ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Chia lagoon, Water resources, willingness to pay (WTP), Malawi
Online: 4 April 2019 (11:30:21 CEST)
(1) Background: Water resources at Chia lagoon experience possible threat to its sustainability. Communities are seeking alternatives to improve water quality at the lagoon. The study evaluated the extent at which local communities are WTP to improve water quality at Chia lagoon and the influencing factors. (2) Methods: A study was conducted at Chia lagoon, Western Part of Lake Malawi from November, 2015 to March, 2016. Wide range of data collection approaches such as household surveys, exploratory surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and field observation were employed. A sample of 240 households were selected randomly. Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors influence WTP. (3) Results: Out of 240 respondents, 57.4% expressed WTP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05) relationship between demographic (Gender, age, literacy level), social-economic (Land ownership, main agriculture water source and income) and institution (civic education and social network, extension, water user rights) factors and WTP. (4) Conclusion: The findings from this study provide significant clues for further research and baseline information for local government and local communities in development of more effective and holistic approaches to improve water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: consumer preferences; red meat; food consumption; discrete choice experiment (DCE); willingness to pay (WTP); random utility model
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:52:41 CET)
Food consumption in Europe is changing. Red meat consumption has been steadily decreasing in the past decades. The rising interest of consumers for healthier and more sustainable meat products provide red meat producers with the opportunity to differentiate their offers by ecolabels, origin and health claims. This international study analyses the European consumer preferences for red meat (beef, lamb and goat) in seven countries: Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Through a choice experiment, 2.900 responses were collected. Mixed multinomial logit models were estimated to identify heterogeneous preferences among consumers at the country level. Results indicate substantial differences between the most relevant attributes for the average consumers, as well as their willingness to pay for them in each country. Nevertheless, national origin and organic labels were highly valued in most countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0279.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: contingent valuation method; open water body development; valuation of ecosystem; willingness to pay
Online: 30 January 2018 (06:53:16 CET)
Revitalization of open water bodies into recreational areas are becoming widely popular in many parts of Sri Lanka. Understanding community perception and expectation on recreational development have important policy and cost-effectiveness implications. This paper explores the public perspectives on development, conservation and value of the open water recreational development at Diyatha Uyana and surrounding area. Contingent Valuation Method has been applied to estimate peoples’ Willingness To Pay for recreational spaces in the selected area. A total of 300 residents from different socioeconomic backgrounds were selected randomly for the study. Enjoying peace and relaxation, taking children to play and breath clean air were mentioned as most important aspects of open water body areas. More frequent visits occur to enjoy peace and relaxation, breath clean air and enjoy the natural landscape. Almost all the participants were agreed upon conserving open water body areas in urban settings. Willingness to pay was significantly associated with income and occupation status. It yielded a monthly average payment of Rs.446.93 per household for another five years’ time. The limited budget was the main reason for not willing to pay. This paper is significant as there is no contingent valuation method study has been carried on water body development in Sri Lanka.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0256.v1
Subject: Keywords: double-bounded dichotomous-choice; willingness to pay; water quality improvement; handicraft households
Online: 22 September 2019 (16:06:56 CEST)
This study used double-bounded dichotomous-choice to estimate and analyze the factors affecting households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for water quality improvement. This study notes that households with higher income, living near polluted water source, using tap water instead of natural water, who are handicraft producers, and who have more members are willing to pay more. However, households who rarely hear about environmental pollution issues and who are offered a higher bid are more likely to refuse to pay. Solutions to improve water quality are suggested such as to raise people's awareness through communication channels and social organizations; to increase income associated with environmental protection policies; to construct wastewater treatment plants; to encourage the relocation of production establishments to industrial parks and industrial complexes; to put regulations on collection, payment and sanctions in case of not declaring and paying fees into village conventions; to promulgate circulars, and bylaws to concretize and simplify regulations and policies of the Government, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0230.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: plastic; bio-based plastic; willingness to pay; attitudes; recycling
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:54:11 CET)
Fossil-based plastics are significant contributors to global warming through CO2 emissions. For more sustainable alternatives to be successful, it is important to ensure that consumers become aware of the benefits of innovations such as bio-based plastics, in order to create demand and a willingness to initially pay more. Given that consumer attitudes and (inaccurate) beliefs can influence the uptake such new technologies, we investigated participants’ attitudes towards fossil-based and bio-based plastic, their perceived importance of recycling both types of plastic, their willingness to pay, and their perceptions of bio-based plastic in four studies (total N = 961). The pre-registered fourth study experimentally manipulated information about bio-based plastic and measured willingness to pay for different types of plastic. The results suggest participants hold very favourable attitudes and are willing to pay more for bio-based products. However, they also harbour misconceptions, especially overestimating bio-based plastic’s biodegradability, and they find it less important to recycle bio-based than fossil-based plastic. Study 4 provided evidence that educating consumers about the properties of bio-based plastic can dispel misconceptions, retain a favourable attitude and a high willingness to pay. We found mixed evidence for the effect of attitudes on willingness to pay, suggesting other psychological factors may also play a role. We discuss how attitudes and misconceptions affect the uptake of new sustainable technologies such as bio-based plastics and consumers’ willingness to purchase them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Monkeypox vaccine; vaccine willingness; healthcare workers
Online: 29 December 2022 (14:35:18 CET)
Early experience with Covid-19 shows that vaccines can be the most effective way of preventing the spread of infection. However, vaccine hesitancy is among the most significant hurdles in preventing the spread of novel infections. Monkeypox (MPX) has already been declared a global health emergency by WHO. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the MPX vaccine willingness in various population groups. In this cross-sectional study, an online survey was conducted among Saudi healthcare workers (HCWs) to understand the monkeypox vaccine willingness in healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. Saudi has already confirmed multiple MPX cases, and thus it is essential to initiate timely protective measures, including vaccination. The study had 743 respondents. The study found that among Saudi HCWs, 52.7% were willing to receive the MPX vaccine. The study found that sociodemographic factors had a small impact on vaccine willingness. However, early experience with vaccination had a significant impact. Thus, more than 70% who had influenza or COVID-19 vaccine were willing to receive the MPX vaccine. Some of the most significant concerns influencing vaccine acceptability were the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Hence, it is strongly recommended to focus on disseminating information regarding the safety and efficacy of the MPX vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0089.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: EVs; PHEVs; penetration; adoption; barriers; preference; willingness; attitude
Online: 26 February 2017 (10:33:14 CET)
China planned to promote the large-scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the thirteenth five-year plan, however, this target faces many obstacles. This paper was trying to analyze the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs through a survey in Shenzhen, which has the biggest EVs market share in China major cities. Based on previous scholarly findings, this paper conducted a new study which collected 406 approved questionnaires among 500 participants. The study proposed five hypotheses to examine the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs. The analysis conducted by statistical methods: two-way frequency tables, chi-square test, and factor analysis. The results noted that perception of EVs advantages and recharging access remained the main barriers to EVs large-scale penetration. Besides, financial incentives drop would not cause a significant decline of EVs adoption in future. The study proposed suggestions to carmaker and government policy administrator on the analysis and discussion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0349.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: forest certification; willingness to accept; compensation; landowners; timber price increase
Online: 17 August 2020 (04:22:23 CEST)
Achieving sustainable management of forests in China is becoming increasingly important with more awareness and realization of the importance of forests in environmental protection. Forest certification, a market-based instrument to promote sustainable forest management, has been recognized by many countries including China. While landowners’ perception and perspective regarding this voluntary program have been well-documented in literature, how to motivate and incentivize landowners to participate in forest certification remained under-studied questions. With the face-to-face survey of landowners in Shandong, China, this study analyzed landowners’ willingness to accept compensation for participating in forest certification. Results indicated that landowners average accepted compensation, in terms of increased timber price, was about RMB120 (~$17.2)/m3 to have their forests certified. Results from multiple regression showed that the level of such compensation required for certification adoption was influenced by ownership size, owners’ demographics, certification program requirements, as well as importance placed on timber sale. These findings would inform policy-makers in designing compensation-related polices and establish incentive-based mechanisms to motivate landowners participate in forest certification programs in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: second COVID-19 booster; vaccination; COVID-19; willingness; predictors; general population
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:07:07 CEST)
Given the concerns of waning immunity from the primary COVID-19 vaccines and the first booster dose, we conducted an on-line cross-sectional study in May 2022 to investigate willingness to receive a second COVID-19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors. Overall, 22.7% of participants were willing to be vaccinated, 39.3% were unsure, but tend to be willing, 25.8% were unsure, 4.9% were unsure, but tend to be unwilling, and 7.4% were unwilling to be vaccinated. The main reasons against accepting a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine COVID-19 dose included concerns about the side effects, the opinion that further vaccination is unnecessary, and effectiveness uncertainties. Males, younger individuals, participants without a previous COVID-19 diagnosis, and those with good/very good self-perceived physical health were significantly more frequently willing to receive a second COVID‐19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine. Also, increased fear of the COVID-19, increased trust in COVID-19 vaccination and decreased fear of a second booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine were associated with increased willingness. Our results show some hesitancy and unwillingness toward further COVID-19 vaccination and indicate that fear of COVID-19 and trust in COVID-19 vaccination affect public opinion
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainability; farmers’ markets; choice experiment; consumers; willingness to pay
Online: 6 August 2016 (08:12:57 CEST)
Sustainable food consumption has attracted a widespread attention during last decades by scholars, policy makers and consumers. In line with this, farmers’ markets (FMs) have the potential to encourage sustainable agricultural production and consumption. By reducing the number of actors and distances along the food chain, these alternative food systems foster the reconnection between farmers and consumers and contribute to different social, economic and environmental sustainable goals. This paper provides insights on the role of consumers' sustainability concerns related to their motivation for shopping at FMs. By means of a choice experiment, we analyze the determinants of consumers’ WTP for buying apples at FMs. We are particularly interested in understanding how attitudes towards the three sustainability dimensions are related to consumer preferences in this context. We find that consumer attitudes towards direct contact with producers, contributing to farmers’ income, and environmental benefits can be directly related to product characteristics that are specific to FMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0702.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine acceptance; vaccine willingness; vaccine hesitancy; quantitative; online survey; Philippines
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:12:47 CEST)
With COVID-19 vaccines slowly being rolled out in many countries, it is important to understand the public’s acceptance of being vaccinated. This study aims to study the willingness and motivations among residents of the cities of Caloocan, Malabon, and Navotas, Philippines to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Based on an online survey of 137 respondents, who willingly participated in the study, 71% will take a COVID-19 vaccine if it becomes available, with similar rates among respondents from Caloocan (82%), Malabon (83 %), and Navotas (81%). If a vaccine is proven safe and effective, more respondents (82%) will take a COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, safety against COVID-19 as well as the safety and effectiveness of vaccines are the primary factors why respondents are willing or unwilling to get a vaccine. The results highlight the need for effective messaging that promotes COVID-19 vaccination, with emphasis on the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, and its benefits to the public, especially that the vaccines that will be delivered in the country in the next few months are not the most preferred brands by the respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: contigent valuvation; Black Twin Lake of Abdanan; Recreational Value; Willingness to Pay; Logit Model
Online: 3 August 2021 (14:47:59 CEST)
As one of the unique destinations in Iran, Abdanan Black Twin Lake attracts many tourists yearly. Among striking features is the presence of minerals, boiling springs, and its beautiful landscape. Human beings are willing to spend money on such natural resources. An economic valuation can be interfered constructively and positively in improving environmental policies. So, quantifying these benefits is of the utmost importance. The paper mainly estimated the tourists' willingness to pay and their recreational value using the contingent valuation method. Random sampling was conducted on 384 people using the two-dimensional double-choice questionnaire in spring 2019. In the Twin Lake Recreational Value Questionnaire, the main questions were devoted to the visitors' willingness to pay, with three bids of 0.07 $, 0.14 $, and 0.22$. Among 384 respondents, 304 (79%) were willing to pay for recreational use of the lake, and 80 respondents (21%) were not. The likelihood, the model's parameters were estimated. The findings indicated the average tourists' willingness to pay for recreational value was estimated at 0.09$ per visit and the recreational value of this lake for each household was estimated at 0.40$. The findings revealed the effect of education, household income, household size and tourists' willingness to pay was significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: spatial Durbin model; local polynomial regression; YIMBY facilities; NIMBY facilities; willingness to pay; total benefit
Online: 8 March 2021 (16:02:31 CET)
This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the benefit of urban open spaces and cropland with different adjacent public facilities seen as locally undesirable (“not in my backyard,” NIMBY) or desirable (“yes in my backyard,” YIMBY). The total benefit increases or decreases for urban open space and cropland with adjacent NIMBY or YIMBY facilities in a municipality in Taiwan. The results show that for the city as a whole, the current arrangement of NIMBY and YIMBY in different zones decreases the total benefit of urban open spaces in highly urbanized zones and increases the total damage to cropland in extremely rural zones. This indicates a need to avoid further installing NIMBY or YIMBY facilities in already occupied urban open spaces. The results also demonstrate that locating NIMBY or YIMBY facilities near cropland fails to highlight the benefit of YIMBY facilities and magnifies opposition to NIMBY facilities. For individual housing units, the total damage is 1.87% of the average housing price for cropland-type open space with adjacent NIMBY or YIMBY facilities, and the total benefit is 7.43% of the average housing price for urban-type open space in a highly urbanized area. In contrast, the total benefit for open space with adjacent NIMBY or YIMBY facilities is a 2.95%-13.80% increase in the average housing price for areas with mixed urban open space and cropland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0537.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: emotion; commitment; brand loyalty; willingness to pay more; coffee quality; service quality; physical environment quality; price fairness
Online: 23 October 2018 (11:58:03 CEST)
: Following the phenomenal growth of and competition among coffee chain retailers, the coffee chain market has expanded substantially thanks to rising income levels, the increasing young population, and rapidly changing lifestyles. Attracting consumers’ attention and enhancing their loyalty behaviors have become very difficult for coffee chain retailers. This study seeks to understand the mechanisms through which emotions and the dedication-constraint model lead to brand loyalty and willingness to pay more to certain coffee chain retailers. Emotions and the dedication-constraint model are major factors in the research, but few studies have combined them to examine the formation of loyalty behaviors. This study synthesizes emotional responses and the dedication-constraint model to develop a theoretical model. Based on the ambivalent view of emotions, it also examines how positive and negative emotions affect the combination of brand loyalty and willingness to pay more to certain coffee chain retailers. Moreover, it identifies the antecedents of affective and calculative commitments in the context of coffee chain retailers. Our findings indicate that loyalty behaviors (dedication- and constraint-based mechanisms from brand loyalty and willingness to pay more to certain coffee chain retailers), emotional responses, and affective and calculative commitments significantly affect brand loyalty directly and indirectly through both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, service quality, physical environment quality, and price fairness significantly affect affective commitments, while price fairness significantly affects both affective and calculative commitments. Finally, affective and calculative commitments significantly affect willingness to pay more, both directly and indirectly, through positive emotions and affect it directly through negative emotions. The results’ theoretical and managerial implications and possible future research directions are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0345.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: travel cost method (TCM); contingent valuation (CV); consumer surplus (CS); willingness to pay (WTP); endogenous stratification; springs
Online: 20 August 2018 (05:37:01 CEST)
Fresh water springs are unique natural resources in Florida, currently under threat from increasing groundwater pumping and pollution resulting from a variety of sources. This paper estimates current recreation benefits from visiting springs using the travel cost method and elicits residents’ willingness to contribute for springs restoration using the contingent valuation method. It further compares the performance of count data models correcting for endogenous stratification and truncation, and finds that the annual consumer surplus per person per trip is between $20 and $43. Furthermore, visitors are willing to contribute $12 to $14 per person per trip for springs restoration without reducing trip demand.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: new plant engineering techniques (NPETs); new breeding techniques (NBTs); genome editing; gene editing; cisgenic; willingness to pay (WTP)
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:55:10 CEST)
We follow the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews to review the emerging international body of empirical evidence on consumers’ attitudes and willingness to pay (WTP) for novel foods produced with New Plant Engineering Techniques (NPETs). NPETs include genome/gene editing, cisgenesis, intragenesis, RNA interference and others. These novel foods are often beneficial for the environment and human health and more sustainable under increasingly prevalent climate extremes. These techniques can also improve animal welfare and disease resistance when applied to animals. Despite these promising attributes, evidence suggests that many, but not all, consumers discount these novel foods relative to conventional ones. Our review sorts out findings to identify conditioning factors that can increase the acceptance of and WTP for these novel foods in a significant segment of consumers. International patterns of acceptance are identified. We also analyze how information and knowledge interact with consumer acceptance of these novel foods and technologies. Heterogeneity of consumers—across cultures and borders and in attitudes towards science and innovation—emerges as a key determinant of acceptance and WTP. Acceptance and WTP tend to increase when socially beneficial attributes—as opposed to producer-oriented cost-saving attributes—are generated by NPETs. NPET-improved foods are systematically less discounted than transgenic foods. Most of the valuation estimates are based on hypothetical experiments and surveys and await validation through revealed preferences in actual purchases in food retailing environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: pollination value; native bees; economics; production function; willingness to pay; contingent valuation; stated preference; wild blueberry; cranberry; survey
Online: 3 July 2018 (06:33:59 CEST)
Recent pollinator declines have focused efforts on their conservation which require clear estimates of pollination value to agriculture. Our socio-economic producer surveys and agronomic field research data were used to present a new way of estimating ecosystem service value of native pollinators. Using two regionally important U.S.A. crops, Maine wild blueberry and Massachusetts cranberry as models, we present perceived values of native bee pollinators from both consumer and producers. Wild blueberry’s Replacement Cost (RC) was greater than Attributable Net Income (ANI), since greater rented honey bee stocking densities are required. Attributable Net Income for native bees were similar for wild blueberry ($613/ha) and cranberry ($689/ha). Marginal Net Farm Income (MNFI) from incrementally adding more hives per ha was greater from stocking a third/fourth hive per ha for cranberry ($6,206) than stocking a ninth/tenth hive per ha for wild blueberry ($556), given greater responsiveness of yield, revenue, and profit to using rented honey bee hives in cranberry compared to wild blueberry. Both crops’ producers were only willing to annually invest $140–188/ha in native pollination enhancements on their farms, justifying government support. Consumers are willing to pay ~6.7 times more to support native bees than producers, supporting market-based support for invertebrate conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0006.v1
Subject: Keywords: Water Framework Directive; ecological and microbiological water quality; choice experiment; willingness to pay for river water quality; conditional logit; latent class analysis; nonmarket benefits
Online: 3 August 2017 (05:52:45 CEST)
One important motivation for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive is the creation of non-market environmental benefits such as improved ecological quality, or greater opportunities for open-access river recreation via microbial pollution remediation. Pollution sources impacting on ecological or recreational water quality can be uncorrelated but non-market benefits arising from riverine improvements are typically conflated within benefit valuation studies. Using stated preference choice experiments, we seek to disaggregate these sources of value for different river users, thereby allowing decision makers to understand the consequences of adopting alternative investment strategies. Our results suggest anglers derive greater value from improvements to the ecological quality of river water, in contrast to swimmers and rowers for whom greater value is gained from improvements to recreational quality. We also find three distinct groups of respondents: a majority preferring ecological over recreational improvements, a substantial minority holding opposing preference orderings and a small proportion expressing relatively low values for either form of river quality enhancement. As such, this research demonstrates that the non-market benefits which may accrue from different types of water quality improvements are nuanced in terms of their potential beneficiaries and, by inference, their overall value and policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0069.v1
Subject: Keywords: waste management; waste minimization; recycling; rural district municipalities; community residents; households; satisfaction levels; willingness to recycle; waste separation; municipal solid waste; benefits and barriers
Online: 25 July 2017 (05:14:07 CEST)
Whereas waste management research has focused on mostly urban municipalities in South Africa, not much is known about the current performance of waste management services from the perspective of community residents in rural municipalities. This study reports on the status and effectiveness of waste management practices from the perspective of community residents in the Umkhanyakude and Zululand Districts in the rural areas of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Making use of structured questionnaires, primary data was obtained by interviewing 333 respondents representing households in the study area. Results have revealed several shortfalls in the provision of municipal waste management services, except for solid waste removal from households (66%), and management of landfill sites (41%). The degree of dissatisfaction for waste management services rendered was very high (97.3%). Furthermore, the majority (61.4%) of respondents were not willing to participate in waste segregation due to lack of appropriate knowledge and infrastructure. The study also pinpointed some benefits associated with waste minimization, as well as barriers constraining effective waste recycling. Based on these findings, there is a dire need for transforming current waste management practices toward increased recycling rates by creating more environmental awareness and a supporting infrastructure.