ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; alternative medicine; complementary medicine; health behaviours
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:11:37 CEST)
An increasing number of persons with cancer decide to choose complementary and alternative medicine. The purpose of the paper was to check the status of the use of complementary and alternative medicine methods in oncological patients and to compare health behaviours of patients using Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) with those using neither of these methods. The studies were conducted from August till January 2020 in the Oncology Center in the south-eastern Poland. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 208 oncological patients. The authors' own questionnaire and the standardized Health Behaviour Inventory were used. Most of the patients (85,09%) declared that they used complementary and alternative medicine methods. The most common methods chosen by the respondents included vitamin C, green tea and prayer. The vast majority of the respondents did not inform their oncologist about the use of CAM. 45,19% of the respondents had a high rate of health behaviours. It was observed that there was no communication related to the use of CAM among the patients and healthcare staff. Patients using CAM demonstrated more positive health behaviours than those who were not using these methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine; integrative medicine; knowledge; training and education; psychology; mental health; qualitative
Online: 26 June 2019 (05:31:14 CEST)
Background and objectives: The inadequate knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among health professionals may put their clients in risky situation because they then would find information about CAM from unreliable sources. Clinical psychologists (CPs), as health professionals, have also the opportunity to provide psychoeducation on the latest CAM scientific research to their clients. The current study aimed to explore knowledge and educational needs of CAM among CPs in Indonesia because previous studies on exploring CAM knowledge and educational needs of CAM were primarily conducted in Western countries. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 43 CPs in public health centers (PHCs) in Indonesia. Most interviews were held at the PHCs where participants worked and interviews lasted for 55 minutes, on average. The interview recordings were transcribed and were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. Results: Five main themes emerged within participants’ responses regarding CAM knowledge and educational needs. First (CAM understanding), participants’ responses ranged from those with little or no prior knowledge of CAM treatments and uses, to those with much greater familiarity. Second (source of knowledge), participants’ access ranged widely in terms of references, from popular to scientific literature. Third (why is it important?), participants identified CAM essentially as part of Indonesian culture and it was therefore crucial to have this cultural knowledge. Fourth (the challenges and what is needed?), the challenges for improving participants’ knowledge came from personal and institutional levels. Fifth (what and how to learn?), participants advised that only CAM treatments that fit in brief psychotherapy sessions should be introduced in professional training. Conclusions: This qualitative study discovered that CAM was neither well-known nor understood widely. Participants advised that professional associations and health institutions should work together in enhancing knowledge of CAM and incorporating CAM education into psychology education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0114.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anxiety, complementary therapies, coronary artery disease, pain
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:56:29 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease is the first leading cause of death in the world. Patients with cardiovascular disease may experience various problems, including physiological and psychological problems. Apart from pharmacological therapy, complementary therapy is necessary as a support to conventional medicine. This review aims to describe complementary and alternative therapies for pain and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular disease. This review utilized data from ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and PubMed with search keywords of "Complementary" AND "Nursing" AND "Pain" AND "Anxiety" AND "Coronary artery disease". Ten articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show that nursing actions increasingly develop along with the patient needs. One form of holistic nursing action is complementary and alternative therapy (CAT) that consists of three categories: body-based methods, mind therapies, and sensory therapies. CAT has positive impacts on patients with heart disease. It can reduce anxiety and pain, lower blood pressure, and improve the quality of life. This review also shows that CAT has a positive impact on the recovery of patients with heart disease. Proper therapeutic management should be implemented to reduce the risks of physiological and psychological problems in patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0720.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Weaning; Infant, newborn; Diet, vegetarian; Baby-led weaning; Complementary feeding
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:11:40 CET)
1) Background: Parents are increasingly fascinated by alternative weaning methods, such as ba-by-led or vegetarian weaning. However, international pediatric societies are still cautious to-wards alternative weaning methods, due to their significant risk of nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study is to describe the attitude of Italian pediatricians towards unconventional weaning, with particular regard to vegetarian and baby-led. (2) Methods: A 20-question ques-tionnaire was sent to Italian pediatricians, from January to December 2019; (3) Results: Responses were received from 73/1000 (7.3%) pediatricians. The vast majority of surveyed pediatricians (78.1%) is familiar with baby-led and vegetarian weaning, but only 24.7% is in favor of their practice. A significant number of pediatricians (63.0%) received request from parents for an al-ternative weaning regimen. (4) Conclusions: The survey revealed a significant gap between pedi-atricians’ attitude and parental demand concerning unconventional weaning. This could signifi-cantly impair the alliance between parents and pediatricians with the risk to expose infants and children to severe nutritional deficiencies due to self-management by parents with poor surveil-lance from health professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; alternative and complementary medicine; database; natural products; Mizaj; temperament
Online: 8 May 2019 (10:08:54 CEST)
As a holistic medical school, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) considers the human body as a dynamic and intricate network of interconnecting processes. Currently, systems biology and more precisely systems medicine and pharmacology can be an aid in providing rationalizations for many traditional medications and treatments and elucidating a great deal of knowledge they can offer to guide future research in medicine. Therefore, re-organization and standardization of traditional medicine data are requested more than ever before. To address this issue, we have constructed UNaProd, a Universal Natural Product database for materia medica of ITM. Primarily based on Makhzan al-Advieh, which is the most recent encyclopedia of materia medica in ITM with the largest number of monographs, this database was created using both text mining methods and manual editing. UNaProd is currently hosting to 2696 monographs from herbal to animal to mineral compounds in 16 diverse attributes such as origin and scientific name. In the current version, UNaProd is hyperlinked to IrGO and CMAUP databases for Mizaj and molecular features respectively and it is freely available at http://jafarilab.com/unaprod/.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine; Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM); Thermodynamic mechanism; Entropic systems biology; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organization triggering factor (SOTF); Wuxing (five phases), Qi, Meridians (Jingluo); Acupuncture points; Chinese herbs; Aquamoleculomics; Modernization of TCM
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:12:29 CEST)
As a complementary and alternative medicine in the western countries for decades, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for more than 2000 years in China. Because of the characteristics of the philosophical style and the unknown mechanism of action, TCM sometimes has been biasedly described as "fraught with pseudoscience". From the scientific basis of the systems biology, here we promoted a novel medical model called the entropic systems medicine which could be applied to scientize TCM in future. In entropic systems medicine, TCM and Western modern biomedicine target the different variables of the entropic system. For instance, while Western modern biomedicine directly targets the phenotypes and its SOCs of macrostates, TCM differently targets the microstates, entropy and entropic force to generate SOTFs gradually causing the differentiated syndromes to be slowly rearranged. The prerequisites to modernize TCM are the entropic systems biology having been well established so that the variables could be precisely monitored and mathematically calculated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: qualitative research; infant feeding; complementary feeding; breast feeding; low income country
Online: 8 August 2017 (12:00:26 CEST)
Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors that are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A systematic review and synthesis of available qualitative research related to infant and young child dietary patterns and practices from the perspective of parents and families in low income settings is presented, with a focus on barriers and facilitators to achieving international recommendations. Data from both published and grey literature from 2006-2016 was included in the review. Quality assessment consisted of two phases (CASP guidelines and assessment using GRADE-CERQual), followed by synthesis of the studies identified, and subsequent thematic analysis and interpretation. The findings indicated several categories of both barriers and facilitators, spanning individual and system level factors. The review informs efforts aimed at improving child health and nutrition, and represents the first such comprehensive review of the qualitative literature, uniquely suited to understanding complex behaviors leading to infant and young child dietary patterns.
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: golay complementary sequences; sidelobes; pipe detection; chaotic signal
Online: 26 September 2019 (05:08:10 CEST)
An experimental ultra wideband ground penetrating radar based on Golay complementary sequences is proposed to locate underground pipes. Golay complementary sequences with the code length of 1024 and frequency of 1 GHz are used as the probe signals. Two-dimensional image of the buried pipes is achieved by correlation method and back projection algorithm. The experimental results show that both the plastic pipe and metallic pipe can be located with a range resolution of 10 cm. Furthermore, as the Golay complementary sequences are a pair of complementary sequences, the sum of their correlation function yields twice the value of the peak at the target position and zero elsewhere. Thus, compared with the stepped frequency signal radar or chaotic signal radar, the Golay-based radar can significantly improve the signal noise ratio and has capability of deep detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy internet; multi-energy complementary; integrated energy systems; distribution network planning
Online: 19 September 2018 (10:22:42 CEST)
Many research work has demonstrated that taken the Combined Cooling Heating and Power system (CCHP) as the core equipment, the integrated energy system (IES) can bring obvious benefit to energy efficiency, CO2 emission reduction and operation economy in urban areas. Compared with isolated IES, integrated energy micro-grid (IEMG) which is formed by connecting multiple regions IES together, through distribution and thermal network, can further improve the reliability, flexibility, cleanliness and economy of regional energy supply. Based on the existing IES model, this paper describes the basic structure of IEMG and built a IEMG planning model. The planning based on the mixed integer linear programming, and economically construction planning scheme are calculated by using known electricity, heating and cooling loads information and the given multiple equipment selection schemes. At last, the model is validated by a case study. The results show that the application of IEMG can effectively improve the economy of regional energy supply.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Endocannabinoid system; receptor cannabinoid; endocannabinoids ligands; phytocannabinoids; Integrative and Complementary Health Practices
Online: 7 November 2022 (11:36:46 CET)
The endocannabinoid system (eCB) began to be studied from the identification of the molecular structures present in the cannabis sativa plant. The ECS is constituted of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands and all the associated enzymatic apparatus responsible for maintaining homeostasis. Several physiological effects of cannabinoids are exerted through interaction with various receptors such as CB1 and CB2 receptors, vanilloid receptors, and the recently discovered [GPCRs (GPR55, GPR3, GPR6, GPR12 and GPR19). Endogenous ligands such anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol might modulate these receptors. eCB has proved to play a critical role in some human diseases and has been extensively studied due to its wide therapeutic potential and because it is a promising target for the development of new drugs. Phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids have shown varied affinities to eCB, which are relevant to the treatment of various diseases. They may also have potential as lead compounds in the development of cannabinoid-based pharmaceuticals for a variety of diseases. Furthermore, Integrative and Complementary Health Practices (ICHP) appear to influence the endocannabinoid system through modulation. This review will show a description of ECS components and discuss how phytocannabinoids, other exogenous compounds, and PICS may operate the eCB balance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0299.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: complementary food; solid state fermentation; infant malnutrition; orange-flesh sweet potato; Fonio
Online: 17 January 2023 (07:31:29 CET)
Childhood malnutrition is one of the most persistent public health problems throughout developing countries including Nigeria. This study focused on the evaluation of complementary food produced by solid-state fermentation of Fonio and Soybean using Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) using Lactobacillus planterum, (B-41621). Solid state fermentation (SSF) was carried out by inoculating Fonio and Soybean with spore suspension (1×10⁶spores/ml) of Rhizopus oligosporus (2710) and OFSP with spore suspension (1×10⁶spores/ml) of Lactobacillus planterum (B-41621). The samples were blended in the following ratios: Fonio and Soybean 100: 100 (AS), fonio/soybean and OFSP 50: 50(ASO), and compared with a commercial infant formula which served as the control (CTRL). Quality characteristics of the samples were evaluated. Results showed that moisture, crude protein, fibre, ash content, beta carotene and titratable acidity increased significantly (p<0.05) as fermentation progressed. The iron content ranged from 6.57–8.41mg/100g while the beta carotene content ranged from 15.80 –17.35mg/100g. Viscosity ranged from 8200 –15400cP, while that of swelling capacity ranged from 2.25-3.41(g/g). In sensory scores, there were no significant (p>0.05) difference between the average mean scores of the samples. SSF improved the nutritional content and flavour of the developed complementary food which is needed for infant growth and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Adiposity rebound; Infant; Premature; Pediatric Obesity; Complementary Feeding; Weaning; Body Mass Index
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:24:10 CEST)
Background: Adiposity rebound (AR) refers to the second rise of the BMI curve that usually occurs physiologically between 5 and 7 years of age. AR timing has a great impact on children´s health, being the early adiposity rebound (EAR) associated with the development of metabolic disease later in life. Aim: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of EAR in a cohort of preterm newborns. Secondary outcomes evaluated if some determinants such as (1) gender (male/female), (2) type of delivery (caesarean/vaginal), (3) birth weight (SGA/NGA/LGA), (4) type of feeding (5) duration of breastfeeding, (6) timing of introduction of solid food, (7) parental education and (8) parental pre-pregnancy BMI can influence EAR in this cohort. Tertiary aim was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity or overweight at 7 years of age in children according to early versus timely AR. Methods: This is a perspective, population-based longitudinal study, where infants born preterm were evaluated at birth and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 months and 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 years of gestational-corrected age. Weight and height data were analyzed, and BMI was calculated. AR was assessed in the growth trajectory in a body mass index (BMI) plot. Results: Of the 250 preterm newborns included, 100 completed the 7 years follow-up and entered in the final analysis. The prevalence of EAR in our cohort of preterm newborns was 54%. EAR was associated with being LGA at birth. No other factors were associated to EAR. Early adiposity rebounders have a significant higher BMI at 7 years compared to children with timely AR (17.2 ±2.7 vs 15.6 ± 2.05, p=0.021). No significant differences were found in the prevalence of obesity or overweight at 7 years of age in children with early or timely AR (29% vs 14% p=0.202). Conclusions: Clinical management of preterm infants should focus on reducing excess weight gain to prevent long-term metabolic risk. Others neonatal factors are not associated to an higher risk of EAR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0528.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: DNA strands, complementary replication, DNA alphabets, binary opposition, binary numbers, dyadic groups, matrices, algebras, split-quaternions, root-complementarity.
Online: 20 December 2022 (01:29:16 CET)
This article is devoted to results of in-depth analysis of the system of binary-oppositional structures in DNA n-plet alphabets and their algebraic-matrix representations. These results show that the molecular complementary replication of DNA strands is accompanied by the presence of an algebraic version of the principle "like begets like" in matrix representations of DNA alphabets having internal structures. This algebraic version is based on binary-oppositional structures in the genetic molecular system, which can be represented by bynary numbers and corresponding matrices of DNA alphabets. The received results allow thinking that the phenomenon "like begets like" (or a complementary replication in a wide sense) is a systemic in the genetic organization and is connected with algebraic features of biological organization. Correspondingly, the biological principle "like begets like" can be additionally modeled by algebraic-matrix methods and approaches. Such algebraic-matrix modeling of the genetic coding system gives new ways for studying and understanding a key role of the named principle in genetic and other inherited physiological complexes. The author believes that further study of the algebraic relationships of the genetic system and inherited physiological complexes will be increasingly revealing the key biological role of the ancient principle "like begets like" at different levels of biological organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma; traditional Chinese medicine; Chinese herbal products; complementary and alternative medicine; Gan-Lu-Yin
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:09:08 CEST)
In most countries, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is no more than 1 per 100,000 for both men and women; however, it is much higher for men and women in Taiwan. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of NPC and its treatment-related side effects has been increasing. The National Health Insurance (NHI) covers 99.6% of Taiwan’s residents. In the present population-based cohort study, we aimed to investigate the pattern of utilization of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) for NPC from 2001 through 2011 in Taiwan. We identified a total of 30294 patients with newly diagnosed NPC from the Registry for Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database (RCIPD). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for CHP utilization. From 2001 through 2011, 17816 patients aged ≥20 years were newly diagnosed with NPC. Of these, 4749 patients used TCM outpatient services for NPC treatment. TCM users were more likely to be women, young, residents of Central Taiwan, and white-collar workers. The most commonly prescribed formula CHP was Gan-Lu-Yin, followed by Xin-Yi-Qing Fei-Tang and Shan-Shen-Mai-Men-Dong-Tang. The most commonly prescribed single CHP was Hedyotis diffusa, followed by Radix Scrophulariae and Radix Ophiopogonis. These findings provide information regarding personalized therapies for NPC and can promote further clinical experiments and pharmacological research on CHPs for NPC treatment in Taiwan. Further well-designed randomized controlled studies and basic mechanistic studies should assess the safety and effectiveness of CHPs for NPC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0492.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: low-molecular-weight fucoidan; colorectal cancer; HCT116 cell; Caco-2 cell; fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy; complementary therapy
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:55:12 CEST)
This study investigated the roles of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) in enhancing the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. HCT116 and Caco-2 cells were treated with LMWF and 5-FU. Cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and migration were analyzed in both cell types. Potential mechanisms underlying how LMWF enhances the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy were also explored. The cell viability of HCT116 and Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced after treatment with a LMWF-5-FU combination. In HCT116 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through the 1) induction of cell cycle arrest in the S phase and 2) late apoptosis mediated by the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. In Caco-2 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through both c-mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET)/ Kirsten Rat Sarcoma virus (KRAS)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-MET/ phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways. Moreover, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on tumor cell migration through the c-MET/ matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 signaling pathway in both HCT116 and Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrated that LMWF is a potential complementary therapy for enhancing the efficacies of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancers (CRCs) with the wild-type or mutated KRAS gene through different mechanisms. However, in vivo studies and in clinical trials are required to validate the results of the present study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0276.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: log microcircuit; differential stage; complementary field-effect transistors with control p-n junction; low temperatures; neutron flux
Online: 12 April 2021 (09:40:03 CEST)
The circuitry of the summarized "floating" differential stages (FDS) based on complementary field-effect transistors with a control p-n junction (CJFET), intended for use in low-noise analog microcircuits, for example, operational amplifiers. The results of modeling the flow characteristics of one of the CJFET FDSs in the LTSpice XVII environment at low temperatures (down to -197 0С) and exposure to a neutron flux in the range of 1e13 ÷ 1e15 n / cm2 are presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0290.v1
Subject: Keywords: plant diversity; plant productivity; humped pattern; intrinsic rate of species richness; complementary effect; resource availability; disturbance; species pool effect; competition exclusion; process integration
Online: 10 November 2020 (08:28:28 CET)
The plant productivity-richness relationship (PPR) is one of the most debated and important issues in ecology. There have been distinct stages in the research of this issue, including the discovery of the different PPR shapes, respective tests of influencing processes, and integrative research with vegetation investigation, manipulation experiments, and theoretical analysis. The debate largely focuses on what the dominant shapes and underlying mechanisms are. Recent integrative research works following analyses of respective processes affecting PPR have found that the humped, asymptotic, positive, negative, and irregular shapes of PPR are linked to each other. One shape of PPR may change into another. The balance between positive and negative processes determines the different shapes of PPR. Plant diversity has a globally positive effect on plant productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: pediatric pharmacy; complementary alternative medicine; dietary interventions; oral manifestations; chronic pediatric conditions; ketogenic diet; gluten free casein free diet
Online: 8 November 2018 (03:55:15 CET)
Complementary and alternative treatment approaches are becoming more common among children with chronic conditions. The pravelance of CAM use among US adults was estimated to be around 42% in 2015, and around 44% to 50% among adults with neurologic disorders. Studies report children with chronic illnesses such as cancer, asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), genetic disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders are treated with complementary and alternative treatments at higher rates. Dietary therapies are gaining increasing popularity in the mainstream population, due to the heavy media involvement. Although, majority of “fad” diets do not have enough supporting evidence, some dietary therapies have been utilized for decades and have numerous published studies. The objective of this review is to describe the dietary interventions used in children with the specific chronic conditions, to evaluate their efficacy based on published data, and to encourage pharmacist involvement in the management and care of such patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0377.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aa = amino acids; ACE-2 = receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; cDNA = complementary DNA; mRNA = messenger RNA; orf = open reading frame; RBD = receptor binding protein; S-protein = Spike protein; SARS-CoV-2 = severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Vaccines.
Online: 22 June 2021 (11:53:34 CEST)
The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV (Coronavirus)-2 S(spike)-protein mRNA/cDNA currently being used as vaccines are antigenic but not antigens against SARS-CoV-2, that causes COVID (Coronavirus Disease) -19. Furthermore, the mRNA and cDNA antigenic vaccines also have potentials for homologous as well as heterologous recombination, primarily into the somatic cell DNA of the vaccine recipients. On the contrary, a SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein antigen, a part of the S-protein, will directly stimulate antibody production against SARS-CoV-2. Hence, a vaccine composed of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein as a safer, fast acting, and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and thus against COVID-19. This is also useful for some immune compromised individuals.