COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0225.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Self-assembly; Metallic nanoparticles; Plasmonic modes; Simulations; Surface charge mappings; Full-width three-quarter maximum
Online: 14 September 2021 (08:45:05 CEST)
We reveal the significance of plasmonic nanoparticle’s (NP) shape and its surface morphology en route to an efficient self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle cluster. A simplified model is simulated in the form of free-space dimer and trimer nanostructures (NPs in shape of sphere, cube, and disk). A ~ 200 % to ~ 125% raise in near field strength (gap mode enhancement) is observed for spherical NPs in comparison with cubical NPs (from 2 nm to 8 nm gap sizes). Full-width three-quarter maximum reveals better broad-spectral optical performance in a range of ~ 100 nm (dimer) and ~ 170 nm (trimer) from spherical NPs as compared to a cube (~ 60 nm for dimer and trimer). These excellent properties for sphere-based nanostructures are merited from its dipole mode characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0234.v1
Online: 13 July 2018 (11:21:14 CEST)
We investigate on the plasmons of monolayer MoS2 in the presence of spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) under the random phase approximation. The theoretical study shows that two new and novel plasmonic modes can be achieved via inter spin sub-band transitions around the Fermi level duo to the SOIs. The plasmon modes are optic-like, which are very different from the plasmon modes reported recently in monolayer MoS2, and the other two-dimensional systems. The frequency of such plasmons increases with the increasing of the electron density or the spin polarizability, and decreases with the increasing of the wave vectors q. Our results exhibit some interesting features which can be utilized to the plasmonic and terahertz devices based on monolayer MoS2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0278.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: photonic; plasmonic; surface plasmon; waveguide; resonator; optic
Online: 19 January 2022 (15:32:41 CET)
In this paper, a plasmonic refractive index sensor based on MIM waveguide (metal_insulation_metal) with two plasmonic waveguides and five rings and two teeth and four rectangular cavities is proposed and designed. The refractive index of the resonators as well as the resonant wavelengths will be investigated by the time difference finite difference method. To achieve an optical sensor with excellent quality and performance, we change the number and type of amplifiers and their dimensions. In each stage of the simulation, we will only change the refractive index of the middle ring located in the middle of the two waveguides, and the refractive index of the other amplifiers remains the same. This challenge will help to form a more appropriate structure for optical sensors. The sensor built in this simulation has a balanced and suitable function for integrated circuits and helps researchers to better understand the design of plasmonic structures. It also has important applications in medical research, health care, drug manufacturing, security monitoring and environmental protection, internal security of countries and the battlefield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0297.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Achiral plasmonic structure; Circular dichroism; Glucose; ellipsometry method.
Online: 20 December 2021 (09:44:59 CET)
Various efforts have been made to detect minimum value of glucose in any medium like water or body buffer solutions with high-sensitivity, accurate, and low-cost sensors in order to enhance life style. Therefore, the present study was done to investigate reliability of two-dimensional plasmonic structure by circular dichroism (CD) and ellipsometry tools in different concentrations of glucose. Our results confirmed a dependency of the CD signal on glucose concentrations and also a very good sensitivity based on the phase difference between each polarization in ellipsometry parameters with the help of an achiral plasmonic structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0144.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Plasmonic nanoantenna; Electric field norm; Tilted light incidence
Online: 8 October 2021 (13:43:07 CEST)
We study the effect of oblique illumination on the functioning of a plasmonic nanoantenna for chiral light. The antenna is designed to receive a structured beam of light and produce a nanosized near-field distribution that possesses non-zero orbital angular momentum. The design consists of metal (gold) micro-rods laid on a dielectric surface and is compatible with well-developed nanofabrication techniques. Experimental arrangements often require such an antenna to operate in a tilted geometry, where input light is incident on the antenna at an oblique angle. We analyze the limitations that the angled illumination imposes and discuss approaches to mitigate these limitations. Through our numerical simulations, we find that tilt angles larger than 30 degrees require modifications to the antenna design. Our analysis guides current and future experimental configurations to pushing the limits of resolution and sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0103.v1
Online: 5 October 2020 (17:49:27 CEST)
In this work, pure TiO2 and binary nanocomposites of Fe3O4/TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 were synthesized in order to improve photocatalytic performance of these samples for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) as an organic pollutant. A range of analytical techniques including XRD, DRS, SEM/EDX, and elemental mapping were employed to reveal the crystal structure, morphology and property of the nanocomposites. XRD data demonstrated that the prepared samples are purely in TiO2 anatase phase and cubic spinel Fe3O4 exist in the synthesized nanocomposite. We calculated the TiO2 crystal size from XRD patterns, in the range of 8.35-11.09 nm. The presence of Ag, Fe, O, and Ti atoms in the synthesized nanocomposites was confirmed by SEM/EDX. We obtained 30.43, 32.02 and 42.40 % degradation of 2, 4-DCP (100 ml 2, 4-DCP 40 ppm and 0.01 g catalyst) for pure TiO2, Fe3O4/TiO2 and Ag/TiO2, respectively, after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. Similar conditions were employed for 2, 4-DCP degradation under UV irradiation, we obtained 53.05, 51.00 and 71.50 % degradation of 2, 4-DCP pure TiO2, Fe3O4/TiO2 and Ag/TiO2, respectively. Thus, the synthesized binary nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO2 under visible light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0088.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: plasmonic sensor; high figure of merit; concentric double rings resonator
Online: 20 December 2017 (10:07:32 CET)
A plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide coupled with concentric double rings resonator (CDRR) is proposed and investigated numerically. Utilizing the novel supermodes of the CDRR, the FWHM of the resonant wavelength can be modulated, and a sensitivity of 1060 nm/RIU with high figure of merit (FOM) 203.8 is realized in the near-infrared region. The unordinary modes as well as the influence of structure parameters on the sensing performance are also discussed. Such plasmonic sensor with simple framework and high optical resolution could be applied to on-chip sensing systems and integrated optical circuits. Besides, the special cases of bio- sensing and triple rings are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0377.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: large aspect ratios; gold nanorods; refractive index sensitivities; SERS; plasmonic sensing
Online: 19 September 2018 (09:40:22 CEST)
Plasmonic gold nanorods play important roles in nowadays state-of-the-art plasmonic sensing techniques. Most of the previous studies and applications focused on gold nanorods with relatively small aspect ratios, where the plasmon wavelengths are smaller than 900 nm. Gold nanorods with large aspect ratios are predicted to exhibit high refractive-index sensitivity (Langmir 2008, 24, 5233–5237.), which therefore should be promising for developing of high-performance plasmonic chemical- and bio-sensors. In this study, we developed gold nanorods with aspect ratios over 7.9, which exhibit plasmon resonances around 1064 nm. The refractive index (RI) sensitivity of these nanorods have been evaluated by varying their dielectric environment, whereby a sensitivity as high as 473 nm/RIU can be obtained. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the large-aspect-ratio nanorods as efficient substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), where an enhancement factor (EF) as high as 9.47×108 was measured using 4-methylbenzenethiol (4-MBT) as probe molecule. Finally, a type of flexible SERS substrate is developed by conjugating the gold nanorods with the polystyrene (PS) polymer. The results obtained in our study can benefit the development of plasmonic sensing techniques utilized in the near-infrared spectral region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0520.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Strong coupling; plasmonic-photonic coupling system; surface lattice resonance; Fabry-Pérot resonance
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:42:38 CET)
We report the strong coupling between plasmonic surface lattice resonances (SLRs) and photonic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) resonances in a microcavity embedded with two-dimensional periodic array of metal-insulator-metal nanopillars. For such a plasmonic-photonic system, we show that the SLR can be strongly coupled to the F-P resonances of both the odd- and even orders, and that the splitting energy reaches as high as 138 meV in the visible regime. We expect that this work will provide a new scheme for strong coupling between plasmonic and photonic modes.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metallic nanoparticle-polymer hybrids; seeded precipitation polymerization; core-shell nanomaterials; plasmonic nanomaterials
Online: 13 January 2021 (11:09:46 CET)
The implementation of gold-hydrogel core-shell nanomaterials in novel light-driven technologies requires the development of well-controlled and scalable synthesis protocols with precisely tunable properties. Herein, new insights are presented concerning the importance of using the concentration of gold cores as a control parameter in the seeded precipitation polymerization process to modulate – regardless of core size – relevant fabrication parameters such as encapsulation yield, particle size and shrinkage capacity. Controlling the number of nucleation points results in the facile tuning of the encapsulation process, with yields reaching 99% of gold cores even when using different core sizes at a given particle concentration. This demonstration is extended to the encapsulation of bimodal gold core mixtures with equally precise control on the encapsulation yield, suggesting that this principle could be extended to encapsulating cores composed of other materials. These findings could have significant impact on the development of stimuli-responsive smart materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0294.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Plasmonic Nanoparticles; Gold Nanoparticles; Gold Nanorods; Gold Nanoshells; CCMV; Virus-Like Particles
Online: 17 September 2018 (09:54:48 CEST)
Different types of gold nanoparticles have been synthesized that great potential in medical applications such as medical imaging, bio-analytical sensing and photothermal therapy. However, their stability, polydispersity and biocompatibility are major issues of concern. For example, the synthesis of gold nanorods, obtained through the elongated micelle process, produce them with a high positive surface charge that is cytotoxic. While gold nanoshells are unstable and within a few weeks they decompose due to Ostwald ripening. In this work, we report the self-assembly of the capsid protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) around spherical gold nanoparticles, gold nanorods and gold nanoshells to form virus-like particles (VLPs). All gold nanoparticles were synthesized or treated to give them a negative surface charge, so they can interact with the positive N-terminus of the capsid protein leading to the formation of the VLPs. To induce the protein self-assembly around the negative gold nanoparticles, we use different pH and ionic strength conditions that were determined from the capsid protein phase diagram. The encapsidation with the viral capsid protein confers them better biocompatibility, stability, monodispersity and a new biological substrate on which one can introduce specific ligands towards particular cells, broadening the possibilities of medical application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0307.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: direct femtosecond laser printing; nanovoid arrays; plasmonic sensors; refractive index and gas sensing
Online: 29 August 2019 (05:47:36 CEST)
We demonstrate a multi-purpose plasmonic sensor based on nanovoid array fabricated via inexpensive and highly reproducible direct femtosecond laser patterning of thin glass-supported Au films. The proposed nanovoid array exhibits near-IR surface plasmon (SP) resonances, which can be excited under normal incidence and optimised for specific application by tailoring array periodicity as well as nanovoid geometric shape. Fabricated SP sensor offers competitive sensitivity of about 1600 nm/RIU at a figure of merit of 12 in bulk refractive index tests, as well as allows for identification of gases and ultra-thin analyte layers making the sensor particularly useful for common bioassay experiments. Moreover, isolated nanovoids support strong electromagnetic field enhancement at lattice SP resonance wavelength, allowing for label-free molecular identification via surface-enhanced vibration spectroscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0103.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Field enhancement; strong coupling; plasmonic-photonic coupling system; surface lattice resonance; Fabry-Pérot resonance.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:05:33 CET)
Metal nanoparticles supporting plasmons are widely used to enhance electromagnetic fields, resulting in strong light-matter interactions at the nanoscale in a diverse range of applications. Recently, it has been shown that when metal nanorods are periodically arranged with proper lattice periods, surface lattice resonances (SLRs) can be excited and near fields can be greatly enhanced over extended volumes. In this work, we report significant near field enhancement over even larger volumes by placing the metal nanorod array within a Fabry-Pérot (F-P) microcavity. Results show that taking advantage of strong coupling between the SLR and the photonic F-P resonances, the electric field intensity of the bonding split mode can be enhanced by up to 1935 times, which is about three times of the enhancement of the SLR, and the greatly enhanced field can extend over most of the F-P microcavity. We further show that the F-P resonances of both odd and even orders can strongly couple to the SLR by varying the nanorods position from the middle of the microcavity. We expect that the proposed plasmonic-photonic coupling system will find promising applications in nanolasers, nonlinear optics and sensing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0492.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 2D fatty liver in vitro model; Blu-Ray disc; Plasmonic Nanomaterials; Label-Free Biosensing
Online: 19 November 2020 (07:30:22 CET)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder related with a chronic lipid accumulation within the hepatocytes. This disease is the most common liver disorder worldwide and it is estimated that is present in up to 25% of the world's population. However, the real prevalence of this disease and the associated disorders is unknown mainly because reliable and applicable diagnostic tools are lacking. It is known that the level of albumin, a pleiotropic protein synthetized by hepatocytes, is correlated with the correct function of the liver. The development of a complementary tool that allow the direct, sensitive, and label-free monitoring of albumin secretion in hepatocyte cell culture can provide insight about the mechanism and drugs action in NAFLD. With this aim, we have developed a simple integrated plasmonic biosensor based on gold nanogratings from periodic nanostructures present in commercial Blu-ray optical disc. This sensor allows the direct and label-free monitoring of albumin in a 2D fatty liver disease model under flow conditions using highly specific polyclonal antibody. This technology avoids both the amplification and blocking steps showing a limit of detection within pM range (≈ 0.39 ng/mL). Thanks to this technology, we identified the optimal fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration to maximize the lipid accumulation within the cells. Moreover, we discovered that at third day from lipids challenge, the hepatocytes increased the amount of albumin secreted. These data demonstrate the ability of hepatocytes to respond to the lipid stimulation releasing more albumin. Further investigation needed to unveil the biological significance of that cell behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0136.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Autler-Townes splitting; nonlocal plasmonics; metalic nanoparticles on substrate; nonlocal plasmonic for solar cells
Online: 12 August 2019 (04:17:27 CEST)
We study strong optical coupling of metal nanoparticle arrays with dielectric substrates. Based on the Fermi Golden Rule, the particle-substrate coupling is derived in terms of the photon absorption probability assuming a local dipole field. An increase in photocurrent gain is achieved through the optical coupling. In addition, we describe light-induced, mesoscopic electron dynamics via the nonlocal hydrodynamic theory of charges. At small nanoparticle size (<20nm), the impact of this type of spatial dispersion becomes sizable. Both absorption and scattering cross section of the nanoparticle are significantly increased through the contribution of additional nonlocal modes. We observe a splitting of local optical modes spanning several tenths of nanometers. This is a signature of semi-classical, strong optical coupling via the dynamic Stark effect, known as Autler-Townes splitting. The photocurrent generated in this description is increased by up to 2%, which agrees better with recent experiments than compared to identical classical setups with up to 6%. Both, the expressions derived for the particle-substrate coupling and the additional hydrodynamic equation for electrons are integrated into COMSOL for our simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0022.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: direct laser processing; femtosecond laser pulses; superhydrophobic textures; analyte enrichment; plasmonic nanostructures; SERS; medical drugs
Online: 3 December 2019 (11:19:55 CET)
We report an easy-to-implement device for SERS-based detection of various analytes dissolved in water droplets at trace concentrations. The device combines an analyte-enrichment system and SERS-active sensor site, both produced via inexpensive and high-performance direct fs-laser printing. Fabricated on a surface of water-repellent polytetrafluoroethylene substrate as an arrangement of micropillars, the analyte-enrichment system supports evaporating water droplet in the Cassie-Baxter superhydrophobic state, thus ensuring delivery of the dissolved analyte molecules towards the hydrophilic SERS-active site. The efficient pre-concentration of the analyte onto the sensor site based on densely-arranged spiky plasmonic nanotextures results in its subsequent label-free identification by means of SERS spectroscopy. Using the proposed device, we demonstrate reliable SERS-based fingerprinting of various analytes, including common organic dyes and medical drugs at ppb concentrations. The proposed device is believed to find applications in various areas, including label-free environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, and forensics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0553.v1
Subject: Keywords: Raman biosensor; Au-coated nanoparticles; hot-spot SERS substrate; anticancer drug nanocarriers; targeted drug delivery sensing; magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles.
Online: 20 April 2021 (17:43:09 CEST)
Safe administration of highly cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs is a challenging problem in cancer treatment due to the adverse side effects and collateral damage to non-tumorigenic cells. To mitigate these problems, new promising approaches, based on the paradigm of controlled targeted drug delivery (TDD), utilizing drug nanocarriers with biorecognition ability to selectively target neoplastic cells, are being considered in cancer therapy. Herein, we report on the design and testing of a nanoparticle-grid based biosensing platform to aid in the development of new targeted drug nanocarriers. The proposed sensor grid consists of superparamagnetic gold-coated core-shell Fe2Ni@Au nanoparticles, further functionalized with folic acid targeting ligand, model thiolated chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX), and a biocompatibility agent, 3,6,-dioxa-octanethiol (DOOT). The employed dual transduction based on electrochemical and enhanced Raman scattering detection have enabled efficient monitoring of the drug loading onto the nanocarriers, attached to the sensor surface, as well as the drug release under simulated intracellular conditions. The grid’s nanoparticles serve here as the model nanocarriers for new TDD systems under design and optimization. The superparamagnetic properties of the Fe2Ni@Au NPs aid in nanoparticles’ handling and constructing a dense sensor grid with high plasmonic enhancement of the Raman signals due to the minimal interparticle distance.