ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0218.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cut flower; holding solution; pretreatment; transport; sucrose
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:39:57 CEST)
Vase life is one of the most important factors that determine the marketability of cut flowers and is greatly affected by the water balance. In recent years, cut hydrangea flowers are increasingly consumed as decorations for various events. However, the vase life of cut hydrangea flowers varies greatly depending on the postharvest solution management. Therefore, this study investigated the vase life, solution uptake, water balance, and relative fresh weight of freshly harvested hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Verena’) according to the three types of holding solutions (tap water, 1% chrysal professional Ⅲ (CPⅢ), 2% sucrose + 250 mg/L 8-hydroxquinoline + 100 mg/L citric acid (SHQC)) and the combination solutions (pretreatment; tap water, 0.1% chrysal RVB (RVB), floralife quickdip (FQ), transport; tap water, CPⅢ, floralife clear (FC), preservatives; CPⅢ, FC) for each distribution stage (pretreatment-transport-consumer). In the preservative comparison experiment, compared with the control, CPⅢ treatment and SHQC treatment significantly increased the vase life in 2019 (0.7 days, 3.4 days) and 2020 (1.4 days, 3.1 days), respectively. In the comparative experiment by solution combination, the group (RVB, FQ) using the pretreatment significantly extended the vase life by 4.6 days and 5.9 days compared to the tap water treatment. It was also determined that the same treatment increased overall solution uptake, maintained water balance longer, and increased relative fresh weight. These results confirm the importance of holding solutions and pretreatments, suggesting that appropriate pretreatments and preservatives should be used to improve the marketability of cut hydrangea flowers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: triglyceride; uric acid; glucose; fructose; sucrose; solid
Online: 20 January 2020 (09:43:11 CET)
Fructose in beverages has adverse effects on lipids, glucose and insulin sensitivity after acute and chronic ingestion. There is limited data showing that chronic consumption of fructose in solid foods has harmful effects. We hypothesized that a moderate amount of fructose compared with sucrose in solid food consumed for a month would not adversely influence fasting or postprandial lipids and glucose after an acute fat and carbohydrate load. Twenty-five men and women with prediabetes and/or obesity and overweight consumed in random order two acute test meals of muffins sweetened with either fructose or sucrose, followed by 4-week chronic consumption of 42g/day of either fructose or sucrose in low fat muffins after which the 2 meal tests were repeated. Subjects were randomised to sugar type in the chronic feeding period. Sugar type had no effect on the incremental area under the curve for triglyceride or uric acid at either time point (P=0.4 and P=0.9). There was no overall difference between meal tests at baseline and after 1 month and no effect of consuming sucrose or fructose muffins for 1 month. Fasting triglyceride increased after chronic consumption of fructose by 0.31±0.37 mmol/L compared with sucrose in people with IFG/IGT only (P=0.004). Fructose at a moderate intake of <10% of energy in solid food has no different effects on postprandial triglyceride and uric acid compared with sucrose although fasting triglyceride was increased in people with IFG/IGT after 1 month of fructose muffins suggesting the need for caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0041.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; high fat-sucrose diet; metabolomics; HPLC-QTOF-MS; quercetin
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:04:13 CET)
As metabolomics is widely used in the study of disease mechanisms, more and more studies have found that metabolites play an important role in the occurrence of diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of quercetin in high-fat-sucrose diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development using nontargeted metabolomics. A rat model of NAFLD was established by feeding with a HFD for 30 and 50 days. Results indicated quercetin exhibited hepatoprotective activity in HFD-induced NAFLD rats in 30 days by regulating fatty acids related metabolites (adrenic acid, etc.), inflammation related metabolites (arachidonic acid, etc.), oxidative stress related metabolites (2-hydroxybutyric acid) and other differential metabolites (citric acid, etc.). However, quercetin couldn’t improve NAFLD in 50 days maybe it couldn’t reverse the inflammation condition induced by long-term high-fat diet. These data indicate that dietary quercetin may be beneficial to NAFLD at early stages. Furthermore, combining metabolomics and experimental approaches opens up avenues of effects and mechanisms of drugs for complex diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: infant; premature; pain; acupuncture; skin to skin contact; sucrose; massage; musical therapy; breastfeeding
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:09:31 CEST)
Pain is a major problem in sick newborn infants, especially for those needing intensive care. Pharmacological pain relief is the most commonly used but may be ineffective, have side effects, including long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The effectiveness and safety of alternative analgesic methods are ambiguous. The objective is to review the effectiveness and safety of non-pharmacological methods of pain relief in newborn infants and to identify those that are the most effective. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms: ‘infant’, ‘premature’, ‘pain’, ‘acupuncture’, ‘skin to skin contact’, ‘sucrose’ ‘massage’, ‘musical therapy’ and ‘breastfeeding’. We included 24 studies assessing different methods of non-pharmacological analgesic techniques. Most resulted in some degree of analgesia but many were ineffective and some were even detrimental. Sucrose, for example, was often ineffective but more effective than music therapy, massage, breast milk (for extremely premature infants) or non-invasive electrical stimulation acupuncture. There were also conflicting results for acupuncture, skin to skin care and musical therapy. Most non-pharmacological methods of analgesia provide some modicum of relief for preterm infants but none are completely effective and there is no clearly superior method. Study is also required to assess potential long-term consequences of any of these methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0013.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: dextransucrases; GH70; lactic acid bacteria; sucrose-active enzymes; carbohydrate binding module; glucansucrase; cellulose binding domain; Leuconostoc
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:12:00 CEST)
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have great potential to produce homoexopolysaccharides (HoPS), have been the subject of extensive research efforts, given their health benefits and physicochemical properties. The HoPS functional properties are determined by structural characteristics of varied molecular weights, types of glycosidic linkages, degrees of branching and chemical composition. The dextransucrases (DSases) are responsible of the synthesis of a kind of HoPS (dextran polymers), which are among the first biopolymers produced at industrial scale with applications in medicine and biotechnology. The concept of glycodiversification opens additional applications for DSases. In that sense the design and characterization of new DSases is of prime importance. Previously, we described the isolation and characterization of a novel extracellular dextransucrase (DSR-F) encoding gene. In this study, from DSR-F, we design a novel chimeric dextransucrase DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD-CBM2a, where DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD is fused to the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM2a) of the β-1-4 exoglucanase/xylanase Cex (Xyn10A) of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484. This dextransucrase variant is active and without alteration in its specificity. The DSR-F-∆SP-∆GBD-CBM2a is purified by cellulose affinity chromatography for the very first time. Our results indicate that new hybrids and chimeric DSases with novel binding capacity to cellulose can be designed to obtain glyco-biocatalysts from renewable lignocellulosic materials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0064.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: cold acclimation; metabolic reprogramming; carbohydrates; subcellular metabolism; sucrose cycling; enzyme activity; arrhenius equation; kinetic modelling; arabidopsis thaliana
Online: 7 October 2019 (11:19:01 CEST)
Plants have evolved tightly regulated strategies to adapt and acclimate to a changing environment to ensure their survival. Various environmental factors affect plant distribution, growth and yield. Low temperature belongs to those abiotic factors which significantly constrain range boundaries of plant species. Exposing plants to low but non-freezing temperature induces a multigenic processes termed cold acclimation, which finally results in an increased freezing tolerance. Cold acclimation comprises reprogramming of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome and affects communication and signaling between subcellular organelles. Reprogramming of the central carbohydrate metabolism plays a key role in cold acclimation. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of carbohydrate metabolism in plant cold acclimation. A focus is laid on subcellular metabolic reprogramming, its thermodynamic constraints under low temperature and mathematical modelling of metabolism.