glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) nanoparticles. First, TAβCD-SP complexes were produced by spray-drying of TAβCD/SP binary solutions by utilizing the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 HP. Then, dry powders were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively) and compared to the complex components and physical mixtures (PMs). Next, SP was encapsulated within methoxy-poly(ethylene-glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation of a SP/TAβCD complex/mPEG-PCL solution. In addition to complex nanoencapsulation, we assessed encapsulation of pure SP by nanoprecipitation with an intermediate step, which comprised the co-drying of SP, TAβCD and mPEG-PCL copolymer solution in organic solvent; this step aimed to promote the formation of molecular interactions between SP, TAβCD and the PCL blocks in the copolymer. SP-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and SEM. Nanoparticles with size of 74-75 nm and small polydispersity index (PDI <0.1) were obtained when SP-TAβCD equimolar spray-dried complex was used for nanoencapsulation, and SEM analysis indicated the absence of free SP crystals. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency (%EE) and drug loading (DL) were 85% and 2.6%, respectively, as opposed to those achieved with pure SP encapsulation (14% and 0.6%, respectively). Overall, our results confirm that spray-drying of SP/TAβCD solutions at the appropriate molar ratio leads to the hydrophobization of the relatively hydrophilic SP molecule, enabling its encapsulation within mPEG-PCL nanoparticles.
Thu, 23 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 44| View: 201| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0281.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: SiO2 nanoparticles; ZnO nanoparticles; TiO2 nanoparticles; toxicity; ethylsilicate consolidants
Online: 23 May 2019 (06:16:13 CEST)
Rapid progress in the development of highly efficient nanoparticle-based construction technologies has not always been accompanied by a corresponding understanding of their effects on human health and ecosystems. Here, we compare toxicological effects of pristine TiO2, ZnO and SiO2, and coated SiO2 nanoparticles and evaluate their suitability as additives to consolidants of weathered construction materials. First, WST-1 and LDH assays were used to determine the viability of human alveolar A549 cells at various nanoparticle concentrations (0–250 μg mL−1). While the pristine TiO2 and coated SiO2 nanoparticles did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect up to the highest tested concentration, the pristine SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles significantly reduced cell viability. Second, as all the developed nanoparticle-modified consolidants increased the mechanical strength of weathered sandstone, the decisive criterion for the selection of the most suitable nanoparticle additive was as low toxicity as possible. We believe that this approach will be of high importance for industry to identify materials representing top functional properties and low toxicity at an early stage of the product development.
Tue, 7 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 47| View: 143| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0081.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: InAlAs; molecular beam epitaxy; surface morphology, quantum cascade lasers, X-ray spectroscopy
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:35:42 CEST)
We investigate molecular beam epitaxy growth conditions of micrometers-thick In0.52Al0.48As designed for waveguide of InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum cascade lasers. Effect of growth temperature and V/III ratio on the surface morphology and defect structure were studied. The growth conditions which were developed for the growth of cascaded In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As active region, e.g. growth temperature of TG=520°C and V/III ratio of 12, turned out to be not optimum for the growth of thick In0.52Al0.48As waveguide layers. It has been observed that after exceeding ~1µm thickness the quality of In0.52Al0.48As layers deteriorates. The in-situ optical reflectometry showed increasing surface roughness caused by defect forming, which was further confirmed by High Resolution X-Ray reciprocal space mapping, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The presented optimization of growth conditions of In0.52Al0.48As waveguide layer led to the growth of defect free material, with good optical quality. This has been achieved by decreasing the growth temperature to TG=480 °C with appropriate increasing V/III ratio. At the same time the growth conditions of the cascade active region of the laser were left unchanged. The lasers grown using new recipe have shown lower threshold currents and improved slope efficiency. We relate this performance improvement to reduction of the electron scattering on the interface roughness and decreased waveguide absorption losses.
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 128| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0068.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: NiCo2O4 nanocores; hybrid nancomposite; carbon-based materials; electrochemical capacitance; supercapacitor
Online: 7 May 2019 (04:56:28 CEST)
New hybrid nanostructured electrodes for supercapacitors made by combination of electrical double layer and faradaic supercapacitors based-nanomaterials within a single hybrid composite has a great potential on expanding the range of use of these devices and increase their electrochemical performance. In this work, we developed several hybrid nanostructured composites with combinations of such types of materials with potential applicability as electrodes in supercapacitors. In particular, these composites were obtained by easy, cost-effective and scalable procedures, and were composed by NiCo2O4 nanocores as the main faradaic-based nanomaterial and either the conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) as the electrical double layer-based carbonaceous-based nanomaterials in order to enable the combination of both type of energy storage processes within a single nanostructured device. These constructions allowed us to obtain specific capacitance as large as 1760 F/g, 900 F/g and 734 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g for NiCo2O4/PANI, NiCo2O4/MWCNT, and NiCo2O4/r-GO hybrid nanocomposite electrodes, respectively. Besides, the stability of NiCo2O4/MWCNTs and NiCo2O4/r-GO-based electrodes was outstanding, with capacity losses below 10% after long periods of operation (> 500 cycles).
Tue, 23 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 50| View: 157| Comments: 0
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Amazonian fat; Ucuùba fat; Box Behnken Design; solid lipid nanoparticles; antifungal therapy; onychomycosis
Online: 23 April 2019 (12:57:42 CEST)
Ucuùba fat is fat obtained from a plant found in South America, mainly in Amazonian Brazil. Due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity, the Ucuùba fat was used for production of ketoconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in view of an application for the treatment of onychomycosis and other persistent fungal infections. The development and optimization of the Ucuùba fat based NLC were performed using a Box-Behnken design of experiment. The independent variables were surfactant concentration (% w/v), liquid lipids concentration (% w/v), solid lipids concentration (% w/v), while the outputs of interest were particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE). The Ucuùba fat based NLC were produced and the process optimized determining a predictive mathematical model. Applying the model, two formulations with the pre-required particle size, i.e., 30 and 85 nm, were produced for further evaluation. The optimized formulations were characterized and showed a particle size in agreement to the predicted value, i.e. 33.6 nm and 74.6 nm, respectively. The optimized formulations were also characterized using multiple techniques in order to investigate the solid state of drug and excipients (DSC and XRD), particle morphology (TEM) and interactions between the formulation components (FTIR). Furthermore, particle size and surface charge of the formulations was studied during a one-month stability study and did not evidence any significative modification during storage.
Mon, 15 April 2019
REVIEW Download: 88| View: 124| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0162.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: silymarin; silybin; nanoemulsion; solid lipid nanoparticles; nanostructured lipid carriers; liposome; polymeric particles; self-emulsifying delivery systems; enhanced bioavailability
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:23:17 CEST)
Silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignan and flavonoid polyphenolic compounds extractable from the milk thistle seed, Silybum marianum, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-viral activities potentially useful in the treatment of several liver disorders, such as chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Equally promising are the effects of silymarin in protecting the brain from the inflammatory and oxidative stress effects by which metabolic syndrome contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. However, despite clinical trials have proved that silymarin is safe at high doses (>1500 mg/day) in humans, it suffers limiting factors such as low solubility in water (<50 μg/mL), low bioavailability and poor intestinal absorption. To improve its bioavailability and provide a prolonged silymarin release at the site of absorption, the use of nanotechnological strategies appears to be a promising method to potentiate the therapeutic action and promote sustained release of the active herbal extract. The purpose of this study is to review the different nanostructured systems available in literature as delivery strategies to improve the absorption and bioavailability of silymarin.
Fri, 5 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 67| View: 179| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: oil, nanocomposite membranes, PVDF-TrFE, photoreactor, and sunlight.
Online: 5 April 2019 (11:48:43 CEST)
Production of wastewater related to the oil and gas industries is increasing over the years. The compounds found in industrial wastewater typically show high toxicity, and in this way, they have become a primary environmental concern. Several techniques have been applied in industrial effluents remediation. In spite of the efforts, these techniques are yet ineffective to treat oily wastewater before it can be discharged safely to the environment. Membrane technology is an attractive approach to treat oily wastewater. This is dedicated to the immobilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles on poly (vinylidene fluoride–trifluoro ethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) porous matrix by solvent casting. Membranes with interconnected pores with an average diameter of 60 micrometres and the contact angle of 97°, decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles, are obtained. The degradation of oily wastewater demonstrated the remarkable photocatalytic efficiency of the nanocomposite membranes: under sunlight irradiation for 7 hours, colourless water was obtained. These results show the suitability of TiO2/P(VDF–TrFE) nanocomposite for photocatalytic applications for oily wastewater remediation.
Mon, 1 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 83| View: 140| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0002.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoparticles; spectral blue shift; amalgam; water quality
Online: 1 April 2019 (08:21:19 CEST)
The emission of mercury (II) from coal combustion and other industrial processes continues to be a concern and have local impact on water resources. The detection of these ions in water with sensitive but rapid testing methods is desirable for environmental screening and fieldwork. Nanoparticles of various chemistries have shown promise for this purpose, as they can be used in simple colorimetric analyses. Silver nanoprisms were chemically synthesized resulting in a blue reagent solution, that transitioned towards yellow and colorless solutions when exposed to Hg2+ ions at various concentrations. A rapid galvanic reduction of Hg2+ onto the nanoprism surfaces is apparently responsible for a change in shape towards spherical nanoparticles, leading to the change in color. There were no interferences by other metal ions in solution, and pH had minimal effect in the range of 6.5 to 9.8. The silver nanoprism reagent provided a detection limit of approximately 0.5 µM (100 µg/L) for mercury (II), which compares favorably with other nanoparticle-based techniques. Further optimization may reduce this detection limit.
Wed, 27 March 2019
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 195| Comments: 0
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Anomalous; correlations; trans-PA; electronic transport; FET
Online: 27 March 2019 (08:41:38 CET)
The electronic transport stability in nanodevices composed by metal/trans-polyacetylene /metal with different long length has contributed greatly for performance, homogeneity, stability, organization of the chains, reproducibility and higher conductivity. In this paper, we present an analytical study of the electronic transport characteristics from dimerized trans-polyacetylene (trans-PA) molecules containing an odd-even number of sites coupled to metal leads (left and right) in T-shaped geometry using the extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model based on tight-binding Hamiltonian with the Non-Equilibrium Green´s Function (NEGF) via Heisenberg´s equation of motion and the Keldysh´s formalism. Due to the complexity of the T-shaped odd-even chain, our proposal was to test the effects on the finite-length network for three, four, five sites and furthermore foresee for 17-sites. We show how to tune dimerization strength () coupling to the parameters and T-shaped geometry of the device to which it affects the overlap integral localized at the three endpoints of the T-shaped system, making both the odd and even chains to undergo a metal-insulator transition in their electronic behavior. The results reached through control parity of the chain plane of the parameters governing () the electronic and experimental tunneling allow a better understanding of the subject.
Mon, 11 March 2019
ARTICLE Download: 70| View: 222| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0127.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: focal plane array, thermal source, synchrotron radiation, infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, silk, SZ2080
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:38:21 CET)
A focal plane array (FPA) detector was used for hyperspectral imaging in the infrared (IR) spectral region using thermal and synchrotron light sources. FPA Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) imaging microspectroscopy will be able to monitor real time changes at specific absorption bands when combined with high brightness synchrotron source. In this study, several types of samples with unique structural motifs were selected and used for assessing the capability of the FPA-FTIR imaging technique. It was shown that the time required for polariscopy at IR wavelengths can be substantially reduced by the FPA-FTIR imaging approach. By using natural and laser fabricated polymers with sub-wavelength features, alignment of absorbing molecular dipoles was revealed as well as higher order patterns (laser fabricated structures). Micro-spectroscopy of absorber orientation reveals alignment patterns even when they are not spatially resolved.
Wed, 6 March 2019
ARTICLE Download: 63| View: 198| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0077.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: γ-ray irradiation; surface plasmon resonance; fiber sensor; nano-particles; cladding embedded optical fiber
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:37:09 CET)
The effect of γ-ray irradiation on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing capability of refractive index (n = 1.418–1.448) of the silica glass optical fiber comprised of germano-silicate glass cladding embedded with Au nano-particles (NPs) was investigated. As the γ-ray irradiation increased from 1 hour to 3 hours with the dose rate of 1,190 Gy/h, the morphology of the Au NPs and the SPR spectrum were found to change. The average diameter of Au NPs increased with the aspect ratio from 1 to 2 and the nano-particles became grown to the clusters. The SPR peak wavelength shifted towards longer wavelength with the increase of total dose of γ-ray irradiation regardless of the corresponding refractive indices. The SPR sensitivities (wavelength/refractive index unit, nm/RIU) also increased from 407 nm/RIU to 3,553 nm/RIU, 1,483 nm/RIU, and 2,335 nm/RIU after the γ-ray irradiation at the total dose of 1,190 Gy, 2,380 Gy, and 3,570 Gy, respectively.
Mon, 25 February 2019
ARTICLE Download: 47| View: 160| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0231.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: domain walls, magnetic force microscope; magnetoresistance; permalloy wire.
Online: 25 February 2019 (14:39:55 CET)
Domain walls were studied for permalloy wires with different depth trenches (500 nm wide, 30 nm thick, 7.5 µm long, the depth of the trench was 0, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 15nm). Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) wires were fabricated by electron beam lithography and Ar ion milling. When the depth of trench is smaller than 12 nm, the switching field (Hs) is increasing with the deeper trench. However, the depth of trench is bigger than half depth of thickness, the Hs is decreasing with the deeper trench. We believed that Hs increased as the trench depth increased was because the magnetic diploes force increased between the magnetic poles on two sides of the trench. The domains of the wires were divided by the trenches and the domain walls were pinned on the trenches these were confirmed by magnetic force microscopy images.
Mon, 11 February 2019
ARTICLE Download: 51| View: 288| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0095.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: anisotropic magnetoresistances; domain wall; magnetoelectronic devices.
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:35:58 CET)
Six Half-ring with varying linewidth from 120nm to 370nm were connected in series on five corners. The magnetization reversal processes were investigated by the measurement of anisotropic magnetoresistances (AMR). The number of switching jumps in the AMR loops, from zero to five, varied with the longitudinal applied field. These discrete jumps result from domain wall nucleating and depinning on the corners. The larger external field applied the fewer number of jumps in the MR curve. This reproducible and particular-respondence of domain wall device in pattern of half-ring wire might be the new promising magnetoelectronic devices.
Thu, 31 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 122| View: 443| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0319.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: cascaded neural networks; memristor crossbar; convolutional neural networks
Online: 31 January 2019 (06:54:33 CET)
Multiply-accumulate calculations using a memristor crossbar array is an important method to realize neuromorphic computing. However, the memristor array fabrication technology is still immature, and it is difficult to fabricate large-scale arrays with high-yield, which restricts the development of memristor-based neuromorphic computing technology. Therefore, cascading small-scale arrays to achieve the neuromorphic computational ability that can be achieved by large-scale arrays, which is of great significance for promoting the application of memristor-based neuromorphic computing. To address this issue, we present a memristor-based cascaded framework with some basic computation units, several neural network processing units can be cascaded by this means to improve the processing capability of the dataset. Besides, we introduce a split method to reduce pressure of input terminal. Compared with VGGNet and GoogLeNet, the proposed cascaded framework can achieve 93.54% Fashion-MNIST accuracy under the 4.15M parameters. Extensive experiments with Ti/AlOx/TaOx/Pt we fabricated are conducted to show that the circuit simulation results can still provide a high recognition accuracy, and the recognition accuracy loss after circuit simulation can be controlled at around 0.26%.
Tue, 15 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 77| View: 484| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0147.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: MSQ aerogel; mesoporous structure; sol-gel; microwave drying
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:30:09 CET)
Methylsilsesquioxane aerogels with uniform mesopores have been facilely prepared via a sol–gel process followed by microwave drying with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as precursor, hydrochloric acid (HCl) as catalyst, water and methanol as solvents, hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as surfactant and template and propylene oxide (PO) as gelation agent. The microstructure, chemical composition and pore structures of the resultant MSQ aerogels were investigated in detail to achieve controllable preparation of MSQ aerogels, and the thermal stability of MSQ aerogels was also analyzed. The gelation agent, catalyst, solvent and microwave power have important roles on pore structures of MSQ aerogels. Meanwhile, microwave drying method is found to not only have a remarkable effect on improving production efficiency, but also be conducive to avoid the collapse of pore structure especially micropores during drying. The resulting MSQ aerogel microwave-dried at 500 W possesses a specific surface area up to 821 m2/g and a mesopore size of 20 nm, and displays good thermal stability.
Mon, 14 January 2019
ARTICLE Download: 55| View: 117| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0127.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: metal nanoparticles; laser ablation; antibacterial test; LSPR
Online: 14 January 2019 (07:21:21 CET)
We report the production of metal oxide (TiFe2O4, ZnFe2O4) nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation technique in liquid environment. We used nano second Nd: YAG laser systems working at 532 nm and 1064 nm of wavelength, the energy of the laser beam was kept constant at 80 mJ. Absorbance spectra, surface plasmon resonance, optical band-gap and nanoparticle morphology were investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changing the wavelength of the laser for growth, nanoparticles shown shift between the absorbance and surface plasmon resonance peaks in their UV-Vis spectra, this implies that the optical properties of the colloid nanoparticles depends on laser parameters, this was confirmed with the variation of the band gap energy. Furthermore, red shift for the absorbance peak was observed for samples as-growth at 532 nm around the 150 nm as function of time preparation. Whereas, for the samples as-growth at 1064 nm there is no shift in the absorbance spectra, this can be due to agglomeration and formation of larger particles. The characterization results shown appropriate plasmonic photo-catalysts properties of the particles, hence the photo activation of the nanoparticles was examined on antibacterial effect using colonies of Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia coli.
Mon, 31 December 2018
REVIEW Download: 83| View: 203| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0370.v1
Online: 31 December 2018 (11:16:18 CET)
Principle of memristor presented by Leon Chua and time reversal based non-linear elastic wave spectroscopy (TR-NEWS) which can be applied to acoustic tomography are reviewed. Correlation of acoustic or electromagnetic nonlinear waves and its time reversed wave can produce strong signal. Materials like transducer or biological skin can be assumed to be composed of a large number of small elastic unit: hysteretic elementary unit (HEU), and one can take a HEU as a memristor whose operation depends on time. Relation between TR-NEWS and solitonic wave in fluid, and relation between decomposition of time reversal operator (DORT) and chaotic oscillation are discussed.
Fri, 28 December 2018
ARTICLE Download: 69| View: 219| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0328.v1
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:20:40 CET)
The harmful nature of high concentrations of antibiotics to humans and animals requires urgent development of novel materials and techniques for their absorption. In this work, CTAB (Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide)-assisted synthesis of ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate framework) derived hollow carbon (ZHC) was designed, prepared and used as a high-performance adsorbent, further evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal adsorption experiments, dynamic analysis as well as theoretical calculation. The maximum capacities of ZHC on adsorbing tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NFO) and levofloxacin (OFO) are 267.3, 125.6 and 227.8 mg g-1, respectively, which delivers superior adsorptive performance when compared to widely studied inorganic adsorbates. The design concept of ZIFs-derived hollow carbon material provides guidance and insights for the efficient adsorbent of environmental antibiotics.
Thu, 27 December 2018
ARTICLE Download: 65| View: 155| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0605.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: adsorption; 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane; carbon dioxide; functionalization; mesoporous silica; MCM-41; SBA-15
Online: 27 December 2018 (05:28:16 CET)
The adsorption of carbon dioxide on amino silanes-functionalized MCM-41 and SBA-15 materials is reported. The functionalization of mesoporous silicas was made by post-synthesis method, by impregnation of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The carbon dioxide adsorption capacities for the samples were carried out under ambient pressures. The obtained results evidenced that amino-silanes with a terminal amine (–NH2) were functionalized through covalent coupling of this group on the surface of the channels in the ordered mesoporous silica, meaning that the amine is anchored on the surface of the bigger pores of the MCM-41 and SBA-15 support. For functionalized materials, the CO2 adsorption capacity of the AMCM-41 increased from 0.18 to 1.1 mmol·g−1, whereas for ASBA-15, it was from 0.6 to 1.8 mmol·g−1. The Lagergren kinetic algorithms were applied in order to validate the obtained results, evidencing the enhanced carbon dioxide adsorption capacity and stability of the functionalized ordered mesoporous molecular sieves.
Mon, 24 December 2018
REVIEW Download: 100| View: 127| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0290.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Scanning tunneling microscopy; unimolecular electronics; molecular device; monolayer; coordination chemistry; interfaces; nanotechnology
Online: 24 December 2018 (15:39:00 CET)
The development of organic devices has been focused in their miniaturization in order to obtain denser and faster electronic circuits. The challenge is to build the devices adding atom by atom or molecule by molecule until the desired structure is achieved. To do this job, techniques able to see and manipulate matter at this scale are needed. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been the selected technique by scientists to develop smart and functional unimolecular devices. This review article compiles the latest developments in this field giving examples of supramolecular systems monitored and fabricated at molecular scale by bottom-up approaches using STM at solid/liquid interface.
ARTICLE Download: 83| View: 160| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0275.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: field emission; graphene; reduced graphene oxide; polymer composites; graphene ink; cold cathode; Fowler-Nordheim
Online: 24 December 2018 (11:31:38 CET)
Hydroiodic acid (HI) treated - reduced graphene oxide (rGO) ink/conductive polymeric composites are considered as promising cold cathodes in terms of high geometrical aspect ratio and low field emission (FE) threshold devices. In this study, four simple, cost-effective, solution-processed approaches for rGO-based field effect emitters were developed, optimized and compared; rGO layers were coated on a) n+ doped Si substrate, b) n+-Si/P3HT:rGO, c) n+-Si/PCDTBT:rGO and d) n+-Si/PCDTBT:PC71BM:rGO composites, respectively. The fabricated emitters were optimized by tailoring the concentration ratios of their preparation and field emission characteristics. In a critical composite ratio, FE performance was remarkably improved compared to the pristine Si, as well as n+-Si/rGO field emitter. In this context, the impact of various materials, such as polymers, fullerene derivatives, as well as different solvents on rGO function reinforcement and consequently on FE performance upon rGO-based composites preparation was investigated. The field emitter consisted of n+-Si/PCDTBT:PC71BM(80%):rGO(20%)/rGO displayed a field enhancement factor of ∼2850, with remarkable stability over 20h and low turn-on field in 0.6V/μm. High-efficiency graphene-based FE devices realization paves the way towards low-cost, large-scale electron sources development. Finally, the contribution of this hierarchical, composite film morphology was evaluated and discussed.
Tue, 11 December 2018
ARTICLE Download: 74| View: 138| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0125.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: pulsed laser ablation in water; pulsed laser ablation in air; ZnO nanoparticles; biomedical materials; PLLA-scaffold; antibacterial properties
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:32:20 CET)
Here, we report on ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) generated by nanosecond pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm) through ablation of metallic Zn target in water and air and their comparative analysis as potential nanomaterials for biomedical applications. The prepared nanomaterials were carefully characterized in terms of their structure, composition, morphology and defects. It was found that in addition to the main wurtzite ZnO phase, which is conventionally prepared and reported by others, the sample laser-generated in air also contained some amount of monoclinic zinc hydroxynitrate. Both nanomaterials were then used to modify model wound dressings based on biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid. The as-prepared model dressings were tested as biomedical materials with bactericidal properties towards S. aureus and E. coli strains. The advantages of the NPs prepared in air over their counterparts generated in water found in this work are discussed.
Mon, 19 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 51| View: 89| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0437.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; polystyrene; 3D graphene sponges; electrochemistry
Online: 19 November 2018 (09:39:17 CET)
Polystyrene as a thin film on arbitrary substrates or pellets form defective graphene films or powders that can be dispersed in water and organic solvents. The materials were characterized by visible absorption, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron and atomic force microscopy and electrochemistry. Raman spectra of these materials show the presence of the expected 2D, G and D peaks at 2750, 1590 and 1350 cm-1, respectively. The relative intensity of the G vs. the D peak is taken as a quantitative indicator of the density of defects in the G layer.
ARTICLE Download: 71| View: 72| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0411.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: perovskites; neodymium; luminescence; electric transport; magnetization
Online: 19 November 2018 (03:54:34 CET)
Nanocrystalline La1-xNdxFeO3 powders with different concentrations of Nd3+ have been synthesized by modified Pechini method. Their structure was studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Further, La1-xNdxFeO3 nanoceramics were prepared by high pressure sintering technique. The luminescence spectra of the powders were investigated as a function of concentration of active dopant to check the possible energy transfers observed due to Nd3+ concentration changes. The electrical and magnetic properties of the powders and ceramics were investigated to determine the effect of Nd3+ doping on the dielectric permittivity and magnetization in the wide frequency range.
Fri, 16 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 199| View: 180| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0386.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: doped-ferrites nanoparticles/MXene; nanocomposites; photocatalysis; chemical etching
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:39:20 CET)
Over the years, scarcity of fresh potable water has increased the demand for clean water. Meanwhile, with the advent of nanotechnology, the use of nanomaterials for photocatalytic degradation of pollutants in wastewaters has increased. Herein, a new type of nanohybrids of La and Mn co-doped bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanoparticles embedded into transition metal carbide sheets (MXene) were prepared by a low-cost double solvent sol-gel method, and investigated for their photocatalytic activity. The photoluminescence results showed that pure BFO has highest electron hole recombination rate as compared to all the co-doped BFO/MXene nanohybrids. The larger surface area and higher electron-hole pair generation rate provides suitable environment for fast photo-degradation of organic molecules. The band gap of the prepared nanohybrids was tuned to 1.96 eV having largest BiFeO3 surface area (147 m2g−1) reported till date. Moreover, the BLFO/MXene and BLFMO-5/Mxene degraded the 92% organic pollutant from water in dark and remaining in light spectrum as compare to undoped BFO/Mxene due to enhancement of the surface area and electron-hole recombination rate upon doping. Therefore, these synthesized nanohybrids could be a promising candidate for photocatalytic applications in future.
Thu, 15 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 39| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0359.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Carbon; nanofiber; membrane; urease; biomolecules; water treatment
Online: 15 November 2018 (11:08:43 CET)
Development of carbon nanomaterials for adsorption thus removal of organic pollutants from water is a progressive research subject. In this regard, carbon nanomaterials with bifunctionality towards polar and non-polar or even amphiphilic undesired materials is indeed attractive for further study and implementation. Here, we created carbon buckypaper adsorbents comprising amphiphilic (oxygenated amorphous carbon (a-COx)/graphite (G)) nanofilaments that can dynamically adsorb organic biomolecules (i.e. urease enzyme) and thus purify the wastewaters of relevant industries. Given the dynamic conditions of the test, the adsorbent was highly efficient in adsorption of the enzyme (88%) while permeable to water (2382 L.h-1.m-2), thus holds a great promise for further development and upscaling. A subsequent citric acid functionalization declined selectivity of the membrane to urease, implying the biomolecules adsorb mostly via graphitic domains rather than oxidized, polar amorphous carbon ones. The devised platform i.e. the urease functionalized buckypaper is optimally conductive (13 S.cm-1) and can be further employed as a biosensor. Accordingly, water treatment can be linked to biosensing via a nanostructured membrane.
Mon, 12 November 2018
REVIEW Download: 80| View: 63| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0262.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanotubes; gas sensors; bio-sensors; photo-sensors; photodetectors; pressure sensors; field effect transistor
Online: 12 November 2018 (04:44:28 CET)
Carbon nanotubes have been attracting considerable interest among material scientists, physicists, chemists and engineers for almost 30 years. Owing to their high aspect ratio, coupled with remarkable mechanical, electronic and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes have found application in diverse fields. In this review, we will cover the work on carbon nanotubes used for sensing applications. In particular, we will see examples where carbon nanotubes act as main players in devices sensing biomolecules, gas, light or pressure changes. Furthermore, we will discuss how to improve the performance of carbon nanotube-based sensors after proper modification.
Fri, 9 November 2018
COMMUNICATION Download: 291| View: 149| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0242.v1
Online: 9 November 2018 (09:21:41 CET)
Synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is a low cost and ecofriendly route that brings great benefits over chemical and physical methods of synthesis. Our approach consisted of using aqueous extracts from treated waste of Manihot Esculenta (Cassava) as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents for the synthesis of NiO NPs. The results proved this approach might be a viable alternative. Extracts were mixed during 30 minutes with Ni(NO3)2.6H2O leading to NPs formation. NiO NPs were characterized through FTIR, XRD, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. NiO NPs showed different shapes and sizes around 5-10 nm in agreement with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherrer equation.
Fri, 2 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 193| View: 98| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0039.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: poly-Si TFT; FT-IR; Raman; surface passivation; leakage current
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:32:53 CET)
We report the effects of surface passivation by depositing a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer on the electrical characteristics of low temperature polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors (LTPS TFTs). The a-Si:H layer was optimized by hydrogen dilution and its structural and electrical characteristics were investigated. The a-Si:H layer in the transition region between a-Si:H and µc-Si:H resulted in superior device characteristics. Using an a-Si:H passivation layer, the field-effect mobility of the LTPS TFT was increased by 78.4% compared with a conventional LTPS TFT. Moreover, the leakage current measured at a VGS of 5 V was suppressed because the defect sites at the poly-Si grain boundaries were well passivated. Our passivation layer, which allows thorough control of the crystallinity and passivation-quality, should be considered a candidate for high performance LTPS TFTs.
Tue, 30 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 76| View: 185| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0729.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: silver nanoparticles; laser ablation in liquids; laser synthesis of colloidal nanoparticle solution, nanoparticle impregnated paper; antimicrobial activity; fiber fines; sheet forming; vacuum filtration
Online: 30 October 2018 (16:14:31 CET)
A paper impregnated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been prepared. For the preparation of the substrates, aqueous suspensions of pulp fines, a side product from the paper production, have been mixed with Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) suspensions. The nanoparticle synthesis thereof was carried out via laser ablation of pure Ag in water. After the sheet formation process, the leaching of the AgNPs was determined to be low while the sheets exhibited antimicrobial activity towards E. Coli.
Thu, 25 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 55| View: 225| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0290.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: chemical modification; electronics cooling; thermal management nanocomposites; thermal conductivity; silver nanoparticles
Online: 25 October 2018 (10:33:13 CEST)
Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have a great potential for applications in modern electronics due to their low cost, easy process, and stable physical and chemical properties. Nevertheless, most polymer composites commonly possess unsatisfactory thermal conductivity, primarily because of the high interfacial thermal resistance between inorganic ﬁllers. Herein, we developed a novel method through silver functionalized graphene nanosheets (GNS) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with excellent thermal properties to meet the requirements of thermal management. The effects of composites on interfacial structure and properties of the composites were identiﬁed, and the microstructures and properties of the composites were studied as a function of the volume fraction of fillers. An ultrahigh thermal conductivity of 12.3 W/mK for polymer matrix composites was obtained, which is an approximate enhancement of 69.1 times compared to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, these composites showed more competitive thermal conductivities compared to untreated fillers/PVA composites applied to the desktop central processing unit, making these composites a high-performance alternative to be used for thermal management.
Wed, 24 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 128| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0574.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carmustine-loaded micelle; brain targeting; borneol; IL-13 receptor; BBB
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:53:00 CEST)
Abstract: Tumor-targeting and blood-brain barrier (BBB)-penetrating are highly desirable for the treatment of glioma. In this study, we developed Pep-1&borneol-bifunctionalized carmustin-loaded micelles (Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M) capable of targeting to IL-13 receptor-overexpressed glioma and penetrating the brain microvascular endothelial cells-associated physiologic barriers. Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M were nearly spherical particles with a dimeter of 32.6 ± 1.1 nm and zeta potential of -21.3 ± 3.1 mV. Carmustine (CMS) released from Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M in pH 7.4 was significantly faster than in acidic environments. In human glioma BT325 cellular studies, Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M remarkably increased the cytotoxicity, notably improved the internalization and effectively induced the cell apoptosis. Likewise, in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) cells, Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M obviously promoted the cellular uptake, rapidly decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and thereby of enhancing the ability of penetration. In orthotopic Luc-BT325 glioma tumor-bearing nude mouse models, the stronger fluorescence signal and longer retention were observed in brain tissues compared with other controls, after single administration of DiD-labelled Pep-1/Bor/M (DiD/Pep-1/Bor/M). Importantly, Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M displayed the strongest inhibition of tumor growth, the longest survival period and low systemic toxicity in treating orthotopic glioma tumor-bearing nude mice. Simultaneous functionalization of Pep-1 and borneol offers a novel strategy for designing CMS-based nanomedicine and precisely treating glioma.
Mon, 22 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 69| View: 60| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0462.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: polypropylene nanocomposites; montmorillonite; irradiated PP as compatibilizer
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:21:15 CEST)
In the preparation of polymer-clay nanocomposites the chemical incompatibility between the clay surface and polyolefins can be overcome by using clays organically modified with short chain organic cations. The compatibility can be further enhanced by using functionalized polymer that wets the clay surface while being miscible with the non-polar polymer matrix. In this work we tried to modify the host polymer polypropylene (PP) by irradiating it with gamma-rays in air knowing that it undergoes oxidation and chain scission simultaneously. Thus lower molecular weight PP with highly polar surface due to oxidation can be expected to play double role of clay modifier and functional compatibilizer. This has been observed to be the case. Finely ground PP granules were irradiated in air in a 60Co γ-irradiator at the dose rate of 0.08 kGy/h (low dose rate to enhance oxidation) to 5, 10, and 20 kGy total doses. The extent of oxidation and change in molecular weight were determined by ATR-FTIR and Melt Flow Rate measurements respectively. PP/MMT nanocomposites were prepared by using 20% γ-PP, 1-5 % MMT and pristine PP to make up the total 100 in a torque rheometer. Maleated PP was also used in similar quantities to compare the effectiveness of γ-PP as a compatibilizing agent. Nanocomposites prepared with 10 kGy irradiated PP was found to show optimum mechanical properties among all formulations, with 26% increase in E-modulus and 10% increase in tensile strength as compared to pristine PP. Ternary PP nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SAXS and PALS studies.
Mon, 15 October 2018
REVIEW Download: 196| View: 135| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0312.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: upconversion; nanoparticles; lanthanide; surface modification; functionalisation; ligand engineering; silanisation;
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:59:30 CEST)
Lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can convert low-energy infrared photons into high-energy visible and ultraviolet photons, are becoming highly sought-after for advanced biomedical and biophotonics applications. Their unique luminescent properties enable UCNPs to be applied for diagnosis, including biolabeling, biosensing, bioimaging and multiple imaging modality, as well as therapeutic treatments including photothermal and photodynamic therapy, bio-reductive chemotherapy and drug delivery. For the employment of the inorganic nanomaterials into biological environment, it is critical to bridge the gap in between nanoparticles and biomolecules via surface modifications and subsequent functionalisation. This work reviews the various ways to surface modify and functionalise UCNPs so as to impart different functional molecular groups to the UCNPs surfaces for a board range of applications in biomedical areas. We discussed commonly used base functionalities, including –COOH, -NH2 and –SH, that are typically imparted to UCNP surfaces so as to provide further functional capacity.
Wed, 3 October 2018
CONCEPT PAPER Download: 113| View: 108| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0048.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: — Subthreshold Swing, Uniform Doping, Gaussian Doping, Delta doping, and Ultra Low Power.
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:00:20 CEST)
The VLSI industry is facing parasitic effects that trouble development in the nanoscale domain. However, instead of replacing the traditional MOSFET design, it would be more advantageous to apply different doping profiles and discerning which deal with specific parasitic effects the best. With a review of Gaussian doping, Uniform doping, and Delta doping profiles and analysis of the FET technology characteristics that use these doping profiles, a comparison can be made among them for integrated circuit design engineers. These doping profiles are compared based on how well they perform against non-ideal and ideal environments. Also, both digital and analog performance are measured to ensure the uniqueness of each doping profile that is present. After getting a list of benefits from each doping profile, it is derived to determine which doping profile works best against a host of parasitic effects and what type of application do these doping profiles have
Mon, 1 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 198| View: 190| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0006.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, shape anisotropy, nanoplates, nanocubes, synthesis mechanisms
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:44:11 CEST)
Iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agent for MRI and may be used as therapeutic agent by magnetic hyperthermia if they display a high magnetic anisotropy. Considering the effect of the nanoparticles shape on anisotropy, the reproducible shape control of nanoparticles is currently a challenge of synthesis methods. By investigating reaction parameters which are the iron precursor structure, the water content and the amount of the surfactant, sodium oleate, reported to trigger the cubic shape, iron oxide nanoparticles with different shape and composition were observed to form. In particular, iron oxide nanoplates have been thus synthesized. The effect of the surfactant coming from precursor was taking into account by using in house iron stearates bearing either two or three stearate chains and the negative effect of water on shape was confirmed by considering these precursors after their dehydration. Nanocubes with straight faces and a [email protected] composition were obtained only with dehydrated precursors and 50% of sodium oleate in the oleic acid and sodium oleate surfactant mixtures. When iron stearates with three chains led mainly to nanocubes in presence of soduim oleate, Iron stearates with two chains led to the formation of nanoplates with 80% of sodium oleate. The original flat shape of the plates was confirmed with 3D TEM tomography. The investigation of the synthesis mechanisms confirmed the major role of deprotonated carboxylic acid and of the heating rate to drive the cubic shape of nanoparticles and showed that the nanoplate formation would depend mainly on the nucleation step and possibly on the presence of a given ratio of oleic acid and deprotonated carboxylic acid.
Sun, 30 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 81| View: 122| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0595.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoemulsion; oral delivery; ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derivative; MDA-MB-231; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 30 September 2018 (05:14:34 CEST)
Lipid-based drugs are emerging as an interesting class of novel anticancer drugs with the potential to target specific cancer cell metabolic pathway linked to their proliferation and invasiveness. In particular, ω−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derivatives such as epoxides and their bioisosteres have demonstrated the potential to suppress growth and promote apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. In this study 16-(4’-chloro-3’-trifluorophenyl)carbamoylamino]hexadecanoic acid (ClFPh-CHA), an anticancer lipid derived from ω−3,17,18-epoxyeicosanoic acid, was formulated as a stable nanoemulsion with size around 150 nm and narrow droplet size distribution (PDI<0.200) through phase-inversion emulsification process followed by high pressure homogenization in view of an oral administration. The ClFPh-CHA-loaded nanoemulsions were able to significantly decrease the relative tumor volume in mice bearing an intramammary tumor xenograft at all doses tested (2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg) after 32 days of daily oral administration. Furthermore, absolute tumor weight was decreased to 50% of untreated control at 10 and 40 mg/kg, while intraperitoneal administration could achieve a significant reduction only at the highest dose of 40 mg/kg. Results suggest that oral administration of ClFPh-CHA formulated as a nanoemulsion has a sufficient bioavailability to provide an anticancer effect in mice and that the activity is at least equal if not superior to that obtained by a conventional parenteral administration of equivalent doses of the same drug.
Sat, 29 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 101| View: 136| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0583.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: iron-doped TiO2; photocatalytic activity; low UV-irradiation; hydroxyl radical; estriol
Online: 29 September 2018 (05:48:51 CEST)
Iron Doped TiO2 nanoparticles (Fe-TiO2) were synthesized and photocatalitically investigated under high and low fluence values of UV-radiation. The Fe-TiO2 physical characterization was performed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The XPS evidenced that ferric ion (Fe3+) was in the lattice of TiO2 and co-dopants no intentionally added were also present due to the precursors of the synthetic method. The Fe3+ concentration played a key role in the photocatalytic generation of hydroxyl radical (•OH) and estriol (E3) degradation. Fe-TiO2 materials accomplished E3 degradation, and it was found that the catalyst with 0.3 at. % content of Fe (0.3 Fe-TiO2) enhanced the photocatalytic activity under low UV-irradiation compared with no intentionally Fe-added TiO2 (zero-iron TiO2) and Aeroxide® TiO2 P25. Furthermore, the enhanced photocatalytic activity of 0.3 Fe-TiO2 under low UV-irradiation may have applications when radiation intensity must be controlled, as in medical applications, or when strong UV absorbing species are present in water.
Fri, 28 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 132| View: 133| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0558.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Alginate, Chitosan, Layer-by-layer, Magnetic nanoparticles, Drug delivery, Cancer, Curcumin
Online: 28 September 2018 (09:26:48 CEST)
Curcumin is a promising anti-cancer drug but its applications in cancer therapy are limited due to its poor solubility, short half-life and low bioavailability. In this study, curcumin loaded magnetic alginate / chitosan nanoparticles were fabricated to improve the bioavailability, uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity of curcumin to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Alginate and chitosan were deposited on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles based on their electrostatic properties. The sizes of the nanoparticles (120-200 nm) were within the optimum range for drug delivery. Sustained curcumin release was obtained use the nanoparticles with the ability to control the curcumin release rate by altering the number of chitosan and alginate layers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy results showed that targeted delivery of curcumin with the aid of magnetic field were achieved. The FACS assay indicated that MDA-MB-231 cells treated with curcumin loaded nanoparticles had a 3-6 folds uptake efficiency to those treated with free curcumin. MTT assay indicated that the curcumin loaded nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity toward MDA-MB-231 cells than toward HDF cells. The sustained release profiles, enhanced uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity to cancer cells as well as the targeting potential make MACPs a promising candidate for cancer therapy.
Wed, 26 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 123| View: 113| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0496.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: HDPAF; β-carotene; electrospraying; encapsulation; photoprotection
Online: 26 September 2018 (04:38:54 CEST)
High degree of polymerisation agave fructans (HDPAF) are presented as a novel encapsulating material. Electrospraying coating (EC) was selected as the encapsulation technique and β-carotene as the model bioactive compound. In case of direct electrospraying, two encapsulation methodologies (solution and emulsion) were proposed to find the formulation which provided a suitable particle morphology and an adequate concentration of β-carotene encapsulated in the particles. SEM images showed spherical particles with sizes ranging from 440 to 880 nm depending on the concentration of HDPAF and processing parameters. FTIR analysis confirmed interaction and encapsulation of β-carotene with HDPAF. Thermal stability of β-carotene encapsulated in HDPAF was evidenced by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The study showed that β-carotene encapsulated in HDPAF by the EC method remained stable for up to 50 h of exposure to UV light. Therefore, HDPAF is a viable option to formulate nanocapsules as a new encapsulating material. In addition, EC allowed increasing the ratio β-carotene:polymer as well as its photostability.
Thu, 20 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 73| View: 158| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0421.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanoparticles – Bio-nano interfaces – Electrostatic interactions – Supported Lipid Bilayers
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:29:35 CEST)
The impact of nanomaterials on lung fluids or on the plasma membrane of living cells has prompted researchers to examine the interactions between nanoparticles and lipid vesicles. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticle-lipid interaction leads to a broad range of structures including supported lipid bilayers (SLB), particles adsorbed at the surface or internalized inside vesicles, and mixed aggregates. Today, there is a need to have simple protocols that can readily assess the nature of structures obtained from particles and vesicles. Here we apply the method of continuous variation for measuring Job scattering plots and provide analytical expressions for the scattering intensity in various scenarios. The result that emerges from the comparison between modeling and experimental measurements is that electrostatics plays a key role in the association, but it is not sufficient to induce the formation of supported lipid bilayers.
Wed, 19 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 115| View: 129| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0377.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: large aspect ratios; gold nanorods; refractive index sensitivities; SERS; plasmonic sensing
Online: 19 September 2018 (09:40:22 CEST)
Plasmonic gold nanorods play important roles in nowadays state-of-the-art plasmonic sensing techniques. Most of the previous studies and applications focused on gold nanorods with relatively small aspect ratios, where the plasmon wavelengths are smaller than 900 nm. Gold nanorods with large aspect ratios are predicted to exhibit high refractive-index sensitivity (Langmir 2008, 24, 5233–5237.), which therefore should be promising for developing of high-performance plasmonic chemical- and bio-sensors. In this study, we developed gold nanorods with aspect ratios over 7.9, which exhibit plasmon resonances around 1064 nm. The refractive index (RI) sensitivity of these nanorods have been evaluated by varying their dielectric environment, whereby a sensitivity as high as 473 nm/RIU can be obtained. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the large-aspect-ratio nanorods as efficient substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), where an enhancement factor (EF) as high as 9.47×108 was measured using 4-methylbenzenethiol (4-MBT) as probe molecule. Finally, a type of flexible SERS substrate is developed by conjugating the gold nanorods with the polystyrene (PS) polymer. The results obtained in our study can benefit the development of plasmonic sensing techniques utilized in the near-infrared spectral region.
ARTICLE Download: 126| View: 228| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0376.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: polycrystalline nano phosphor; photoluminescence; Eu3+ doped CaSiO3; microemulsion technique
Online: 19 September 2018 (09:04:52 CEST)
A series of Eu3+ doped CaSiO3/SiO2 nano-phosphor powder of controlled grain size, crystalline structure, and chemical composition were synthesized using the microemulsion technique. XRD profiles of samples sintered over 600 of suggested phase shift from amorphous powder grain to more ordered polycrystalline powder of triclinic type wollastonite, CaSiO3, with preferred crystal phase orientation of (112) and tetragonal type cristobalites of SiO2. The grain size, crystallinity, and chemical composition of the host matrix, activator and sensitizer strongly affected both the absorption and emission bands of these samples. The amplitude of both the orange and red emission bands significantly increased with sintering temperature. The emission band is red-shifted with decreasing grain sizes. These bands displayed good sensitivity to ionic concentration of the Si4+, Ca2+, and Eu3+. With increasing Ca2+ ion concentration both the intensity of the red photoluminescence (PL) band increased and a concentration quenching observed. Increase in Si4+ ion concentration led to quenching in PL intensity of both the orange and red bands whereas the amplitude of the blue-band slightly increased. With increasing Eu3+ ion concentration the red-band initially increased whereas it started decreasing at higher sample concentration. In the presence of Ca2+ ion as a sensitizer, the sample showed a remarkable PL property—including—about 100% photon conversion efficiency and a two-fold increase in excitation and emission photons.
Tue, 18 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 148| View: 156| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0359.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: synchrotron X-ray diffraction; nano-structures; nano mechanics
Online: 18 September 2018 (16:50:04 CEST)
The three-point bending behavior of a single Au nanowire deformed with an atomic force microscope was monitored by coherent X-ray diffraction using a sub-micrometer sized hard X-ray beam. While three-dimensional reciprocal-space maps were recorded before and after deformation by standard rocking curves, they were measured by scanning the energy of the incident X-ray beam during deformation at different loading stages. The mechanical behavior of the nanowire is visualized in reciprocal space and a complex deformation mechanism is described. In addition to the expected bending of the nanowire, torsion is detected. Bending and torsion angles are quantified from the high resolution diffraction data.
ARTICLE Download: 80| View: 74| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0330.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: elastic properties; laser ultrasonic; mechanical behavior; fiber-network
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:16:18 CEST)
For development and successful application of any material, a clear understanding of their mechanical behavior is one of the most important things, but when it comes to nanofibers networks it become a challenge due to, their high porosity, many scales in their structure, and characteristics non-linear. Therefore, an experimental methodology in conjunction with a theoretical model that can fully consider their characteristics is still needed. In this work we proposed a model that incorporates the propagation of the elastic waves in two-phase media to determine the effective elastic modulus of electrospun membranes of PLA/gelatin given the mechanical properties of nanofibers, shape, distribution and concentration. The model was verified via laser ultrasonic testing. It was found that the values predicted for the effective modulus by the model were higher than the values obtained from experimental results. One explanation is due to the experimental density. As a result, the P-Wave velocity from the model best fit to experimental results and it has the same behavior, decrees as the concentration of gelatin in the solution. These results indicate the model and experimental methodology can assist in the dressing of nanofibers networks and electrospun materials.
Mon, 17 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 103| View: 117| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0318.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: chitosan; nanocapsules; degradation; FRET; protein corona; bioimaging
Online: 17 September 2018 (15:02:11 CEST)
Sub-micron o/w emulsions coated with chitosan have been used for drug delivery, quorum sensing inhibition and vaccine development. To study interactions with biological systems, nanocapsules have been fluorescently labelled in previous works, but it is often difficult to distinguish the released label from intact nanocapsules. In this study, we present advanced labelling strategies based on FRET measurements for chitosan-coated nanocapsules and investigate their dissolution and degradation. We used FRET measurements of nanocapsules loaded with equimolar concentrations of two fluorescent dyes in their oily core and correlated them with DLS count rate measurement and absorbance measurements during their disintegration by dissolution. Using count rate measurements, we also investigated the enzymatic degradation of nanocapsules using pancreatin and how protein corona formation influences their degradation. Of note, nanocapsules dissolved in ethanol, where FRET decreased simultaneously with count rate, and absorbance caused by nanocapsule turbidity, indicating increased distance between dye molecules after their release. Nanocapsules were degradable by pancreatin in a dose dependent manner, and showed a delayed enzymatic degradation after protein corona formation. We present here novel labelling strategies for nanocapsules that allow us to judge their status and an in vitro method to study nanocapsule degradation and the influence of surface characteristics.
ARTICLE Download: 129| View: 99| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0304.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Zeolites; ZK-4 zeolite; Microspheres; Molecular decontamination; Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:29:58 CEST)
Binderless zeolite macrostructures in the form of ZK-4 microspheres were prepared using anion exchange resin beads as shape directing macrotemplates. The particles were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at different temperatures and treatment times. The influence of the different synthesis parameters was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence X, nitrogen adsorption measurements and 29Si solid NMR. Fully crystalline spheres similar in size and shape to the original resin beads were obtained by a hydrothermal treatment at the highest temperatures (150 - 180 °C) for a short treatment time of 24 h. The synthesized microspheres showed to be promising in the molecular decontamination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).
ARTICLE Download: 160| View: 139| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0294.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Plasmonic Nanoparticles; Gold Nanoparticles; Gold Nanorods; Gold Nanoshells; CCMV; Virus-Like Particles
Online: 17 September 2018 (09:54:48 CEST)
Different types of gold nanoparticles have been synthesized that great potential in medical applications such as medical imaging, bio-analytical sensing and photothermal therapy. However, their stability, polydispersity and biocompatibility are major issues of concern. For example, the synthesis of gold nanorods, obtained through the elongated micelle process, produce them with a high positive surface charge that is cytotoxic. While gold nanoshells are unstable and within a few weeks they decompose due to Ostwald ripening. In this work, we report the self-assembly of the capsid protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) around spherical gold nanoparticles, gold nanorods and gold nanoshells to form virus-like particles (VLPs). All gold nanoparticles were synthesized or treated to give them a negative surface charge, so they can interact with the positive N-terminus of the capsid protein leading to the formation of the VLPs. To induce the protein self-assembly around the negative gold nanoparticles, we use different pH and ionic strength conditions that were determined from the capsid protein phase diagram. The encapsidation with the viral capsid protein confers them better biocompatibility, stability, monodispersity and a new biological substrate on which one can introduce specific ligands towards particular cells, broadening the possibilities of medical application.
Fri, 14 September 2018
REVIEW Download: 184| View: 258| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0266.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nano hybrids, nanocomposites, sol-gel, in situ synthesis, metal oxides
Online: 14 September 2018 (13:38:47 CEST)
Hybrid inorganic-polymer nanocomposites can be employed in diverse applications due to the potential combination of desired properties from both the organic and inorganic components. The use of novel bottom-up in situ synthesis methods for the fabrication of these nanocomposites is advantageous compared to top-down ex situ mixing methods, as it offers increased control over the structure and properties of the material. In this review, the focus will be on the application of the sol-gel process for the synthesis of inorganic oxide nanoparticles in epoxy and polysiloxane matrices. The effect of the synthesis conditions and the reactants used on the inorganic structures formed, the interactions between the polymer chains and the inorganic nanoparticles, and the resulting properties of the nanocomposites are appraised from several studies over the last two decades. Lastly, alternative in situ techniques and the applications of various polymer-inorganic oxide nanocomposites are briefly discussed.
Tue, 11 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 77| View: 110| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0124.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoplasmonic sensing; CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite; Mesoporous TiO2; gold nanosensor
Online: 11 September 2018 (05:10:40 CEST)
Hybrid metal-halide perovskites have emerged as leading class of semiconductors for photovoltaic devices with remarkable light harvesting efficiencies. The formation of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite into mesoporous titania (TiO2) scaffold by a sequential deposition technique is known to offer better control over the perovskite morphology. The growth reactions at the mesoporous TiO2 film depend on reactants concentration in the host matrix and the reaction activation energy. Here, we are characterizing formation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite in mimic solar cell photoelectrodes utilizing the developed NanoPlasmonic Sensing (NPS) approach. Based on dielectric changes at the TiO2 mesoporous film interface, the technique provides time-resolved spectral shifts of the localized surface plasmon resonance that varies widely depending on the different operating temperatures and methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I) concentrations. Analytical studies included Ellipsometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that perovskite conversion can be obtained at lower CH3NH3I concentrations if reaction activation energy is lowered. A significant finding is that the NPS response at 350 nm mesoporous TiO2 can widely change from red shifts to blue shifts depending on extent of conversion and morphology of perovskite formed at given reaction conditions.
Mon, 10 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 92| View: 116| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0159.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Firebrat; Friction; AFM; Colloidal probe; Scale; Microstructure34
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:22:12 CEST)
Friction is an important subject for sustainability due to problems associated with energy loss. Recent years, surface micro- and nanostructures have attracted much attention to reduce friction; however, suitable structures are still under consideration. Many functional surfaces are present in nature, such as the friction reduction surfaces of snake skins. In this study, we focused on firebrats, Thermobia domestica, living in narrow spaces such as under bark, so their surface frequently contacts with surrounding surfaces. We speculate that their body surface would be adapted to reduce friction. To investigate the firebrat surface functions, firebrat surfaces were observed by using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a colloidal probe atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. Results of surface observations by the FE-SEM revealed that firebrats are entirely covered with scales, whose surfaces have micro groove structures. Scale groove periods around the firebrat's head are almost uniform within a scale but vary between scales. AFM friction force measurements revealed that firebrat scale reduces friction by decreasing contact area between scales and a colloidal probe. The heterogeneity of groove periods of the scales suggest that it is difficult to fix the whole body in particular rough surfaces and that lead to be "fail-safe".
Fri, 7 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 130| View: 281| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0124.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoplasmonic sensing spectroscopy; CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite; mesoporous TiO2; gold nanosensor
Online: 7 September 2018 (03:38:22 CEST)
The formation of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite into mesoporous titania (TiO2) scaffold via a sequential deposition method is known to offer high quality films for good photovoltaic device performance. The growth reactions at the mesoporous TiO2 film depend on reactants concentration in the host matrix and the reaction activation energy. Here, we have used a NanoPlasmonic Sensing (NPS) approach with gold (Au) nanosensors to monitor the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite at the lower interface of 350 nm mesoporous TiO2, typical thickness used in a photovoltaic device. This technique provides time-resolved spectral shifts of the localized surface plasmon resonance at different operating temperatures and methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I3) concentrations by recording changes in the local vicinity of the Au nanosensors at the mesoporous TiO2 film interface. Analytical studies included Ellipsometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that perovskite conversion can be obtained at lower CH3NH3I3 concentrations if reaction activation energy is lowered. A significant finding is that the NPS response at 350 nm mesoporous TiO2 can widely change from red shifts to blue shifts depending on extent of conversion and morphology of perovskite formed at given reaction conditions.
Fri, 31 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 157| View: 240| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0552.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: antiferromagnetism; spintronics; electronic transport; DFT; ab initio calculations
Online: 31 August 2018 (15:55:42 CEST)
We report the electronic, magnetic and transport properties of a prototypical antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronic device. We chose Cr as the active layer because it is the only room-temperature AFM elemental metal. We sandwiched Cr between two non-magnetic metals (Pt or Au) with large spin-orbit coupling. We also inserted a buffer layer of insulating MgO to mimic the structure and finite resistivity of a real device. We found that, while spin-orbit has a negligible effect on the current flowing through the device, the MgO layer plays a crucial role. Its effect is to decouple the Cr magnetic moment from Pt (or Au) and to develop an overall spin magnetization. We have also calculated the spin-polarized ballistic conductance of the device within the Büttiker-Landauer framework, and we have found that for small applied bias our Pt/Cr/MgO/Pt device presents a spin polarization of the current amounting to ~25%.
Mon, 27 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 140| View: 144| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0456.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Carbon nanotubes; Polymer nanocomposites; Electrical conductivity; Crack sensing; Multi-scale modeling
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:25:23 CEST)
This is the second of a two-paper series describing a multi-scale modeling approach developed to simulate crack sensing in polymer fibrous composites by exploiting interruption of electrically conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) networks. The approach is based on the finite element (FE) method. FE models at three different scales, namely the micro-scale, the meso-scale and the macro-scale, have been developed using the ANSYS PDL environment. In the present paper, the meso- and macro-scale analyses are described. In the meso-scale, a two-dimensional model of the CNT/polymer matrix reinforced by carbon fibers is used to develop a crack sensing methodology from a parametric study which relates the crack position and length with the reduction of current flow. In the meso-model, the effective electrical conductivity of the CNT/polymer computed from the micro-scale is used as input. In the macro-scale, the final implementation of the crack sensing methodology is performed on a CNT/polymer/carbon fiber composite volume using as input the electrical response of the cracked CNT/polymer derived at the micro-scale and the crack sensing methodology. Analyses have been performed for cracks of two different lengths. In both cases, the numerical model predicts with good accuracy both the length and position of the crack. These results highlight the prospect of conductive CNT networks to be used as a localized structural health monitoring technique.
Fri, 24 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 140| View: 207| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0428.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: thermo-responsive; ultrafiltration; enzymes; self-cleaning; nanofibers
Online: 24 August 2018 (07:52:04 CEST)
Controlling surface-protein interaction during wastewater treatment is the key motivation for developing functionally modified membranes. A new biocatalytic thermo-responsive poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF)/nylon-6,6/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm) ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated to achieve dual functionality of protein-digestion and thermo-responsive self-cleaning. The PVDF/nylon-6,6/PNIPAAm composite membranes were constructed by integrating a hydrophobic PVDF cast layer and hydrophilic nylon-6,6/PNIPAAm nanofiber layer where trypsin enzymes were covalently immobilized. The immobilization density of enzymes on the membrane surface decreased with increasing PNIPAAm concentration, due to the decreased number of amine functional sites. Through a ultrafiltration study using a model solution containing BSA/NaCl/CaCl2, the PNIPAAm containing biocatalytic membranes demonstrated a combined effect of enzymatic and thermo-switchable self-cleaning. The membrane without PNIPAAm revealed superior fouling resistance and self-cleaning with an RPD of 22%, compared to membranes with 2 and 4 wt% PNIPAAm with 26% and 33% RPD, respectively, after an intermediate temperature cleaning at 50°C, indicating that higher enzyme density offers more efficient self-cleaning than the combined effect of enzyme and PNIPAAm at low concentration. The conformational volume phase transition of PNIPAAm did not affect the stability of immobilized trypsin on membrane surface. Such novel surface engineering design offer a promising route to severe surface-protein contamination remediation in food and wastewater applications.
Mon, 20 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 181| View: 192| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0354.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: ZnO; NiO loading; p-n heterojunction; nanofiber; gas sensor; sensing mechanism
Online: 20 August 2018 (12:26:21 CEST)
Metal oxide p-n heterojunction nanofibers (NFs) are among the most promising approaches to enhancing the efficiency of gas sensors. In this paper, we report the preparation of a series of p-NiO-loaded n-ZnO NFs, namely (1 − x) ZnO-xNiO (x = 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 wt%), for hydrogen gas sensing experiments. Samples were prepared through the electrospinning technique followed by a calcination process. The sensing experiments showed that the sample with 0.05 wt% NiO loading resulted in the highest sensing performance at an optimal sensing temperature of 200 °C. The sensing mechanism is discussed in detail and contributions of the p-n heterojunctions, metallization of ZnO and catalytic effect of NiO on the sensing enhancements of an optimized gas sensor are analyzed. This study demonstrates the possibility of fabricating high-performance H2 sensors through the optimization of p-type metal oxide loading on the surfaces of n-type metal oxides.
Sat, 18 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 250| View: 315| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0331.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gold nanoparticles; EGCG; doxorubicin; radiolabeling; theranostics
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:32:59 CEST)
Gold nanoparticles are currently used for the treatment of cancer through a myriad of modalities and delivery approaches. Conjugation of tumor imaging Single Photon Emitting Computed Tomographic (SPECT) radiopharmaceutical to gold nanoparticles will allow systemic targeting and imaging of cancer tissues simultaneously. In this study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared using Epigallocatechingallate (EGCG), loaded with doxorubicin (Dox), and characterized before and after doxorubicin conjugation. Cytotoxicity of EGCG-AuNPs and Dox-EGCG-AuNPs were evaluated against breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) cell lines demonstrating high cytotoxic effects of Dox-EGCG-AuNPs against both cell lines. Doxorubicin was radiolabeled with 99mTc and our new approach has optimized various labeling conditions resulting in a radiochemical yield of 93.5 ± 2.04%. Biodistribution of 99mTc-Dox-EGCG-AuNPs was studied in normal and tumor bearing mice following I.V. and intratumoral injections at different time intervals. Results showed high uptake of the intravenously injected 99mTc-Dox-EGCG-AuNPs in tumor tissue (22.45 %ID/g at 2 h). In addition, localized intratumoral injection of 99mTc-Dox-EGCG-AuNPs showed extremely high levels of uptake in tumor (80.22 %ID/g at 15 min) with high retention for extended periods post injection. Our results present prospects for the utility of 99mTc-Dox-EGCG-AuNPs as a multiplexed theranostic agent through SPECT imaging of tumor tissue and therapy through photothermal destruction of cancer tissue through the application of exogenous laser lights as well as through tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor (through EGCG), and topoisomerase II inhibitor (through doxorubicin) effects.
ARTICLE Download: 278| View: 248| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0323.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles; electron microscopy; molecular dynamics simulation; Gupta potential; PdPt alloys; nanostructures
Online: 18 August 2018 (05:59:06 CEST)
Bimetallic nanoparticles are of interest since they lead to many interesting electrical, chemical, catalytic, and optical properties. They are particularly important in the field of catalysis since they show superior catalytic properties than their monometallic counterparts. The structures of bimetallic nanoparticles depend mainly on the synthesis conditions and the miscibility of the two components. In this work, PdPt alloyed-bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized through the polyol method, and characterized using spherical aberration (Cs) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF)-STEM images of bimetallic nanoparticles were obtained. The contrast of images shows that nanoparticles have an alloy structure with an average size of 8.2 nm. Together with the characterization of nanoparticles, a systematic molecular dynamics simulations study, focused on the structural stability and atomic surface segregation trends in 923-atom PdPt alloyed-bimetallic NPs was carried out.
Thu, 16 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 203| View: 212| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0290.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Chemical modification; electronics cooling; thermal management nanocomposites; thermal conductivity; silver nanoparticles
Online: 16 August 2018 (14:34:18 CEST)
Silver functionalized graphene nanosheets (GNS) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with excellent thermal properties were developed to meet the requirements of thermal management. The effects of composites on interfacial structure and properties of the composites were identiﬁed, and the microstructures and properties of the composites were studied as a function of the volume fraction of fillers. An ultrahigh thermal conductivity of 12.3 W/mK for polymer matrix composites was obtained, which is an approximate enhancement by 69.1 times compared with that of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, these composites showed more competitive thermal conductivities compared with those of untreated fillers/PVA composites applied to the desktop central processing unit, making these composites a high-performance alternative to be used for thermal management.
Tue, 14 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 641| View: 625| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0242.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: 2D materials; transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs); MoS2; WS2; MoSe2; WSe2; optical properties
Online: 14 August 2018 (05:21:56 CEST)
The research field of two dimensional (2D) materials strongly relies on optical microscopy characterization tools to identify atomically thin materials and to determine their number of layers. Moreover, optical microscopy-based techniques also opened the door to study the optical properties of these nanomaterials. We present a comprehensive study of the differential reflectance spectra of 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2, with thickness ranging from one layer up to six layers. We analyze the thickness-dependent energy of the different excitonic features, indicating the change in the band structure of the different TMDC materials with the number of layers. Our work provides a route to employ differential reflectance spectroscopy for determining the number of layers of MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2.
Sat, 11 August 2018
REVIEW Download: 521| View: 294| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0210.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: microbubbles; nanobubbles; photoacoustic imaging; ultrasonic imaging; ROS; oxygen delivery
Online: 11 August 2018 (18:49:18 CEST)
Microbubbles and nanobubbles can be prepared using various shells, such as phospholipids, polymers, proteins, and surfactants. They are echogenic and can be used as contrast agents for ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging. These bubbles can be engineered in various sizes as vehicles for gas and drug delivery applications with novel properties and flexible structures. Hypoxic areas in tumors develop owing to an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. In tumors, hypoxic regions have shown more resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and photodynamic therapies. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy depends on the availability of oxygen in the tumor to generate reactive oxygen species. Micro/nanobubbles have been shown to reverse hypoxic conditions and increase tissue oxygen levels. This review summarizes the synthesis methods and shell compositions of micro/nanobubbles and methods deployed for oxygen delivery. In addition, the shortcomings and prospects of engineering micro/nanobubbles are discussed for their potential use in photodynamic therapy.
Fri, 10 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 302| View: 180| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0203.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Titanium dioxide nanotube, photoelectric properties, co-doping, magnetron sputtering
Online: 10 August 2018 (09:43:33 CEST)
Cu,N-TiO2 nanotube (Cu,N-TNT) is prepared through a novel magnetron sputtering and anodic oxidation method. Then the morphology, structure and physicochemical property of Cu,N-TNT was analyzed by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and UV-vis-DR. The results indicate that the evenly doped copper is beneficial to the transformation of the TNT from anatase to rutile and play a key role in the morphology of the Cu,N-TNT. The doped Cu and N in the TNT influence the growth orientation of the TiO2 crystals, which result in the lattice distortion and wider the interplanar spacing 60s-Cu,N-TNT has less band gap and stronger absorption intensity in visible region than other Cu,N-TNT samples, which make the combination rate of photogenerated electron and photogenerated hole decrease greatly, thus beneficial to its physicochemical property.
Thu, 2 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 260| View: 354| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0054.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: few layer graphene production; aqueous suspension; pyrene derivative; molecular modelling
Online: 2 August 2018 (23:52:47 CEST)
The search for graphene or few layer graphene production methods that are simple, allow mass production and yield good quality material continues to provoke intense investigation. The present work contributes through the study of the aqueous exfoliation of four types of graphene sources, namely graphite and graphite nanoflakes with different morphologies and geographical origin. The exfoliation was achieved in an aqueous solution of a soluble pyrene derivative that was synthesized to achieve maximum interaction with the graphene surface at low concentration (5 x 10-5 M). The yield of bilayer and few layer graphene obtained was quantified by Raman spectroscopic analysis and the adsorption of the pyrene derivative on the graphene surface was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The whole procedure was rationalized with the help of molecular modeling.
Tue, 31 July 2018
REVIEW Download: 418| View: 124| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0619.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Transparent electrodes; Silver nanowires; Mechanical stabilities; Chemical stabilities; Thermal stabilities; Optical properties
Online: 31 July 2018 (11:24:44 CEST)
Transparent electrodes (TEs) made of metallic nanowires, such as Ag, Au, Cu, and Ni, have attracted rising attention for several reasons: 1) they can act as a substitute for tin oxide-based TEs such as indium-tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO); 2) various methods exist for fabricating such TEs such as filtration, spraying and meyer bar coating; 3) greater compatibility with different substrates can be achieved due to the variety of fabrication methods; and 4) extra functions in addition to serving as electrodes, such as catalytic abilities, can be obtained due to the metals that compose the TEs. There are a large number of applications for TEs, ranging from electronics and sensors to biomedical devices. This short review is a summary of recent progress, mainly during the past five years, on silver nanowire-based TEs. The focus of the review will be on theory development, mechanical, chemical and thermal stability and optical properties. The many applications of TEs are outside the scope of this review.
Mon, 30 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 158| View: 172| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0572.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: room temperature gas sensor; surface photovoltage effect; porous ZnO nanostructured thin films
Online: 30 July 2018 (09:45:28 CEST)
In this paper a novel type of a highly sensitive gas sensor device based on the surface photovoltage effect is described. The developed surface photovoltage gas sensor is based on a reverse Kelvin probe approach. As the active gas sensing electrode the porous ZnO nanostructured thin films are used deposited by the direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering method exhibiting the nanocoral surface morphology combined with an evident surface nonstoichiometry related to the unintentional surface carbon and water vapor contaminations. Among others, the demonstrated SPV gas sensor device exhibits a high sensitivity of 1 ppm to NO2 with a signal to noise ratio of about 50 and a fast response time of several seconds under the room temperature conditions.
ARTICLE Download: 169| View: 278| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0039.v4
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: fundamental forces; transition state gold atoms; packing and assembling; process parameters; one-dimensional particles; multi-dimensional particles
Online: 30 July 2018 (08:54:54 CEST)
Developing particles of different anisotropic shapes are the hot topic since decades as they guarantee some special features of properties not possible through other means. Again, controlling atoms to develop certain size and shape particle is a quite challenging job. In this study, gold particles of different shapes are developed via pulse-based electronphoton-solution interface process. Gold atoms of certain transition state develop monolayer assembly at solution surface around the light glow (known in argon plasma) being generated at bottom of copper capillary (known in cathode). The rate of uplifting gold atoms to solution surface is being controlled by forcing energy (travelling photons) pursuing electrons and high energy photons (in high density) entering to solution. Gold atoms dissociated from the precursor under dissipating heat energy into the solution supplied under propagating photons characteristic current through immersed graphite rod (known in anode). Placing packets of nano shape energy of tuned pulse protocol over compact monolayer assembly comprising transition state atoms develop tiny-sized particles of formed shape. On separation of joint tiny particles into two equilateral triangular-shaped tiny particles, exerting forces of surface format elongate atoms of one-dimensional arrays converting them into structures of smooth elements. Due to immersing level of force, such tiny-shaped particles pack from different zones at centre of light glow where they assembled structures of smooth elements for developing mono-layers of different shapes of particles. Developing one-dimensional particles deal assembling of structures of smooth elements of packing tiny-shaped particles from nearly rearward zones of reflection of north-south poles, whereas, developing multi-dimensional particles deal assembling of structures of smooth elements of packing tiny-shaped particles from the east-west poles and near regions. Depending on the number of assembled structures of smooth elements at point of nucleation, packing of tiny-shaped particles from different zones develop different shapes of the anisotropic particles. At fixed precursor concentration, increasing the process time results into develop particles of low aspect ratio. Under tuned parameters, developing mechanisms of particles exhibiting unprecedented features are discussed.
ARTICLE Download: 159| View: 194| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0561.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: poly I:C; adjuvant; antigen; melanoma; polyethylenimine; immunotherapy
Online: 30 July 2018 (06:13:44 CEST)
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive type of cancer that requires radical treatment strategies to inhibit the cancer cell progression and metastasis. In recent years, preclinical research and clinical trials on melanoma treatment are considerably focused on the adjuvant-based immunotherapy for enhancing the immune response of innate immune cells against cancer cells. However, the clinical outcome of these adjuvant-based treatments are inadequate due to improper delivery system for these immune activators to reach the target site. Hence, we developed a vaccine formulation containing tumor lysate protein (TL) and poly I:C (PIC) complexed with positively charged poly (sorbitol-co- polyethylenimine (PEI)(PSPEI). The resulting ionic PSPEI-polyplexed antigen/adjuvant (PAA) (PSPEI-PAA) nanocomplexes were stable at the physiological condition, non-toxic and enhanced intracellular uptake in immature dendritic cells. In murine B16F10 tumor xenograft model, PSPEI-PAA nanocomplexes significantly suppressed tumor growth and did not exhibit any noticeable sign of toxicity. Additionally, the cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) assay involving co-culturing of splenocytes isolated from the PSPEI-PAA-treated mice with that of B16F10 cells significantly revealed enhanced cancer killing by the TL-reactivated CTLs compared to untreated control mice bearing tumor. Therefore, we strongly believe that PSPEI-PAA nanocomplexes could be an efficient antigen/adjuvant delivery system and also enhance the antitumor immune response against melanoma tumor in the future clinical trials.
Fri, 27 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 254| View: 250| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0543.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: tin dioxide nanowires; surface chemistry; surface morphology; VPD; XPS; SEM, TDS
Online: 27 July 2018 (14:06:13 CEST)
The surface chemistry and the morphology of SnO2 nanowires, deposited by Vapour Phase Deposition (VPD) method on Au-covered silicon substrate, were studied before and after subsequent air exposure. For this purpose, surface-sensitive methods including X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were applied. The studies presented within this paper allowed to determine the surface non-stoichiometry combined with the presence of carbon contaminations, in a good correlation with the surface morphology. The relative concentrations of the main components [O]/[Sn]; [C]/[Sn]; [Au]/[Sn] together with the O – Sn; O – Si bondings were analyzed. The results of TDS remained in a good agreement with the observations from XPS. Moreover, conclusions obtained for SnO2 nanostructures deposited with the use of Au catalyst were compared to the previous obtained for Ag-assisted tin dioxide nanowires. The information obtained within this studies are of great importance for the potential application of SnO2 nanowires deposited on Au covered Si substrate in the field of novel chemical nanosensor devices, since the results can provide an interpretation of how aging effects influence gas sensor dynamic characteristics.
ARTICLE Download: 173| View: 186| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0536.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: photocatalysis, co-catalysts, water splitting, metallic cluster
Online: 27 July 2018 (09:33:40 CEST)
Degussa P25 is a benchmark form of TiO2 used worldwide in photocatalysis studies. Currently no such benchmark exists for co-catalysts, which are essential for many photocatalytic reactions. Here, we present the preparation of Pt nanocluster co-catalysts on TiO2 using an unmodified commercial source and equipment that is commonly available. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the procedure produces TiO2 decorated with Pt atom and nanoclusters (1-5 atoms). Optical reflectance and X-ray diffraction measurements show that the procedure does not affect the TiO2 polymorph or UV-Vis absorbance. Gas phase photocatalytic splitting of heavy water (D2O) shows that the Pt nanocluster decorated TiO2 outperforms Pt nanoparticle (produced by photodeposition) decorated TiO2 in D2 production. Pt nanoclusters, produced directly from a commercial source, with high co-catalyst activity are prime candidates to be used in benchmark photocatalytic reactions.
ARTICLE Download: 170| View: 193| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0535.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: zinc oxide; tantalum oxide; ZnO:Ta doped films; substitutional alloy
Online: 27 July 2018 (08:17:56 CEST)
Tantalum doped ZnO structures (ZnO:Ta) were synthesized and some of their characteristics were studied. ZnO material was deposited on silicon substrates by using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) reactor. The raw materials were a pill made of a mixture of ZnO and Ta2O5 powders, and molecular hydrogen was used as a reactant gas. Percentage of tantalum was varied from 0 to 500 mg by varying the percentage of tantalum oxide in the mixture of the pill source, by holding a fixed amount of 500 mg of ZnO in all experiments. X-ray diffractograms confirmed the presence of zinc oxide in the wurtzite phase and metallic zinc with a hexagonal structure, and no other phase was detected. Displacements to lower angles of reflection peaks, compared with those from samples without contamination, were interpreted as the inclusion of the Ta atoms in the matrix of the ZnO. This fact was confirmed by EDS and XRD measurements. From SEM images from undoped samples exhibited mostly micro sized semi-spherical structures while doped samples displayed a trend to grown as nanocrystalline rods. The presence of tantalum during the synthesis affects the way of the growth. Green photoluminescence at naked eye was observed when Ta doped samples were illuminated by ultraviolet radiation and confirmed by PL spectra. PL intensity on Ta doped ZnO varied from those undoped samples up to 8 times.
Wed, 25 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 148| View: 172| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0491.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electronic tongue; milk; galactose; phthalocyanine; chitosan; ionic liquid; LbL sensor
Online: 25 July 2018 (15:50:19 CEST)
A nanostructured electrochemical bi-sensor system for analysis of milks has been developed using the Layer by Layer technique. The non-enzymatic sensor [CHI+IL/CuPcS]2, is a layered material containing a negative film of the anionic sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcS) acting as electrocatalytic material, and a cationic layer containing a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) that enhances the conductivity and chitosan (CHI) that facilitates the enzyme immobilization. The biosensor ([CHI+IL/CuPcS]2-GAO) results from the immobilization of galactose oxidase on the top of the LbL layers. FTIR, UV-vis and AFM have confirmed the proposed structure and cyclic voltammetry has demonstrated the amplification caused by the combination of materials in the film. Sensors have been combined to form an electronic tongue for milk analysis. Principal Component Analysis has revealed the ability of the sensor system to discriminate between milk samples with different lactose content. Using PLS-1 calibration models, correlations have been found between the voltammetric signals and chemical parameters measured by classical methods. PLS-1 models provide excellent correlations with lactose content. Additional information about other components such as fats, proteins and acidity can also be obtained. The method developed is simple and the short response time permits its use in assaying milk samples on-line.
ARTICLE Download: 211| View: 161| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0480.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: surface plasmon resonance; core–shell nanoparticles; discrete-dipole approximation; aspect ratio
Online: 25 July 2018 (11:53:51 CEST)
In this work, numerical simulations for the absorption and scattering efficiencies of spheroid core–shell nanoparticles (CSNs) were conducted and studied using the discrete-dipole approximation method. The characteristics of surface plasmon resonances (SPR) depend upon shell thickness, the compositions of the core and shell materials, and the aspect ratio of the constructed CSNs. We used different [email protected] compositions, specifically [email protected]2, [email protected]2, [email protected]2, [email protected]2, [email protected], and [email protected], for extinction spectra analysis. We also investigated coupled resonance mode wavelengths by adjusting the composition’s layer thickness and aspect ratio. In this study, we show that the extinction efficiency of the [email protected]2 core–shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) was higher than that of the others, and we examined the impact of TiO2 shell thickness and Ag core radius on SPR peak positions. From the extinction spectra we found that the [email protected]2 nanoparticle had better refractive index sensitivity and figure of merit when the aspect ratio was set to 0.3. All of the experimental results proved that the tunability of these plasmonic resonances was highly dependent on the material used, the layer thickness, and the aspect ratio of the [email protected] CSNPs.
ARTICLE Download: 196| View: 381| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0469.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: caffeine; nitrogen-doping; graphene; nanowires; functionalization; pyridinic; monolayer; synthesis; carbon nanostructures; nanomaterials
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:10:43 CEST)
In this work, we propose an easy and a low cost method for the synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene NDG and its silver nanowires NW functionalization NWGN. The synthesis was performed using the improved graphene oxide method, chemical reduction of graphene oxide in the presence of caffeine as green nitrogen source and the subsequently the silver nanowires growth in the surface, by the chemical reductions salts in the presence of NG. Achieving a homogeneous growing (coating) of graphene sheets. The samples were analyzed using conventional characterization techniques: SEM-EDX, XRD, FT-IR, RAMAN, TEM, HRTEM, STEM and XPS.
Mon, 23 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 139| View: 160| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0420.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: layered double LDHs; graphene; mixed oxides; re-hydration; memory Effect; X-ray diffraction; Raman spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:02:37 CEST)
A graphene-containing LDH was prepared by re-hydration of the oxides produced by the calcination of an organic LDH. While the memory effect is a widely recognized effect on oxides produced by inorganic LDHs, it is unprecedented from the calcination/re-hydration of organic ones. Different temperatures (400, 600 and 1100 °C) were tested, on the basis of thermogravimetric data. Water instead of a carbonate solution was used for the re-hydration, with CO2 available from water itself and/or air to induce a slower process with an easier and better intercalation of the carbonaceous species within the layers. The samples were characterized by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), IR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRPD indicate the presence of carbonate LDH mixed with a layered phase with a larger d-spacing. IR confirmed that the prevailing anion is carbonate, coming from the water used for the re-hydration and/or air. Raman data indicated the presence of low-ordered graphenic species moieties and SEM the absence of separated graphene of graphitic sheets, suggesting an intimate mixing of the carbonaceous phase with reconstructed LDH. Organic LDHs gave better memory effect after calcination at 400 °C. Conversely, the graphenic species are observed after rehydration of the sample calcined at 600 °C with a reduced memory effect, demonstrating the interference of the carbonaceous phase with LDH reconstruction and the bonding with LDH layers to form a graphene-LDH nanocomposite.
ARTICLE Download: 133| View: 207| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0418.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphitic carbon spheres; catalytic graphitization; hierarchical pores; supercapacitors; dye adsorption
Online: 23 July 2018 (11:47:13 CEST)
Hierarchical micro-/mesoporous graphitic carbon spheres (HGCS) with a uniform diameter of ~0.35 μm were synthesized by Fe-catalyzed graphitization of amorphous carbon spheres resultant from hydrothermal carbonization. The HGCS resultant from 3 h at 900 °C with 1.0 wt% Fe catalyst had high graphitization degree and surface area as high as 564 m2/g. They also exhibited high specific capacitance of 140 F/g at 0.2 A/g, good electrochemical stability with 94% capacitance retention after consecutive 2500 cycles. The graphitization degree of the HGCS contributed about 60% of their specific capacitance, and their specific capacitance per unit surface area was as high as 0.2 F/m2 which was much higher than in the most cases of porous amorphous carbon materials reported before. In addition, the HGCS showed a high adsorption capacity of 182.8 mg/g for methylene blue (MB), which was 12 times as high as that in the case of carbon spheres before graphitization.
Mon, 16 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 144| View: 144| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0290.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Pd-CNT nanohybrids, functionalizated CNTs, polarity, Semi-homogeneous catalysis, Heck reaction
Online: 16 July 2018 (13:56:50 CEST)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are effective supports for nano metals and together they represent hybrids that combine unique properties of both. A microwave induced reaction was used to deposit nano palladium on carboxylated and octadecylamine functionalized multiwall CNTs, which were used to carry out C-C coupling reactions in DMF and toluene. These hybrids showed excellent catalytic activity with yield as high as 99.8% while its enhancement with respect to commercially available Pd/C catalyst reached as high as 109%, and the reactions times were significantly lower. Polarity of the functionalized form was found to be a significant factor with the polar carboxylated CNT showing better activity in DMF while the relatively nonpolar octadecyl amine was better in toluene. The results suggest the possibility of tailor making functionalized CNT when used as catalyst supports
ARTICLE Download: 121| View: 156| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0272.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanocones; geometry; rolled-up model; curvature effects; analytical formulae
Online: 16 July 2018 (10:18:50 CEST)
The conventional rolled-up model for carbon nanocones assumes that the cone is constructed from a rolled-up graphene sheet joined seamlessly, which predicts five distinct vertex angles. This model completely ignores any effects due to the changing curvature and all bond lengths and bond angles are assumed to be those for the planar graphene sheet. Clearly curvature effects will become more important closest to the cone vertex, and especially so for the cones with the smaller apex angles. Here we construct carbon nanocones which in the assembled cone are assumed to comprise bond lengths and bond angles which are, as far as possible, equal throughout the structure at the same distance from the conical apex. Predicted bond angles and bond lengths are shown to agree well with those obtained by relaxing the conventional rolled-up model using the LAMMPS software. The major objective here is not simply to model physically realisable carbon nanocones for which numerical procedures are far superior, but rather to produce an improved model that takes into account curvature effects close to the vertex, and from which we may determine an analytical formula which represents an improvement on that for the conventional rolled-up model.
ARTICLE Download: 151| View: 170| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0268.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: anodization; atomic layer deposition; diameter modulated nanowire; micromagnetic simulation; ferromagnetic nanowire; MOKE; domain wall; magnetization reversal; Barkhausen jump
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:50:29 CEST)
Controlling functional properties of matter and combine them for engineering a functional device is nowadays a common direction of scientific community. For instance, heterogeneous magnetic nanostructures can make use of different types of geometrical and compositional modulations to achieve the control of the magnetization reversal along with the nano-entities and thus enabling the fabrication of spintronic, magnetic data storage and sensing devices, among others. In this work, diameter modulated FeNi nanowires are fabricated paying special effort to obtain sharp transition regions between two segments of different diameters (from about 450 nm to 120 nm), enabling precise control over the magnetic behavior of the sample. Micromagnetic simulations performed on single bi-segmented nanowires predict a double step magnetization reversal where the wide segment magnetization switches near 200 Oe through a vortex domain wall, while at 500 Oe the magnetization of the narrow one is reversed through a corkscrew like mechanism. Finally, these results are confirmed with magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements at the transition of isolated bi-segmented nanowires. Furthermore, macroscopic vibrating sample magnetometry is used to demonstrate that the magnetic decoupling of nanowire segments is the main phenomenon occurring over the entire fabricated nanowires.
Wed, 11 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 255| View: 251| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0205.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: γ-alumina; nanocomposite particle; epoxide functionality; adsorption; Remazol navy.
Online: 11 July 2018 (14:29:57 CEST)
In this investigation magnetic γ-Al2O3 ceramic nanocomposite particles bearing epoxide functionality are prepared following a multistep process. The ultimate nanocomposite particles are named as γ-Al2O3/Fe3O4/SiO2/poly(glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA). The surface property is evaluated by carrying out the adsorption study of Remazol navy (RN), a model reactive azo dye, on both γ-Al2O3/Fe3O4/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3/Fe3O4/SiO2/PGMA nanocomposite particles. The adsorption is carried out at the point of zero charge (PZC) to neutralize the effect of particle surface charge. The adsorption rate is very fast, reached equilibrium (qe) value within five min. Due to mesoporous structure of silica layer γ-Al2O3/Fe3O4/SiO2 nanocomposite particles possessed relatively higher specific surface area and magnitude of adsorption is dependent on the total specific surface area. The introduction of epoxide functionality favored high adsorption capacity in mass per unit surface area. The adsorption process strictly followed Langmuir model. Thermodynamic equilibrium parameters implied that irrespective of surface functionality the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic. Pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model is more appropriate to explain the adsorption kinetics.
Mon, 9 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 267| View: 499| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0142.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanopore; peptide sensing; electrophysiology; single-molecule sequencing
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:26:06 CEST)
In this work we demonstrate the proof-of-concept of real-time discrimination between patches of serine or isoleucine monomers in the primary structure of custom-engineered, macro-dipole-like peptides, at uni-molecular level. We employed single-molecule recordings to examine the ionic current through the α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore, when hydrophilic serine or hydrophobic isoleucine residues, flanked by segments of oppositely charged arginine and glutamic amino acids functioning as a voltage-dependent ‘molecular brake’ on the peptide, were driven at controllable rates across the nanopore. The observed differences in the ionic currents blockades through the nanopore, visible at time resolutions corresponding to peptide threading through the α-HL’s constriction region, was explained by a simple model of the volumes of electrolyte excluded by either amino acid species, as groups of three serine or isoleucine monomers transiently occupy the α-HL. To provide insights into the conditions ensuring optimal throughput of peptide readout through the nanopore, we probed the sidedness-dependence of peptide association to and dissociation from the electrically and geometrically asymmetric α-HL.
REVIEW Download: 120| View: 159| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0129.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gallium nitride; rare earth ions; europium; photoluminescence; photochromism; qubit
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:05:42 CEST)
Europium is the most-studied and least-well-understood rare earth ion (REI) dopant in GaN. While attempting to increase the efficiency of red GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by implanting Eu+ into p-type GaN templates, the Strathclyde University group, in collaboration with IST Lisbon and Unipress Warsaw, discovered hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) in the photoluminescence spectrum of doubly doped GaN(Mg):Eu. Our recent work, summarised in this contribution, has used time-, temperature- and light-induced changes in the Eu intra-4f shell emission spectrum to deduce the microscopic nature of the Mg-Eu defects that form in this material. As well as shedding light on the Mg acceptor in GaN, we propose a possible role for these emission centres in quantum information and computing.
Fri, 6 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 275| View: 288| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0108.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Zein; nanocomposite membrane; adsorption; wastewater; RB19
Online: 6 July 2018 (08:01:59 CEST)
The present work demonstrates the new nanofiber mats prepared through co-electrospinning of two different polymers i.e. corn protein namely Zein and Nylon-6. The composite nanofiber membrane was used as an effective adsorbent material for the removal of toxic reactive dye i.e. Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19) from water solution. These co-electrospun nanofibers had good mechanical strength compared to zein nanofibers alone. Experimental results suggested that zein/nylon nanofibers have greater potential for total removal of RB19 at room temperature within 10 min of contact time from aqueous solution. The maximum capacity was found to be 70 mg/g of nanofibers. The mechanism of RB19 removal on proposed nanofibers is mainly through hydrogen bond and electrostatic means.
Thu, 5 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 160| View: 243| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0097.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: QDSSCs; Charge recombination; ZnS/SiO2; Passivation layer;
Online: 5 July 2018 (15:05:00 CEST)
Suppressing the charge recombination at the interface of photoanode/electrolyte is the crucial way to enhance the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). In this scenario, ZnS/SiO2 blocking layer was deposited on TiO2/CuInS2 QDs to inhibit the charge recombination at photoanode/electrolyte interface. As a result, the TiO2/CuInS2/ZnS/SiO2 based QDSSCs delivers a power conversion efficiency (η) value of 4.63%, which is significantly higher than the 2.15% and 3.23% observed for QDSSCs with a TiO2/CuInS2 device and TiO2/CuInS2/ZnS, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay analyses indicate that ZnS/SiO2 passivation layer on TiO2/CuInS2 suppress the charge recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and prolongs the electron lifetime.
Tue, 3 July 2018
REVIEW Download: 469| View: 537| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0033.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: DNA nanotechnology; DNA origami; self-assembly; molecular devices; mechanical movement; robotics
Online: 3 July 2018 (10:03:21 CEST)
Structural DNA nanotechnology provides an excellent foundation for diverse nanoscale shapes that can be used in various bioapplications and materials research. From all existing DNA assembly techniques, DNA origami has proven to be the most robust one for creating custom nanoshapes. Since its invention in 2006, building from the bottom up using DNA has drastically advanced, and therefore, more and more complex DNA-based systems have become accessible. So far, vast majority of the demonstrated DNA origami frameworks are static by nature, but interestingly, there also exist dynamic DNA origami devices that are increasingly coming into view. In this review, we discuss DNA origami nanostructures that perform controlled translational or rotational movement triggered by predefined DNA strands, various molecular interactions and/or other external stimuli such as light, pH, temperature and electromagnetic fields. The rapid evolution of such dynamic DNA origami tools will undoubtedly have a significant impact on molecular scale precision measurements, targeted drug delivery and diagnostics, but they can also play a role in development of optical/plasmonic sensors, nanophotonic devices and nanorobotics for numerous different tasks.
Sat, 30 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 213| View: 267| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0500.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanocellulose; retention; petroleum; energy; oil; petrochemical; cellulose nanocrystals; nanoparticle
Online: 30 June 2018 (15:15:54 CEST)
The application of nanotechnology to the petroleum industry has sparked recent interest to increase oil recovery while reducing environmental impact. Nanocellulose is an emerging nanoparticle that is derived from trees and may provide an environmentally friendly alternative to current enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies. However, before nanocellulose can be applied as an EOR technique, further understanding of its transport behavior and retention in porous media is required. The research documented in this paper examines retention mechanisms that occur during nanocellulose transport. In a series of experiments, nanocellulose particles dispersed in brine were injected into sandpacks and Berea sandstone cores. The resulting retention and permeability reduction were measured. The experimental parameters that were varied include sand grain size, nanocellulose type, salinity, and flow rate. Under low salinity conditions, the dominant retention mechanism was adsorption and when salinity was increased, the dominant retention mechanism shifted towards log-jamming. Retention and permeability reduction increased as grain size decreased, which results from increased straining of nanocellulose aggregates. In addition, each type of nanocellulose was found to have significantly different transport properties. The experiments with Berea sandstone cores indicate that some pore volume was inaccessible to the nanocellulose. As a general trend, the larger the size of aggregates in bulk solution, the greater the observed retention and permeability reduction. Salinity was found to be the most important parameter affecting transport. Increased salinity caused additional aggregation, which led to increased straining and filter cake formation. Higher flow rates were found to reduce retention and permeability reduction. Increased velocity was accompanied by an increase in shear which is believed to promote breakdown of nanocellulose aggregates.
Mon, 18 June 2018
REVIEW Download: 524| View: 496| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0273.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanoparticles; Toxicological effects; Organ-specific effects
Online: 18 June 2018 (15:32:41 CEST)
Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in diverse disciplines, including biology, medicine science. The central question that need to be answered is whether NPs have toxic effects on biological cells and molecules or are they safe. The safety of NPs including targeted drug delivery is critical and so is their toxicity in the environment. In recent years, in vitro and in vivo research on animals has generated abundant information about the toxicity of NPs. However, due to varying laboratory conditions, the comparison of the results from ensuing studies is somewhat unreliable. It should be noted that, depending on the type of production, NPs can enter the body through inhalation, skin and via digestive routes. Due to the diversity of NPs and their properties, there is paucity of accurate information on their toxicological effects; particle size, shape, surface area and the chemical levels are considered as key factors in creating health and toxicological effects. Consequently, there is a need for reliable information about their effects on various organs so as to deal with NPs effectively and their impact on health and the environment. This review covers the existing knowledge base on the subject that hopefully prepares us better to address these challenges.
Fri, 15 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 289| View: 345| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0259.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanobeam; fractional-order; nonlinearity; Winkler-Pasternack
Online: 15 June 2018 (14:48:29 CEST)
In the present study, nonlinear vibration of a nanobeam resting on fractional order viscoelastic Winkler-Pasternak foundaion is studied using nonlocal elasticity theory. D'Alembert principle is used to derive the governing equation and the associated boundary conditions. The approximate analytical solution is obtained by applying the multiple scales method. Detailled parametric study is conducted, the effects of variation in different parameters belonging to the application problems on the system are calculated numerically and depicted. We remark that the order and the coefficient of the fractional derivative have significant effect on the natural frequency and the amplitude of vibrations
Tue, 5 June 2018
COMMUNICATION Download: 212| View: 268| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gold nanoparticles; citrate reduction method; pH-effect; concentration
Online: 5 June 2018 (09:49:45 CEST)
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are currently under intense investigation for biomedical and biotechnology applications, thanks to their ease in preparation, stability, biocompatibility, multiple surface functionalities and size-dependent optical properties. The most commonly used method for AuNPs synthesis in aqueous solution is the reduction of tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) with trisodium citrate. We observed variations in the pH and concentration of the gold colloidal suspension synthesized under standard conditions, verifying a reduction in the reaction yield by around 46% from pH 5.3 (2.4 nM) to pH 4.7 (1.29 nM). Citrate-capped AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, EDS and zeta-potential measurements, revealing a linear correlation between pH and the concentration of the generated AuNPs. This result can be attributed to the adverse effect of protons both on citrate oxidation and on citrate adsorption onto the gold surface, which is required to form the stabilization layer. Overall, this study provides insight into the effect of the pH over the synthesis performance of the method, which would be of particular interest from the point of view of large-scale manufacturing processes.
Mon, 4 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 214| View: 191| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0024.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; sodium polyacrylate; nanocomposites; draw solutes; forward osmosis
Online: 4 June 2018 (08:43:01 CEST)
Aqueous dispersions of magnetic nanocomposites have been proposed as draw electrolytes in forward osmosis. One possible approach for the production nanocomposites based on magnetite nanoparticles and sodium polyacrylate, is the synthesis of the magnetic iron oxide by coprecipitation or oxidative precipitation in presence of an excess of the polymer. In this work we explored the effect of the polymer proportion on the nanomaterials produced by these procedures. The materials obtained were compared s with the obtained by the coating of magnetite nanocrystals produced beforehand with the same polymer. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, photon correlation spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and magnetometry. The general trend observed is that part of the polymer is incorporated to the magnetic material during the synthesis heavily modifying its texture, with a drastic reduction of the particle size and magnetic response. The aqueous dispersions of the nanocomposites were highly stable with hydrodynamic size roughly independent on the polymer proportion. Their osmotic pressure proportional to the concentration of the polyelectrolyte, was similar than the generated by the equivalent amount of free polymer in the case of samples generated by oxidative precipitation and smaller in the case of samples generated by coprecipitation. Finally the possibilities of using these materials as draw electrolytes in forward osmosis will be briefly discussed.
Fri, 1 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 330| View: 313| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0019.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Pt-Cu; porous; electrocatalyst; HER; synergetic effect
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:57:52 CEST)
Cost-efficient catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and methanol oxidization reaction (MOR) is of great importance for industrial application. The alloying of platinum with cheap transition metal offers a great opportunity to reduce cost and enhance the electro-catalytic performance. Herein, we report a simple and green route to synthesize porous Pt-Cu catalysts, where Pt-Cu solid particles were first produced by using cuprous chloride (CuCl) nanoparticles as the template, followed by a dealloying treatment to obtain final porous product. The porous alloy nanoparticles show higher catalytic activity and superior stability for HER and methanol oxidation reaction, which is beneficial from the porous structure and synergetic effect between Pt and Cu.
Mon, 28 May 2018
REVIEW Download: 149| View: 201| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0142.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; cold field emission; single-tip cathode; electron microscopy
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:44 CEST)
Although good field emission from graphene has been demonstrated from a wide variety of different microfabricated structures, very few of them can be used to improve the design of cold field emitters for electron microscopy applications. Most of them consist of densely packed nano-emitters, which produce a large array of defocused overlapping electron beams, and therefore cannot be subsequently focused down to a single nanometer electron probe. This paper reviews the kind of single-tip cathode structures suitable in cold field emission guns for instruments such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope or scanning transmission electron microscopy, and reviews progress in fabricating them from graphene-based materials.
Tue, 15 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 189| View: 224| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0204.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: fluorescent magnetic submicronic polymer nanoparticles; human breast cancer; MCF-7 cell line; anticancer; cytotoxicity; in vitro cell culture
Online: 15 May 2018 (06:25:09 CEST)
Breast cancer treatment mostly revolved around radiation therapy and surgical interventions, these treatments doesn’t provide satisfactory relief to the patients and carry unmanageable side-effects. Nanomaterials show promising results in treating cancer cells and have many advantages such as high biocompatibility, bioavailability and effective therapeutic capabilities. Interestingly, fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles have been used in many biological and diagnostic applications, but there is no report of use of fluorescent magnetic submicronic polymer nanoparticles (FMSP-nanoparticles) in the treatment of human breast cancer cells. In the present study, we have tested the effect FMSP-nanoparticles on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). We have tested different concentrations (1.25µg/1mL, 12.5µg/mL and 50µg/1mL) of FMSP-nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells and evaluated the nanoparticles response morphometrically. Our results revealed that FMSP-nanoparticles produced a concentration dependent effect on the cancer cells, dose of 1.25µg/mL produced no significant effect on the cancer cell morphology and cell death, whereas dosages of 12.5µg/mL and 50µg/mL respectively showed significant nuclear augmentation, disintegration, chromatic condensation followed by dose dependent cell death. Our results demonstrate FMSP-nanoparticles have ability to induce cell death in MCF-7 cells and may be considered as a potential anti-cancer agent for breast cancer treatments.
Mon, 14 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 135| View: 199| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0191.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanohybrid; synthesis; standard electron potential; crystal phase; reducing agents
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:51:21 CEST)
Carbon nanotubes are hybridized with metal crystals to impart multifunctionality into the nanohybrids (NHs). Simple but effective synthesis techniques are desired to form both zero-valent and oxides of different metal species on carbon nanotube surfaces. Sol-gel technique brings in significant advantages and is a viable technique for such synthesis. This study probes the efficacy of sol-gel process and aims to identify underlying mechanisms of crystal formation. Standard electron potential (SEP) is used as a guiding parameter to choose the metal species; i.e., highly negative SEP (e.g., Zn) with oxide crystal tendency, highly positive SEP (e.g., Ag) with zero-valent crystal-tendency, and intermediate range SEP (e.g., Cu) to probe the oxidation tendency in crystal formation are chosen. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to evaluate the synthesized NHs. Results indicate that SEP can be a reliable guide for the resulting crystalline phase of a certain metal species, particularly when the magnitude of this parameter is relatively high. However, for intermediate range SEP-metals, mix phase crystals can be expected. For example, Cu will form Cu2O and zero-valent Cu crystals, unless the synthesis is performed in a reducing environment.
Wed, 9 May 2018
REVIEW Download: 181| View: 232| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0142.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; cold field emission; single-tip cathode; electron microscopy
Online: 9 May 2018 (08:52:08 CEST)
Although good field emission from graphene has been demonstrated from a wide variety of different micro-fabricated structures, very few of them can be used to improve the design of cold field emitters for electron microscopy applications. Most of them consist of densely packed nano-emitters, which produce a large array of defocused overlapping electron beams, and therefore cannot be subsequently defocused down to a single nano-meter electron probe. This paper reviews the kind of single-tip cathode structures suitable in cold field emission guns for instruments such as the Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope or the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, and reviews progress in fabricating them from graphene based materials.
Wed, 2 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 226| View: 284| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0022.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: BaTiO3; hydrothermal synthesis; in situ; X-ray diffraction; nanoparticles
Online: 2 May 2018 (11:25:23 CEST)
Ferroelectric materials are crucial for today’s technological society, and nanostructured ferroelectric materials are important for downscaling of devices. Controlled and reproducible synthesis of these materials are therefore of immense importance. Hydrothermal synthesis is a well-established synthesis route, with a large parameter space for optimization, but a better understanding of nucleation and growth mechanisms is needed for full utilization and control. Here we use in situ X-ray diffraction to follow the nucleation and growth of BaTiO3 formed by hydrothermal synthesis using two different titanium precursors, an amorphous titania precipitate slurry and a Ti-citric acid complex solution. Sequential Rietveld refinement was used to extract the time dependency of lattice parameters, crystallite size, strain and atomic displacement parameters. Phase pure BaTiO3 nanoparticles 10 - 15 nm in size were successfully synthesized at different temperatures (100, 125, and 150 °C) from both precursors after reaction times ranging from a few seconds, to several hours. The two precursors resulted in phase pure BaTiO3 with similar final crystallite size. Finally, two different growth mechanisms were revealed, where the effect of surfactants present during hydrothermal synthesis is discussed as one of the key parameters.
Mon, 30 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 250| View: 263| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0383.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: III-N Nanowires; Piezoelectric generation; Atomic force microscope; Piezo-generators; Energy harvesting
Online: 30 April 2018 (18:31:29 CEST)
We demonstrate for the first time efficient mechanical to electrical energy conversion using InGaN/GaN nanowires (NWs). Using an atomic force microscope equipped with a modified Resiscope module, we analyse the piezoelectric energy generation of GaN NWs and demonstrate an important enhancement when integrating in their volume a thick In-rich InGaN insertion. The piezoelectric response of InGaN/GaN NWs can be tuned as a function of the InGaN insertion thickness and position in the NW volume. The energy harvesting is favoured by the presence of a PtSi/GaN Schottky diode which allows to efficiently collect the piezo-charges generated by InGaN/GaN NWs. Average output voltages up to 330 ± 70 mV and a maximum value of 470 mV per NW has been measured for nanostructures integrating 70 nm-thick InGaN insertion capped with a thin GaN top layer. This latter value establishes an increase of about 35% of the piezo-conversion capacity in comparison with binary p-doped GaN NWs. By considering these output signals, we estimate a maximum power density generated by one layer of dense InGaN/GaN-based NW of about 3.3 W/cm2. These results settle the new state-of-the-art for piezo-generation from GaN-based NWs and offer a promising perspective for extending the performances of the piezoelectric sources.
Sat, 28 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 190| View: 174| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0150.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: fullerenes; nanohybrids; nanobiotechnology; bioconjugation; chemical stability
Online: 28 April 2018 (11:46:45 CEST)
The high hydrophobicity of fullerenes and the resulting formation of aggregates in aqueous solutions hamper the possibility of their exploitation in many technological applications. Noncovalent bioconjugation of fullerenes with proteins is an emerging approach for their dispersion in aqueous media. Contrary to covalent functionalization, bioconjugation preserves the physicochemical properties of the carbon nanostructure. The unique photophysical and photochemical properties of fullerenes are then fully accessible for applications in nanomedicine, sensoristic, biocatalysis and materials science fields. However, proteins are not universal carriers. Their stability depends on the biological conditions for which they have evolved. Here we present two model systems based on pepsin and trypsin. These proteins have opposite net charge at physiological pH. They recognize and disperse C60 in water. UV-Vis spectroscopy, zeta-potential and atomic force microscopy analysis demonstrates that the hybrids are well dispersed and stable in a wide range of pH’s and ionic strengths. A previously validated modelling approach identifies the protein-binding pocket involved in the interaction with C60. Computational predictions, combined with experimental investigations, provide powerful tools to design tailor-made C60@proteins bioconjugates for specific applications.
Fri, 27 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 212| View: 220| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0353.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: silicon solar cells; semiconductors; electron-hole pairs
Online: 27 April 2018 (09:46:15 CEST)
Band-gap alignment engineering has now been extensively studied due to its high potential application. Here we demonstrate a simple route to synthesize two metal oxide layers and align them together according to their bandgaps on surface of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. The metal oxide layers can not only extend absorption spectrum to generate extra carriers but also serve to separate electron-hole pairs more efficiently. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of SnO2/CdO /Si double-layer solar cell (DLSC) is highly improved compared to CdO/Si and SnO2/Si single-layer solar cells(SLSCs) and SnO2/CdO/Si double-layer solar cell (DLSC). By the alignment engineering, the SnO2/CdO/Si DLSC produces a short circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 38.20 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.575 V and a fill factor (FF) of 68.7%, corresponding to a light to electric power conversion efficiency (η) of 15.09% under AM1.5 illumination. These results suggest that with the use of metal oxide layers by band-gap alignment engineering, new avenues have been opened for developing high-efficiency and cost-effective c-Si solar cells.
ARTICLE Download: 84| View: 69| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0353.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: silicon solar cells; semiconductors; electron-hole pairs
Online: 27 April 2018 (07:51:02 CEST)
Band-gap alignment engineering has now been extensively studied due to its high potential application. Here we demonstrate a simple route to synthesize two metal oxide layers and align them together according to their bandgaps on surface of crystalline silicon(c-Si) solar cells. The metal oxide layers can not only extend absorption spectrum to generate extra carriers but also serve to separate electron-hole pairs more efficiently. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of SnO2/CdO /Si double-layer solar cell (DLSC) is highly improved compared to CdO/Si and SnO2/Si single-layer solar cells(SLSCs) and SnO2/CdO/Si double-layer solar cell(DLSC). By the alignment engineering, the SnO2/CdO/Si DLSC produces a short circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 38.20 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.575 V and a fill factor (FF) of 68.7%, corresponding to a light to electric power conversion efficiency (η) of 15.09% under AM1.5 illumination. These results suggest that with the use of metal oxide layers by band-gap alignment engineering, new avenues have been opened for developing high-efficiency and cost-effective c-Si solar cells.