ARTICLE Download: 1| View: 5| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0141.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: conservation; biodiversity; human rights; livelihood; forest-dependent community; impact
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
Background and Research Highlights: Despite all the concerns and initiatives, natural resources like forests, as well as biodiversity are decreasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Conservation is considered as one of the major tools to prevent such loss and rapid degradation. Evidence around the world shows the adverse effects of conservation laws and policies on indigenous peoples and other local communities. Objectives: This study was conducted in one of the forest-dependent communities situated in Sundarban (world’s largest mangrove forest) to understand the impact of conservation laws and policies on their livelihood. Materials and Methods: A qualitative methodology was designed to collect data, using focus group discussions and case study with community people, and individual interviews with the personnel from NGOs and relevant government departments. Findings: Strict conservation policies and restrictions in accessing forest resources made lives and livelihoods of the local community insecure and unstable, thus putting the community in a vulnerable situation. The had to leave their traditional mode of income and look for alternative livelihood options. Almost no evidence was found in relation to upkeeping their rights in conservation activities. Prohibited movement, provision of punishment for entering into the forest without proper permission and struggles in everyday life were some of the highlighted issues. They had no participation in conservation activities, management of alternative livelihood options, and even they were not sensitized before putting restrictions. Although they had a history of emotional and physical attachment with the forest, existing activities did not consider these issues. In addition, corruption and abuse of power by law enforcement agencies towards the local community intensified the sufferings. Conclusion: This study argues that the realization of human rights in conservation activities and the sensitization of the implementing stakeholders are prerequisites for ensuring the sustainability of both biodiversity and the affected people.
Tue, 17 September 2019
REVIEW Download: 117| View: 196| Comments: 0
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: wildfire; governance; Anthropocene; elemental; geography; anthropology
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:00:36 CEST)
Views of fire in the contemporary physical sciences arguably accord with Heraclitus’ proposal that ‘all things are an exchange for fire, and fire for all things, as goods for gold and gold for goods.’ Fire is a media, as John Durham Peters has stated, a species of transformative biochemical reactions between the flammable gases found in air, such as oxygen, and those found in fuels, such as plants. Inspired by an ignition source, these materials react and transform themselves and their surrounds into light and heat energy, carbon dioxide, water vapour, char and much else besides. Fire is conjunctural, durational and transformative. Fire is a dialectician, at once consuming living and dead organic matter and providing both the space and ingredients for new and renewed organic life. In this article, we consider the diverse ways in which fire is today framed as a social problem, an ecological process, an ancient tool, a natural disaster, a source of economic wealth and much more. In this way, we seek to explore the value and limits of ‘elemental thinking’ in relation to the planetary predicaments described by ‘the Anthropocene’.
Wed, 20 February 2019
ARTICLE Download: 121| View: 232| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
Thu, 13 December 2018
ARTICLE Download: 113| View: 222| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0158.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: monster of troy; archaeology; Corinthian vase; fossil; Samotherium
Online: 13 December 2018 (06:47:37 CET)
It has been proposed that the Monster of Troy, depicted in a 6th Century BC Corinthian vase, is the earliest artistic record of a vertebrate fossil, possibly a Miocene giraffe (Samotherium sp.). I analyzed the giraffe hypothesis under four approaches: a double-blind random design in which 78 biologists compared the vase skull with Samotherium and several reptiles; an informed survey of 30 students who critically assessed the hypothesis; a computerized image comparison; and a morphological comparison. All of them rejected the giraffe hypothesis. Eye and teeth types unambiguously discard a fossil or living mammal as the model, which more probably was an extant carnivorous reptile.
Wed, 13 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 239| View: 253| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0222.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Funerary Art, Social Identities and Stratification, Torajan Communities, Indonesia.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:52:48 CEST)
Since very few empirical endeavors have looked into statue and funerary art that represents social identities, this study aims to fill this gap. The research article aims to portray social status from the funeral arts, traditions and rituals. This longitudinal case study used interviews and a series of observations. The finding reveals that each funerary art represents particular class of noble families. Every funerary art also depicts specific insightful meaning for their noble families. The process of ritual and funeral ceremony is performed according to each status of noble families. This paper also describes the implication of the funerary art in social and cultural interactions.
Thu, 24 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 424| View: 458| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0352.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: folklore, ethnographic study, Indian tribes, myths, social anthropology, Gujarat
Online: 24 May 2018 (14:25:07 CEST)
The focus of this ethnographic expedition is to study the folklore and traditions amongst the existing tribal populations of Barumal village in southern Gujarat, India. The fieldwork revolves around cultural and socio-economic aspects of their livelihood and this paper encompasses the knowledge from one such lens out of many. It tries to identify the importance of mythology and its roots. The data collected from three different population groups are Varlis, Kukanas, Dhodiya Patels that are set within the caste system based hierarchy inhabiting in the same region. The interview method was employed throughout with open-ended questions. The varied customs and traditions appearing in their lifestyle, occupation, and festivals are always associated with one god or another. The key informants felt the need to distinguish the history of their own tribe from the others by taking the help of myths passed down from their ancestors. Most of the key informants were mature adults including both males and females.
Mon, 21 May 2018
ARTICLE Download: 270| View: 246| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0275.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: An anthropological study; Agro-industrial food system; Institutional settings; formal and informal institutions; common pool resources
Online: 21 May 2018 (12:59:07 CEST)
Agriculture is the backbone of Kenya’s economy, supporting up to 80% of the rural livelihoods. Kenya’s export horticulture is currently the leading Agriculture subsector in Kenya has evolved from small-holder farming to agro-industrial large-scale export farming dominated by multinational companies. It is regarded as an agro-industrial food system based on the economies of scale producing for mass markets outside of the production area. Much of the food consumed from this food system has undergone multiple transformations and been subject to a host of formal and informal insitutions (rules, regulations, standards, norms and values). An Anthropological study of export horticulture in Northwest Mount Kenya was carried out utilizing qualitative data collection methods in Northwest Mount Kenya region. Data was coded and analysed thematically based on grounded theory approach. The study described the institutional settings of export horticulture from an emic perspective as changing and defining the operations of the food system access and management of common pool resources, namely water and land. With the agro-industrial food system competing for these scarce resources in a semi-arid zone, there is potential for conflict and also reduced production and overall benefits to the different actors in the study area.
Mon, 10 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 789| View: 719| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Brazil, agrarian reform policy, land less movement, rural social movements.
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:49:04 CEST)
In Brazil, during the four last administrations of Worker’s Party (PT) 2003-2015, the support to the agrarian reform seems to have stagnated, even with the influence of landless workers' movements. Thus in 2016, the impeachment President Dilma Roussef have marked a brutal stop in the agrarian reform process. How to explain that which seems at first to be a contradiction and has become a decadence of an important federal public policy?. Furthermore, how can we evaluate the debates within Brazilian society and the federal government on this theme? The article analyzes the tensions, debates, advances and impasses of the past fifteen years of agrarian reform policy in Brazil looking at the interaction between social movements and public policies. The method associates bibliography, official statistic synthesis and research results in Northeast, Amazônia and Cerrado regions among several projects. The first part results put on evidence the crescent reduction of agrarian reform settlements and beneficiary families since 2006. The second part presents the main reasons offering an analysis of government and society debates in Brazil about land reform. The analysis conclude to the less of power and representation in the society of the pro agrarian reform large and popular coalition.
Tue, 4 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 836| View: 792| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0015.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: electrical-thermal two-way coupling; flux-switching permanent magnet motor; thermal analysis; permanent magnet material characteristics
Online: 4 April 2017 (08:38:40 CEST)
Flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motors have gained increasing attention in the electric vehicles (EVs) applications due to the advantages of high power density, high efficiency. However, the heat sources of both permanent magnet (PM) and armature winding are located on the limited stator space in the FSPM motors, which may result in the PM overheated and irreversible demagnetization caused by temperature rise and it is often ignored in the conventional thermal analysis. In this paper, a new electrical-thermal two-way coupling design method is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic performances, where the change of PM material characteristics under different temperatures is taken into consideration. Firstly, the motor topology and design equations are introduced. Secondly, the demagnetization curves of PM materials under different temperatures are modeled due to PM materials are sensitive to the temperature. And based on the electrical-thermal two-way coupling method, the motor performances are evaluated in details, such as the load PM flux linkage and output torque. Then, the motor is optimized, and the electromagnetic performances between initial and improved motors are compared. Finally, a prototype motor is manufactured, and the results are validated by experimental measurements.