ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0377.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: scientific community; Feyerabend; parrhesia
Online: 19 January 2021 (12:36:04 CET)
The scientific community of the XX and XXI centuries is a very large companionship, very fragmented and spread all over the world. Moreover, the status of the scientist, which in most cases is a member of the States’ apparati, is significantly different with respect to the one of the scientists up to the First World War.The concepts of scientific revolution of Thomas Kuhn and scientific anarchy of Paul Feyerabend should be reconsidered in this contest. In particular, the anarchist modus operandi should be shifted from the scientific method, that has become significantly standardized with protocols, to the sociology of the scientific community. A pluralism of the scientific method is possible, but an anarchy in the relationships among scientists emerges as more important. The scientist is in many cases a parrhesiastes, a person that says the truth even when he is going to pay because of that, that defends the developed theory or model, by respecting the protocols established in the scientific community. On the other side, each scientist should be a patient beholder that accepts the more solid, and intersubjectively recognized, theories of other scientists.
Wed, 13 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
Mon, 11 January 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0206.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: urban green spaces; cancer; risk factors; contributing factors; scoping review
Online: 11 January 2021 (17:47:23 CET)
This scoping study aims to explore the relationships between urban green spaces (UGSs) and cancer. We followed the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (protocol published in 2018). Eligibility criteria for papers were: 1) to be concerned with UGSs, 2) reporting effects of UGSs on cancer-related outcomes including direct or indirect measures, 3) reporting randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case studies, observational studies, non-comparative studies, 4) in English or French. The search covered primary studies in the published and unpublished (grey) literatures searching by hand and electronic databases (MEDLINE, Green File, CINAHL and ScienceDirect). Among 1703 records screened by two reviewers independently, 29 were included for qualitative synthesis. We classify the cancers concerned and the effects reported i.e. protective effect, risk or without association. The most investigated cancers are bladder, breast and lung cancer. Our study also identified contributing factors and their mediating effects between UGSs and cancer. Results highlight the wide variety of possible mediating factors between the use of green spaces and cancer occurrence, remission and/or prevention. Knowledge gaps and future research perspectives should be oriented to qualitative research on protective factors, the role of mental health in recovering from cancer and health inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0174.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Hindu Temples; Sacred landscape; Bhaishnavism; Conservation; Architectural Documentation
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:57:50 CET)
This article represents survey data of historical and architectural documentation of Sri Radha Binod Ashrama locally known as the Panishail temple. Temple architecture is a common feature of traditional religious architecture practice in Bangladesh. This article is a historical and architectural investigation of a less known and mixed type of Hindu temple style in the Bengal region. The Panishail temple complex has a collection of structures that include tomb, temples, and residences aged between fifty to two hundred years. Over the ages, these heritage buildings have displayed a unique architectural style of ancient Bengal and still serving as a living sacred landscape heritage. However, like most of the ancient monuments of Bangladesh, Panishail structures inside this complex stand against the threat of decay and anthropogenic destruction with no effort to conserve them. There is a need for immediate action of research, exploration and preservation to save this historic landmark. This research aims to investigate historic and physical features of the temple complex through a systematic survey and documentation effort. This research will lay a foundation for future conservation intervention on this site. Moreover, this work will significantly contribute to historic temple architecture study in Bangladesh.
Mon, 4 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0016.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: ancient; astronomy; cave; constellation; zoomorphic
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:30:41 CET)
Currently it was theoritized that cave paintings have meaning more than human and animal interactions. Based on an example from Lascaux cave, a figure of a bull is believed representing Taurus constellation together with the Pleiades. In here this study aims to assess the connections of paleolithic art works in the forms of cave paintings and zoomorphic figures resemble to bovid with possible ancient astronomy and constellation depictions in South East Asia. The study caves were Jeriji Saleh in Kalimantan and Leang Leang and Sumpang Bita caves in Sulawesi where ancient cave paintings and zoomorphic figures date to 40000 years old have been found. The results show that cave paintings in Jeriji Saleh, Leang Leang and Sumpang Bita caves were comparable to the current findings. Those paintings were having bovid like figures with Leang Leang has figure identified as extant Bubalus depressicornis. In Sumpang Bita, this species was depicted in pregnant condition similar to pregnant horse figure in Lascaux cave. Depiction of pregnant figures in cave paintings indicates the use of ancient calendar to determine season based on the animal mating season. Bovid figure in Jeriji Saleh was illustrated in the same posture like auroch bovid in Lascaux cave and this indicates that cave paintings in Jeriji Saleh have been used to visualize Taurus constellation. The postures of bovid paintings in Leang Leang were different and it is interpreted to visualize Capricorn constellation. Another significant similarity between Lascaux and Leang Leang caves can be seen in paintings depicting a shaft scene with the presences of 3 similar figures include dying man, speared bovid and small zoomorphic figures. This concludes that the caves with their wall painting were not merely functioned as media for ancient art works, whereas it has functioned as paleolithic planetarium and this knowledge was globally widespread.
Tue, 29 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0715.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: CPI; GDP; real estate; unemployment; VAR
Online: 29 December 2020 (08:26:12 CET)
This paper examines how housing prices are determined by macroeconomic factors in Saudi Arabia, namely, Gross Domestic Product Per capita (GDPP), Consumer Prices Index (CPI), and Unemployment Rate (UNEMP). Quarterly data for a period (2014q1 – 2019q4) were collected from publications of Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA). Vector Autoregression Analysis (VAR) is employed to capture the dynamic effect of the variables on housing prices. Granger Causality, Variance Decomposition and Impulse response function are also used. The results show that housing prices are insignificantly and positively related to GDPP, whereas it is negatively related to both (CPI & UNEMP). Only CPI has a significant relationship. The three variables, jointly, have Granger causality on HPI. Variance decompositions show that CPI is the variable with the highest explanatory power over the variation of housing prices, followed by GDPP and the UNEMP respectively indicating that CPI is the most influential determinants for housing prices.
Thu, 24 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0634.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Assistive Technology; Assistive devices; Students with disabilities; Decolonial Approach; South African Higher Education; Disability Staff members; learning; Enable and Constrain
Online: 24 December 2020 (14:46:01 CET)
This paper used the decolonial theory to analyse provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices at an institution of higher education in South African. It was an empirical study, in which data were collected through interviews with students with disabilities and the Disability Rights Centre staff members. The paper sought to understand the invisible hidden implications of provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices. The finding was that it is students with disabilities who were provided with Assistive Technology and assistive devices at the institution. The institution provided them through the Centre, to support their learning. However, this way of provision was found to be stigmatising and segregative. Furthermore, while the provision on one hand enabled students with disabilities’ learning, on the other, it constrained it. The argument of the paper is that when provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices is for a particular group of students it defeats the whole purpose for it is intended, and could hinder rather than promote learning. It is hoped that the paper will contribute to contemporary debate on provision of Assistive Technology and support services for people with disabilities in low resource settings, from a South African context specifically, and in higher education broadly.
Thu, 17 December 2020
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: creativity; ideation; architectural design studio; education; systematic review
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:58:29 CET)
Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practice in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into 5 key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
Mon, 14 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0348.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: time adverbs; degree quantifiers; scope particles; manner adverbs
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:52:24 CET)
The acquisition of adverbs in French as L2 (FSL) by learners with different L1s, at various levels of proficiency, has been extensively studied within various SLA projects (ESF, Interfra etc.). In the generativist tradition, it has been noted that “high category adverbs” such as those related to Mood-evaluative, Mood-epistemic and Tense are present early in FSL data. In the functionalist school, the early presence of time adverbs and scope particles in learner varieties has been analysed in relation with the informational and syntactic structures observed in these varieties and in terms of their contribution to temporal reference and other semantic domains in discourse.
Thu, 10 December 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
Wed, 9 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0216.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: ancient; canal; irrigation; Majapahit; NDVI; reservoir
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:54:59 CET)
Majapahit is one of vast kingdoms and civilizations in Southeast Asia in 14th century. The kingdom and its capital city are centered in present Trowulan suburban, east Java and bordered by mountain range in the south and river in the east and north. Regarding the geological condition then Majapahit kingdom has a challenge especially to provide the water managements for its agricultural practices. In here, this study aims to assess the hydrology systems developed by Majapahit civilizations and how this system is effective in maintaining vegetation health. Based on the results, the gravity-fed hydrology systems consist of networks involving river, dam, underground and surface water canal and reservoir pond. The water from upstream was managed using dams and channeled into streams and collected inside the ponds. This network spans approximately 10 km from the first dam to the last 6.49 Ha reservoir built in the middle of city. The water channeled from dam to reservoir pond was using natural streams and 2.4 km underground canal. This 40 cm depth man made canal was a water source for agricultural soils since it was used to irrigate the nearby paddy field. During past El Nino in 2019 that has caused prolong drought, the Majapahit irrigation system has provided water for the adjacent paddy field. Based on the vegetation health analysis measured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), paddy field watered by man made canal shows higher NDVI values or at least has same values compared to the field watered by contemporary canals. Then, the 14th century irrigation system developed by Majapahit civilization is a valuable heritage that needs to be preserved considering its important functions even in this contemporary era.
Tue, 8 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0196.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: framing; online discourse strategies; ethical behaviour; work-life blurred boundaries; effective teamwork; individual virtuousness; alignment
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:02:03 CET)
The present paper brings to the fore issues relating to the meaning and construction of ethics in online team communication by exploring the discursive strategies that contribute to the construction of a team’s sense of duty and individual virtuousness. The study relies on a complex toolkit which includes ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics, discourse and conversation analysis. Data consist in a one-day interaction unit as part of a larger set of real communication exchanges (ca. 34,000) over a time period of six months, observation notes, as well as unstructured interviews. Our empirical analysis has revealed that individual virtuousness and sense of duty are actually interrelated. A virtuous team climate leads team members to share positive perceptions about the team, which in turn increases team commitment. Furthermore, we argue that the blurring of private and professional life not only allows for the enactment of ethic-driven discourse strategies that result in enhanced cooperation and improved team performance but also for high levels of interconnectivity and improved social interaction. The results of the analysis supplement organisational literature based on ethics-centred observations on the effectiveness of virtual work, and show how a discourse-driven approach can provide tools for further theorisations about the practices and the ecology of digital communication.
Wed, 25 November 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0654.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: fertility; indigenous; NDVI; paddy; remote sensing
Online: 25 November 2020 (16:57:17 CET)
Paddy field is an old agriculture practice that very common especially in Asia. The earliest paddy field found dated back to 4330 BC. Most paddy fields in the world are having rectangular shapes. Whereas, in Flores island, indigenous people have developed a spider web or circular paddy field instead of regular rectangular shape and this driven by culture and local wisdom. In here, the objectives of this study are to assess the characteristic, ecology and fertility of circular paddy field compared to common rectangular shape. Fertility values were assessed using Landsat 8 remote sensing with RGB combination of NIR, SWIR 1 and blue. The study site was paddy field within Flores island. The result shows that spider web paddy field appeared in many sizes, number, altitude, ecosystem and terrain. Remote sensing result confirms that the fertility of circular paddy field is similar to the rectangular shape. Likewise, circular field has higher NDVI than rectangular field. Considering semiarid environment, limited labor and resources in Flores island, circular paddy field shape can allow the use of pivot irrigation that more efficient.
Mon, 23 November 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0570.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Environmental Communication; Environmental preservation; Folk media; Guna community
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:20:58 CET)
This study focused on the assessment of folk media aimed at Environmental Communication (EC) in the Guna Community and suggested the dominant Guna Community folk media for environmental communication and preservation to conserve Mount Guna. Guna Mount is the home of different biodiversity and the tower of water, but it is becoming degraded. Folk media are operative in environmental communication and preservation. They have the power to transmitted environmental messages that incorporate cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes with societal needs. Folk media are locally oriented, easily accessible, flexible, portable, inclusive, and relatively inexpensive. A qualitative research approach was employed for this research. Ethnographic research design, snowball, and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The researchers were gathered the data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and observation. For this survey, 16 FGDs, 45 individual in-depth interviews, and participant observation were employed. Guna community has unique and indigenous folk media that use as a source of entertainment, information, and education. Their folk music, songs, dances, campfire storytelling, traditional motifs, fairs, and festivals, and folk poems are the dominants. Using folk media for operative ecology preservation is vital in the form of EC that inspires and develops positive behavior in the community by educating about environmentalism in the method of facilitating environmental issues incorporating the latest message. Finally, we recommended some folk media for developmental activities that use inform of advocacy regarding recommended reasons
Fri, 13 November 2020
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0387.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: genetic music; genetic code; music composition; steam disciplines; notch1 gene
Online: 13 November 2020 (15:34:47 CET)
In the present work we present a methodology for teaching the basis of the genetic code through music composition, with the aim to combine science and arts learning. The project was carried out by 155 students, the so-called MARGA Consortium, with ages comprised between 10 and 17 years from different public schools located in the Principality of Asturias, Spain. The different groups generated 8 different music works using a short genetic sequence obtained from the human notch1 gene, receptor of mutations leading to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Tue, 27 October 2020
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Danwei; Danwei compound; urban neighbourhood; Pedestrian Shed; China
Online: 27 October 2020 (12:26:21 CET)
Danwei compounds, the previously dominant urban neighbourhood form in China, has experienced steady decline since the 1997 Reform. Existing researches suggest that Danwei compounds, which were characteristically walled neighbourhood of work and residence, has gradually changed. However, there is limited understanding on its current spatial function and relation to the city. Therefore, two questions were raised: how are Danwei compounds spatially distributed and how do they relate to the city in terms of commercial centres accessibility? These questions are engaged in a comparative manner by comparing the Danwei compounds with other residential sites. Conducted in old town of Hefei, this study was organised quantitatively using land-use maps, road networks, and the commercial distribution data. ArcGIS and IBM SPSS were used as software platforms, and methods such as pedestrian shed analysis and descriptive statistics were employed. The results show that Danwei compounds are still the primary neighbourhoods in the old town. They are also comparatively well spatially shaped and located with higher accessibility to commercial centres than non-Danwei residential sites. The paper concludes that Danwei compounds constitute an important component of the city’s spatial organisation and require particular planning and policy attention for their improvement and development towards liveable urban environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0548.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Gated Communities; Opening Scenarios; Accessibility Benefits; Evaluation; Shanghai
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:36:59 CET)
Opening gated-communities (GCs) has been widely discussed for urban inclusion and revitalization. With the policies of opening GCs being promoted in China, quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of the potential benefits is heavily needed. Taking Shanghai as an example, this study quantifies and analyzes the accessibility benefits and risks of opening GCs with factors including GC types, opening levels, travel modes, and travel destinations considered. We found that (1) opening GCs can bring 50m+ accessibility gains to 17% and 52% of the residents in Moderately Opening (MO) and Completely Opening (CO) scenarios, respectively. (2) Cycling benefits more than walking in all cases and scenarios. (3) For different GCs, conventional GCs have fewer benefits in MO but more in CO than the newly-established one. For different facilities, trips to bus stations demonstrate the largest accessibility gains. (4) The accessibility benefit of a residential building is highly determined by its closeness to the gates and relative location in the block. (5) Only 1% and 5-7% of external trips may penetrate the opened communities in MO and CO scenarios, respectively, which are far less than both expectation and the benefits. These findings precipitate at least two policy implications in China.
Wed, 14 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:18:17 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
Wed, 7 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0144.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Air pollution; environmental justice; chronic homelessness; unsheltered homelessness; marginalized populations; hidden populations
Online: 7 October 2020 (08:22:22 CEST)
Experiences of homelessness, although widely varied, are characterized by extensive time in public spaces, often outdoors. However, there has been little empirical research about the ways in which environmental factors affect individuals experiencing homelessness (IEHs). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use an environmental justice approach to understand how cardiopulmonary health of IEHs is affected by episodic poor air quality in Salt Lake County. It was hypothesized that people who had experienced unsheltered homelessness and those who had been experiencing homelessness for longer periods of time would report greater health difficulties from poor air quality exposure. Through a combination of in-person semi-structured interviews with IEHs (n = 138) and access to corresponding state-based service provider databases, researchers examined both overall descriptives of and relationships between types (sheltered and unsheltered) and duration (chronic and non-chronic) of homelessness. More than 61% of IEHs reported physical reactions to air pollution, 37% reported air pollution-related emotional stress, and more than 89% had sought medical attention for a condition related to air pollution. Findings indicate that while IEHs report a number of health effects related to poor air quality, there were no significant differences between individuals based on either sheltered status or duration of their experiences of homelessness. This study provides an initial empirical inquiry to understand how environmental disamenities negatively influence IEHs, as well as noting that sheltered status and duration of homelessness are less impactful than originally hypothesized.
Sun, 13 September 2020
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Flyback; LED; Flicker; Light-Emmitting-Diode; Taylor Series
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:39:24 CEST)
The present study analyzed light emitting diodes (LEDs) as an output load and used a Taylor series to describe the characteristic curve based on the exponential characteristic of voltage and current. A prototype circuit of a flyback LED driver system was established to verify whether the theory is consistent with actual results. This study focused on the exponential relationship of LED voltage and current. Conventional simulations usually used linear models to present LED loads. However, the linear model resulted in considerable error between simulation and actual characteristics. Therefore, this study employed a Taylor series to describe the nonlinear characteristic of an LED load. Through precise calculations with Mathcad computation software, the error was effectively reduced. Moreover, the process clarified the influence of temperature on LEDs, which benefited the characteristic analysis of the entire system. Finally, a realized circuit of 120-W flyback LED drivers was established for conducting theory verification, including theoretic analysis and evaluation of the system design process of the flyback converter. The circuit simulation software SIMPLIS was used to demonstrate the system model, which enabled quick understanding of the system framework established in this study. Regarding LEDs, a commercially available aluminum luminaire was used as the output load. The measured results of the actual circuit and the simulation results were remarkably consistent. For the same system at the same temperature, the error between the simulation and actual results was less than 3%, which proved the reliability of the Taylor series simulation.
Tue, 1 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0010.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: urban sanitation; sewerage network; sewerage connection; low-income community; slum; DSIP; affordability; feasibility; Dhaka; Bangladesh
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:36:01 CEST)
Globally, 2.2 billion urban residents are living without safely-managed sanitation, the majority of whom are slum residents. To improve the situation, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is implementing the Dhaka Sanitation Improvement Project (DSIP), mostly funded by the World Bank. This study assessed the feasibility of connecting low-income communities (LICs) within the proposed sewerage network by 2025. We conducted nine key-informant interviews from DWASA and City Corporation, and 23 focus-group discussions with landlords, tenants and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) from 16 LICs near the proposed catchment area. To achieve connections, LICs would require improved toilet infrastructures and have to be connected to main roads. Construction of large communal septic tanks is also required where individual toilet connections are difficult. To encourage connection in LICs, income-based or area-based subsidies were recommended. For financing maintenance, respondents suggested monthly fee collection for management of the infrastructure by dividing bill equally among sharing households, or by users per household. Participants also suggested the government's cooperation with development-partners/NGOs to ensure sewerage connection construction, operation and maintenance and prerequisite policy changes such as assuring land tenure.
Wed, 13 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0224.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Marx; Theses on Feuerbach; Indigenous Paradigm; decolonising methodology; Hegel; Linda Smith
Online: 13 May 2020 (05:27:33 CEST)
This article aims to reflect upon the relevance of Decolonization methodologies with the Theses on Feuerbach. Somehow, all the Indigenous scholars started from new Marxist like Paulo Freire, Frantz Fanon, but not from classic Marx. To us, the German Ideology of young Marx only resembles the pioneering sources of Indigenous methodology. This discussion is thus a reflection of our studies and a philosophic endeavor to talk about the marginal people of the world, and the scholars who engaged in and with the oppressed. However, we are not prepared to turn our attention away from all the vastness of Marx to a collection of potentially equally relevant to Indigenous methodology. This article concludes that the Theses on Feuerbach is the core of Marxist archaeology of knowledge or philosophy as a whole and has been wading in the Indigenous paradigm.
Thu, 9 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0141.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: conservation; biodiversity; human rights; livelihood; forest-dependent community; impact
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
Background and Research Highlights: Despite all the concerns and initiatives, natural resources like forests, as well as biodiversity are decreasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Conservation is considered as one of the major tools to prevent such loss and rapid degradation. Evidence around the world shows the adverse effects of conservation laws and policies on indigenous peoples and other local communities. Objectives: This study was conducted in one of the forest-dependent communities situated in Sundarban (world’s largest mangrove forest) to understand the impact of conservation laws and policies on their livelihood. Materials and Methods: A qualitative methodology was designed to collect data, using focus group discussions and case study with community people, and individual interviews with the personnel from NGOs and relevant government departments. Findings: Strict conservation policies and restrictions in accessing forest resources made lives and livelihoods of the local community insecure and unstable, thus putting the community in a vulnerable situation. The had to leave their traditional mode of income and look for alternative livelihood options. Almost no evidence was found in relation to upkeeping their rights in conservation activities. Prohibited movement, provision of punishment for entering into the forest without proper permission and struggles in everyday life were some of the highlighted issues. They had no participation in conservation activities, management of alternative livelihood options, and even they were not sensitized before putting restrictions. Although they had a history of emotional and physical attachment with the forest, existing activities did not consider these issues. In addition, corruption and abuse of power by law enforcement agencies towards the local community intensified the sufferings. Conclusion: This study argues that the realization of human rights in conservation activities and the sensitization of the implementing stakeholders are prerequisites for ensuring the sustainability of both biodiversity and the affected people.
Tue, 17 September 2019
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: wildfire; governance; Anthropocene; elemental; geography; anthropology
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:00:36 CEST)
Views of fire in the contemporary physical sciences arguably accord with Heraclitus’ proposal that ‘all things are an exchange for fire, and fire for all things, as goods for gold and gold for goods.’ Fire is a media, as John Durham Peters has stated, a species of transformative biochemical reactions between the flammable gases found in air, such as oxygen, and those found in fuels, such as plants. Inspired by an ignition source, these materials react and transform themselves and their surrounds into light and heat energy, carbon dioxide, water vapour, char and much else besides. Fire is conjunctural, durational and transformative. Fire is a dialectician, at once consuming living and dead organic matter and providing both the space and ingredients for new and renewed organic life. In this article, we consider the diverse ways in which fire is today framed as a social problem, an ecological process, an ancient tool, a natural disaster, a source of economic wealth and much more. In this way, we seek to explore the value and limits of ‘elemental thinking’ in relation to the planetary predicaments described by ‘the Anthropocene’.
Wed, 20 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
Thu, 13 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0158.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: monster of troy; archaeology; Corinthian vase; fossil; Samotherium
Online: 13 December 2018 (06:47:37 CET)
It has been proposed that the Monster of Troy, depicted in a 6th Century BC Corinthian vase, is the earliest artistic record of a vertebrate fossil, possibly a Miocene giraffe (Samotherium sp.). I analyzed the giraffe hypothesis under four approaches: a double-blind random design in which 78 biologists compared the vase skull with Samotherium and several reptiles; an informed survey of 30 students who critically assessed the hypothesis; a computerized image comparison; and a morphological comparison. All of them rejected the giraffe hypothesis. Eye and teeth types unambiguously discard a fossil or living mammal as the model, which more probably was an extant carnivorous reptile.
Wed, 13 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0222.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Funerary Art, Social Identities and Stratification, Torajan Communities, Indonesia.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:52:48 CEST)
Since very few empirical endeavors have looked into statue and funerary art that represents social identities, this study aims to fill this gap. The research article aims to portray social status from the funeral arts, traditions and rituals. This longitudinal case study used interviews and a series of observations. The finding reveals that each funerary art represents particular class of noble families. Every funerary art also depicts specific insightful meaning for their noble families. The process of ritual and funeral ceremony is performed according to each status of noble families. This paper also describes the implication of the funerary art in social and cultural interactions.
Thu, 24 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0352.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: folklore, ethnographic study, Indian tribes, myths, social anthropology, Gujarat
Online: 24 May 2018 (14:25:07 CEST)
The focus of this ethnographic expedition is to study the folklore and traditions amongst the existing tribal populations of Barumal village in southern Gujarat, India. The fieldwork revolves around cultural and socio-economic aspects of their livelihood and this paper encompasses the knowledge from one such lens out of many. It tries to identify the importance of mythology and its roots. The data collected from three different population groups are Varlis, Kukanas, Dhodiya Patels that are set within the caste system based hierarchy inhabiting in the same region. The interview method was employed throughout with open-ended questions. The varied customs and traditions appearing in their lifestyle, occupation, and festivals are always associated with one god or another. The key informants felt the need to distinguish the history of their own tribe from the others by taking the help of myths passed down from their ancestors. Most of the key informants were mature adults including both males and females.
Mon, 21 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0275.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: An anthropological study; Agro-industrial food system; Institutional settings; formal and informal institutions; common pool resources
Online: 21 May 2018 (12:59:07 CEST)
Agriculture is the backbone of Kenya’s economy, supporting up to 80% of the rural livelihoods. Kenya’s export horticulture is currently the leading Agriculture subsector in Kenya has evolved from small-holder farming to agro-industrial large-scale export farming dominated by multinational companies. It is regarded as an agro-industrial food system based on the economies of scale producing for mass markets outside of the production area. Much of the food consumed from this food system has undergone multiple transformations and been subject to a host of formal and informal insitutions (rules, regulations, standards, norms and values). An Anthropological study of export horticulture in Northwest Mount Kenya was carried out utilizing qualitative data collection methods in Northwest Mount Kenya region. Data was coded and analysed thematically based on grounded theory approach. The study described the institutional settings of export horticulture from an emic perspective as changing and defining the operations of the food system access and management of common pool resources, namely water and land. With the agro-industrial food system competing for these scarce resources in a semi-arid zone, there is potential for conflict and also reduced production and overall benefits to the different actors in the study area.
Mon, 10 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Brazil, agrarian reform policy, land less movement, rural social movements.
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:49:04 CEST)
In Brazil, during the four last administrations of Worker’s Party (PT) 2003-2015, the support to the agrarian reform seems to have stagnated, even with the influence of landless workers' movements. Thus in 2016, the impeachment President Dilma Roussef have marked a brutal stop in the agrarian reform process. How to explain that which seems at first to be a contradiction and has become a decadence of an important federal public policy?. Furthermore, how can we evaluate the debates within Brazilian society and the federal government on this theme? The article analyzes the tensions, debates, advances and impasses of the past fifteen years of agrarian reform policy in Brazil looking at the interaction between social movements and public policies. The method associates bibliography, official statistic synthesis and research results in Northeast, Amazônia and Cerrado regions among several projects. The first part results put on evidence the crescent reduction of agrarian reform settlements and beneficiary families since 2006. The second part presents the main reasons offering an analysis of government and society debates in Brazil about land reform. The analysis conclude to the less of power and representation in the society of the pro agrarian reform large and popular coalition.
Tue, 4 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0015.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: electrical-thermal two-way coupling; flux-switching permanent magnet motor; thermal analysis; permanent magnet material characteristics
Online: 4 April 2017 (08:38:40 CEST)
Flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motors have gained increasing attention in the electric vehicles (EVs) applications due to the advantages of high power density, high efficiency. However, the heat sources of both permanent magnet (PM) and armature winding are located on the limited stator space in the FSPM motors, which may result in the PM overheated and irreversible demagnetization caused by temperature rise and it is often ignored in the conventional thermal analysis. In this paper, a new electrical-thermal two-way coupling design method is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic performances, where the change of PM material characteristics under different temperatures is taken into consideration. Firstly, the motor topology and design equations are introduced. Secondly, the demagnetization curves of PM materials under different temperatures are modeled due to PM materials are sensitive to the temperature. And based on the electrical-thermal two-way coupling method, the motor performances are evaluated in details, such as the load PM flux linkage and output torque. Then, the motor is optimized, and the electromagnetic performances between initial and improved motors are compared. Finally, a prototype motor is manufactured, and the results are validated by experimental measurements.
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