ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: obesity; documentation; comorbidities
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:17:30 CEST)
While obesity is a serious chronic condition, its prevalence and documentation as a diagnosis has not been extensively studied in hospitalized patients. We conducted a retrospective chart review to investigate the prevalence and documentation of obesity as a diagnosis among patients admitted to our medical center. IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Body mass index as per CDC, admission and discharge diagnosis of obesity and common comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and others, were recorded. Length of hospital stay was calculated. We also investigated whether counselling for weight loss was provided to obese patients. A total of 540 consecutive patients with mean age of 66 ± 6 years, were investigated, of which 182(34%) had normal weight, 188(35%) patients were overweight and 170(31%) patients were obese. Obese group included 55% female and 45% male. 100 (59%) had class I obesity, 43(25%) had class II obesity and 27(16%) class III obesity. Of the obese patients 40/170(23.5%) patients had obesity documented on the admission problem list and only 21(12%) had obesity documented as a discharge diagnosis. Only 3(2%) patients received appropriate counseling and referral for obesity management during the hospitalization. Comorbidities included hypertension (68%), diabetes (35%), hyperlipidemia (36%), coronary artery disease (18%), chronic kidney disease (17%), congestive heart failure (18%) and COPD (24%). The average length of stay in normal weight, overweight and obese patients was similar (4.5 ± 0.5 days). An overwhelming percentage never had weight status documented despite significant prevalence of obesity. Hospitalization offers health care providers a window of opportunity to identify obesity, communicate risks and initiate weight management interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: pharmacogenomics; translation; Africa; comorbidities; clinical
Online: 15 June 2023 (12:33:17 CEST)
Pharmacogenomics may improve patient care by guiding drug selection and dosing, however this requires prior knowledge of the pharmacogenomics of drugs commonly used in a specific setting. The aim of this study was to identify a preliminary set of pharmacogenetic variants important in Southern Africa. We describe co-morbidities in 3997 patients from Malawi, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. These patient cohorts were included in pharmacogenomic studies of anticoagulation, dyslipidemia, hypertension, HIV, and breast cancer. The 20 topmost prescribed drugs in this population were identified. Using literature, a list of pharmacogenes vital in disposition of the top 20 drugs was constructed leading to drug-gene pairs potentially informative in translation of pharmacogenomics. The most reported morbidity was hypertension (58.4%), making antihypertensives the most prescribed drugs, particularly amlodipine. Dyslipidemia occurred in 31.5% of the participants and statins were frequently prescribed cholesterol lowering drugs. HIV was reported in 20.3% of the study participants with lamivudine/stavudine/efavirenz being the most prescribed antiretroviral combination. Based on these data, pharmacogenes of immediate interest in Southern African populations include ABCB1, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, SLC22A1, SLCO1B1 and UGT1A1. Variants in these genes are a good starting point for pharmacogenomic translation programs in Southern Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0808.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: chronic pain; mental health; comorbidities; flourishing
Online: 10 August 2023 (07:31:40 CEST)
Pediatric chronic pain is an important public health issue given its notable impact on numerous domains of living. Pediatric chronic pain is also often comorbid with emotional, developmental, or behavioral conditions which can lead to more severe negative outcomes and an even greater reduction in positive outcomes compared to those without comorbidities. Flourishing is a positive outcome that chronic pain status has been shown to impact. We explored flourishing in children aged 6-17 years living with chronic pain as well as those with chronic pain and comorbidities using data from the 2018/2019 National Survey of Child Health. There were significant associa-tions between chronic pain condition status and all demographic variables (sex, age, race/ethnicity, poverty level, parental education, health insurance status). Results of hierarchical logistic regression found that chronic pain condition status significantly predicted flourishing. Children with chronic pain were 2.33 times less likely to flourish, and children with chronic pain plus an emotional, developmental, or behavioral comorbidity were 13 times less likely to flourish than typical peers. Given their significantly lower likelihood of flourishing, there is an urgent need for interventions targeted at children experiencing chronic pain and mental health comor-bidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; comorbidities; older women; radiotherapy; survival
Online: 29 May 2018 (13:01:28 CEST)
Background: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management and survival of patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age, comorbidities and use of radiotherapy in this population. Methods: Patients diagnosed with breast cancer from 2004–2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Cancer Database (NCDB). Follow-up time was measured from the date of diagnosis (baseline) to the date of death or censoring. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used as the measure of association. Results: Independently of comorbidities and other important outcome-related factors, patients >65 years of age who received radiotherapy survived significantly longer than those who did not receive radiotherapy (aHR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.52–0.54). However, as women aged, those with comorbidities were less likely to receive RT (adjusted P-trend by age <0.0001). Conclusions: The development of decision-making tools to assist clinicians, and older women with breast cancer and comorbidities, are needed to facilitate personalized treatment plans regarding RT. This is particularly relevant as the population ages and the number of women with breast cancer is expected to increase in the near future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0614.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: frailty, comorbidities, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, infections, malignancies
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:30:13 CEST)
With the introduction of more and more monoclonal antibodies selectively targeting various mediators of the immune-system, together with Janus-Kinase (JAK)-inhibitors with variable affinities towards different JAK subtypes, the available therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have undergone an acceleration in the last five years. On the other hand, the prevalence of IBD patients over 65-years of age is steadily increasing and, with this, there is a large population of patients that presents more comorbidities, polypharmacy, and, more frequently, frailty compared to younger patients, exposing them to potentially major risks for adverse events deriving from newer therapies, e.g. infections, cardiovascular risks, and malignancies. Unfortunately, pivotal trials for the commercialization of new therapies rarely include older IBD patients and those with serious comorbidities are virtually excluded. In the present review, we focus on existing literature from pivotal trials and real-world studies, analyzing data on efficacy/effectiveness and safety of newer therapies in older IBD patients with special emphasis on comorbidities and frailty, two distinct but intercorrelated aspects of the older population since age by itself seems to be of minor importance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: non-cardiac comorbidities; ejection fraction; myocardial infarction; prognosis
Online: 2 June 2023 (10:00:09 CEST)
Background: The prognostic impact of non-cardiac comorbidities can vary in relation to the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim was to analyze prevalence and long-term prognostic impact of non-cardiac co-morbidities in patients with reduced and preserved EF following STEMI. Method: 3115 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI were divided in two groups: reduced EF <50% and preserved EF≥50%. Follow-up period was 8 years. Results: Preserved EF was present in 1726 (55.4%) patients and reduced EF was present in 1389 (44.5%) patients. Non-cardiac comorbidities were more frequent in patients with reduced EF as compared with patients with preserved EF (38.9% vs 27.4%, respectively, p<0.001). Lethal outcome was registered in 240 (17.2%) patients with reduced EF and in 40 (2.3%) patients with preserved EF, p<0.001. Diabetes and CKD were independent predictors for 8-year mortality in patients with preserved EF while in patients with reduced EF only CKD was independently associated with 8-year mortality. Conclusion: In the present study the prevalence of non-cardiac comorbidities is similar in patients with reduced and preserved EF after STEMI, but only DM and CKD are independently associated with long-term mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sleep apnea; hypoxia; gout; hyperuricemia; urate; metabolic comorbidities
Online: 24 February 2023 (09:31:14 CET)
Gout is not only associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but the intermittent episodes of hypoxia that occur with OSA may also have a role in causing gout. Epidemiological studies have documented a higher incidence and prevalence of gout in individuals diagnosed with OSA than in individuals never diagnosed with OSA. The pathophysiology of OSA’s chronic episodes of hypoxia leading to hyperuricemia and gout involves boththe overproduction and underexcretion of uric acid. Treating OSA may be an additional way to control gout and its life-threatening comorbidities. Clinicians are urged to evaluate their patients with hyperuricemia/gout for OSA as it may lead to alternative ways to control gout with superior outcomes that simply pharmacologic treatment alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; children; clinical features; comorbidities; male genderSARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, children, clinical features, comorbidities, male gender
Online: 26 July 2022 (04:43:02 CEST)
Background: Given the potential for additional development to clarify a better knowledge of the overall impact of COVID-19 on the pediatric population, the clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents are still being explored. Morbidity in children is characterized by a variable clinical course. Our study's goal was to compare clinical aspects of 230 pediatric patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were hospitalized between April 2020 and March 2022. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, we compared two groups hospitalized in the infectious diseases clinical ward IX at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals," Bucharest, Romania. The first group of 88 patients was admitted between (April–December 2020) and their clinical manifestations were compared with the second group of 142 children followed between July 2021 and March 2022. Results: Of 230 children, the median age was 4.5 (interquartile range 0.6-17) years, 53.9% were male. 88 (36.21%) patients (first group) were admitted during the second wave in Romania, mostly aged < 5 years old, and experienced digestive manifestations like fever (p=0.001), and diarrhoea (p=0.004). The second group experienced different clinical signs when compared with the first group, with higher temperature and increased respiratory symptoms analogous to those of acute respiratory viral infections. The proportion in the second group increased, and 64.5% had symptoms for a median interval of 5 days; age (0-4 -years old) and length of stay were both proportionally inversely (p<0.01) and with correlation with hospital admission (p = 0.04). We report two Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS) in the second group, with favourable evolution under treatment. Comorbidities were risk factors for complications appear (p < 0.001) in both groups. All paediatric cases admitted to our clinic evolved favourably and no death was recorded. Conclusions: In the first group children experienced digestive symptoms, whereas the second group experienced mild and moderate respiratory symptoms. We confirmed risk factors for severe cases as manifestations across the age spectrum, 0-4 (digestive symptoms) and 5-12 years old (for respiratory symptoms), associated comorbidities, fever, and male gender. The potential effects of COVID-19 infection in children older than 5 years should encourage caregivers to vaccinate and improve the prognosis among pediatric patients at risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0598.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: NLRP3 inflammasome; comorbidities; pathogenic player; therapeutic potential; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 8 December 2023 (10:01:25 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by chronic synovitis and progressive destruction of cartilage and bone. RA is commonly accompanied by extra-articular comorbidities. The pathogenesis of RA and its comorbidities is complex and not completely elucidated. Assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome activates caspase-1, which induces the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and leads to cleavage of gasdermin D with promot-ing pyroptosis. Although the available therapeutic agents are effective for RA treatment, their high cost and increased infection rate are causes for concern. Recent evidence revealed the components of NLRP3 inflammasome as potential therapeutic targets in RA and its comorbidities. This nar-rative review summarizes the current research evidence regarding the pathogenic role and the therapeutic potential of NLRP3 inflammasome in RA and its comorbidities. Areas covered. We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed interface and reviewed English-language literature on NLRP3 inflammasome from 2000 to 2023. Its pathogenic role and therapeutic potential in RA and its comorbidities are the focus of this review. Expert opinion. NLRP3 inflammasome may play a critical role in both innate and adaptive im-munity, and its dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of RA and its comorbidities. Conse-quently, the components of NLRP3 inflammasome signaling represent promising therapeutic tar-gets, and ongoing research might lead to the development of new, effective treatments for RA and its comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0182.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Keywords: emotional distress: pregnancy; comorbidities; COVID-19; emotional support.
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:25:35 CEST)
Pregnant women have been considered a high-risk group for SARS-CoV-2 infection; the impact of the disease on the health of a mother and her child is still being studied. The emotional impact of the pandemic on pregnant women has been extensively studied. Emotional distress is proposed as a perspective to explain the emotional manifestations of women during this stage as something common rather than pathological. The objective of this study was to know the emotional experience of women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 towards the end of their pregnancy, during the first and second waves of COVID in Mexico. A qualitative study was carried out: 18 pregnant women with COVID were interviewed. A thematic analysis of the data was performed, resulting in three main themes and 14 subthemes. The COVID-infected mothers-to-be experienced mild to moderate emotional distress. It was more intense for those with comorbidities. This distress was aggravated during obstetrical complications and comorbidities, as well as during COVID and postpartum. The emotional distress was appeased by both the perception of medical care and social support. The emotional distress of pregnant women with COVID requires emotional accompaniment to reduce its impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0812.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: U.S. Veteran health; Comorbidities; Risk-factors; Military readiness; COVID
Online: 12 June 2023 (09:32:26 CEST)
Chronic diseases affect a disproportionate number of United States (U.S.) Veterans, causing significant long-term health issues and affecting entitlement spending. This longitudinal study examined the health status of U.S. Veterans as compared to non-Veterans pre- and post-COVID utilizing the annual Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data. Age-adjusted descriptive point estimates were generated independently for 2003 through 2021, while complex weighted panel data were generated from 2011 and onward. General linear modeling revealed that the average U.S. Veteran reports a higher prevalence of disease conditions except for mental health disorders when compared to the non-Veteran. These findings were consistent with both pre- and post-COVID, however, both groups reported a higher prevalence of mental health issues during the pandemic years. The findings suggest that there have been no improvements in reducing Veteran comorbidities to non-Veteran levels and that COVID adversely affected the mental health of both populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0480.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: burning mouth syndrome; hypertension; pain; mood disorder; systemic comorbidities
Online: 26 December 2022 (08:36:26 CET)
Background: To assess the prevalence of Hypertension (HTN) in Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) patients and to investigate its relationship with sociodemographic factors, pain and the psychological profile. Methods: A case-control study was conducted by enrolling 242 BMS patients and 242 controls matched for age and gender. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded, and all the participants completed the numeric rating scale (NRS), the short-form of the McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression (HAM-A, HAM-D), the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Results: The BMS patients presented a statistically significant higher prevalence of HTN compared to the controls (55% versus 33.5%; p-value: <.001**) and higher median scores of the NRS, SF-MPQ, HAM-A, HAM-D, PSQI and ESS (p < .001**). Multivariate regression analysis in the BMS patients indicated positive correlations between HTN and age, systemic diseases, drug consumption and anxiety (p-value: <.001**) and these predictors were responsible for 11.3% of the HTN variance in the BMS patients, when considered together. Conclusions: The prevalence of HTN was significantly higher in the BMS patients, since ageing, the presence of comorbidities, drug consumption and anxiety were potential predictors. Further studies are needed to better investigate the relationship between BMS and HTN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0373.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: conduct disorder; comorbidities; schizophrenia; demographics; child; behaviour; child psychiatry
Online: 21 August 2018 (06:32:21 CEST)
Objective: To determine demographic predictors and comorbidities in hospitalized children with conduct disorder. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2012–2014). All patients were ≤18 years and cases with primary diagnosis of conduct disorder (N = 32345) and a comparison group with another psychiatric diagnosis (N = 410,479) were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A logistic regression model was used to generate the Odds Ratio (OR) between both groups. Results: Children <11 years old have five times greater chances of admission for conduct disorder than adolescent (OR 5.339). African American males are more likely to be admitted for conduct disorder. Children with conduct disorder from low-income families have a 1.5 times higher likelihood for inpatient admission compared to high-income families. These children have about eleven times higher odds of comorbid psychosis (OR 11.810) and seven times for depression (OR 7.093) compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Conduct disorders are more debilitating for children and families than many providers realize. African American male under 11 years is at the highest risk for inpatient management for conduct disorder. These patients have a higher risk of comorbid psychosis and depression which may further deteriorate the severity of illness and require acute inpatient care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: gout; urate-lowering therapy; serum uric acid; pharmacoepidemiologic study; comorbidities
Online: 11 January 2023 (10:37:41 CET)
Introduction: Individuals with gout are at higher risk of developing chronic conditions, such as diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the association between urate-lowering therapy (ULT) use and the prevalence of these conditions was evaluated. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiologic study used the 2013-2018 biannual cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The inclusion criteria were adults 30 years of age and older with a diagnosis of gout. The association between ULT treatment status and dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease was evaluated, as well as associations with select clinical laboratory biomarkers. Results: Use of ULT was 28.9% (95%CI 24.3%-33.9%). There was no significant association between ULT use and the prevalence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, or dyslipidemia (p>0.05). Those on ULT had a lower mean eGFR compared to those not on treatment (68.03 versus 74.74 mL/min/1.73m², p=0.014). LDL- and HDL- and total cholesterol were significantly lower among those receiving ULT treatment (p<0.05). Conclusion: ULT use continues to be low among those with gout. Those on ULT were more likely to be diagnosed with CKD, college graduates and above, older males, and obese. Clinical guidelines conditionally recommend ULTs in co-morbid kidney disease; while our results may reflect guidelines recommendation for ULT use in CKD patients, worsening kidney function while taking ULT is unlikely. Further research is necessary to determine the long-term impact of ULTs on kidney function and cardiovascular biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA-Seq; Vitamin K; Comorbidities; Differential Expressed Genes; Variant analysis
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:13:29 CEST)
Systems genetics is key for integrating a large number of variants associated with diseases. Vitamin K (VK) is one of the scarcely studied conditions in lieu of ascertaining either the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) or variants in an individual subpopulation of diseased phenotypes associated with VK, viz. myocardial infarction, renal failure, prostate cancer, thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulation related diseases to name a few. In this work, we have screened characteristic DEGs common to three VK-related diseases, viz. myocardial infarction, renal failure and prostate cancer and asked whether or not any DEGs in addition to pathogenic variants are common to these conditions. We attempt to bridge the gap in finding characteristic biomarkers and discuss the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the biogenesis of VK deficiencies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; associated comorbidities; treatment; ACE2 inhibitors; Type 2 diabetes
Online: 19 April 2020 (05:42:22 CEST)
The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is becoming pandemic with the highest mortality in people with associated comorbidities. These RNA viruses containing four structural proteins usually use spike protein to enter the host cell. It has been demonstrated that Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) ,as a part of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), acts as a host receptor for the virus which is the main target of therapeutic approaches. However, medications acting on RAAS can lead to serious complications especially in people with diabetes and hypertension. To avoid this, other potential treatment modalities should be used in COVID-19 patients with associated comorbidities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0356.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Comorbidities; Clinical characteristics; Pathobiology; 2019-nCov
Online: 14 December 2020 (18:16:00 CET)
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought the world to a standstill with the infected cases surpassing millions. The causative agent of COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged from the wet animal market in Wuhan, China in early December 2019. Soon after, human-to-human transmission increased the rate of infection making the disease widespread with new hotspots emerging around the world.The epidemiological reports based on clinical characteristics including age, gender, symptoms (both severe and non-severe), and the conditions requiring intensive medical care, along with case fatality revealed that people with co-existing health conditions like diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and others with cardiovascular and kidney diseases were more susceptible to COVID-19 infection with poor prognosis in cases related to the severity of symptoms and requiring ICU, medical ventilators with a high fatality rate. Even people with immunosuppressed conditions like HIV and cancer, alongwith old age and pregnant women are vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and can cause severe health complications.It is extremely important to have a comprehensive idea of the underlying pathophysiology related to these health conditions which makes them more susceptible to contract SARS-CoV-2 infection in correlation with the development of severe symptoms. This review will provide an extensive viewpoint related to COVID-19 patients having coexisting health conditions together with the association between the prognosis of the disease and the pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, based on the current information available.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1975.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Surgical robotics; Laparoscopy Bariatric; Bariatric techniques; Surgical complications; Bariatric revision; Obesity and comorbidities
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:41:34 CET)
This article examines the evolution of bariatric surgery, with a focus on emerging technologies such as robotics and laparoscopy. In the case of gastric bypass, no significant differences have emerged between the two techniques in terms of hospitalization duration, weight loss, weight regain, or 30-day mortality. Robotic surgery, while requiring more time in the operating room, has been associated with lower rates of bleeding, mortality, transfusions, and infections. In revisional bariatric surgery, the robotic approach has shown fewer complications, shorter hospital stays, and a reduced need for conversion to open surgery. In the case of sleeve gastrectomy, robotic procedures have required more time and longer post-operative stays but have recorded lower rates of transfusions and bleeding compared to laparoscopy. However, robotic surgeries have proven to be more costly and potentially more complex in terms of post-operative complications. The review has also addressed the topic of the single anastomosis duodeno-ileal switch (SADIS), finding comparable results between robotic and laparoscopic techniques, although robotic procedures have required more time in the operating room. Robotic technology has proven to be safe and effective, albeit with slightly longer operating times in some cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0127.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: comorbidities; congestive heart failure; health informatics; Bayes networks; clustering; risk assessment; clinical decision making
Online: 9 July 2019 (04:16:43 CEST)
Comorbidities can have a cumulative effect on hospital outcomes of care, such as the length of stay (LOS), and hospital mortality. This study examines patients hospitalized with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), a life-threatening condition, which, when it coexists with a burdened disease profile, the risk for negative hospital outcomes increases. Since coexisting conditions co-interact, with a variable effect on outcomes, clinicians should be able to recognize these joint effects. In order to study CHF comorbidities, we used medical claims data from CMS. After extracting the most frequent cluster of CHF comorbidities, we: (i) Calculated, step-by-step, the conditional probabilities for each disease combination inside this cluster (ii) Estimated the cumulative effect of each comorbidity combination on the LOS and hospital mortality (iii) Constructed (a) Bayesian, scenario-based graphs and (b) Bayes-networks to visualize results. Results show that, for CHF patients, different comorbidity constructs have variable effect on the LOS and hospital mortality. Therefore, dynamic comorbidity risk assessment methods should be implemented for informed clinical decision making in any ongoing effort for quality of care improvements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; variants; vaccines; immune dysregulated; comorbidities; antibody; Spike protein; biomolecules; coronavirus
Online: 2 June 2021 (09:56:14 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which has been a topic of major concern to global human health. The challenge to restrain the COVID-19 pandemic is further compounded by the emergence of several SARS-CoV-2 variants viz. B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P1 and, B.1.617., which show in-creased transmissibility and resistance towards vaccines and therapies. Importantly, the likelihood of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection among individuals with dysregulated immune response or comorbidities needs greater attention. Herein, we provide a comprehensive perspective regarding ongoing vaccine (mRNA, protein-based, viral vector based etc.) and therapeutic (mono-clonal antibodies, small molecules, plasma therapy, etc.) modalities designed to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss in detail the challenges posed by different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) identified across the globe and their effects on therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs); major depressive disorder (MDD); obesity; metabolic dysregulation; comorbidities
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:54:21 CEST)
The co-occurrence of depression and obesity has become a significant public health concern worldwide. Recent studies have shown that metabolic dysfunction, which is commonly observed in obese individuals and characterized by inflammation, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hypertension, is a critical risk factor for depression. This dysfunction may induce structural and functional changes in the brain, ultimately contributing to depression's development. Given that obesity and depression mutually increase each other's risk of development by 50-60%, there is a need for effective interventions that address both conditions. The comorbidity of depression with obesity and metabolic dysregulation is thought to be related to chronic low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and C-reactive protein (CRP). As pharmacotherapy fails in at least 30-40% of cases to adequately treat major depressive disorder, a nutritional approach is emerging as a promising alternative. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are a promising dietary intervention that can reduce inflammatory biomarkers, particularly in patients with high levels of inflammation, including pregnant women with gestational diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight individuals with major depressive disorder. Further effort directed to implement these strategies in clinical practice could contribute to improved outcomes in patients with depression and comorbid obesity and/or metabolic dysregulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: AGING; Age-related comorbidities; Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme; Amyloid-degrading enzyme; Alzheimer’s disease; Dementia; Hypertension; Life extension; Stress resistance
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:04:43 CEST)
A recent report from the American Heart Association in 2018 shows that over 103 million American adults have hypertension. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 184.108.40.206) is a dipeptidyl carboxylase that, when inhibited, can reduce blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system. ACE inhibitors are used as a first-line medication to be prescribed to treat hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure among others. It has been suggested that ACE inhibitors can reduce the symptoms in mouse models. Despite the benefits of ACE inhibitors, previous studies also have suggested that alterations in the ACE gene are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological diseases. In mice, overexpression of ACE in the brain reduces symptoms of the AD-model systems. Thus, we find opposing effects of ACE on health. To clarify the effects, we dissect the functions of ACE as follows: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme that hydrolyzes angiotensin I to make angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system; (2) amyloid-degrading enzyme that can hydrolyze beta-amyloid and reduce amyloid toxicity. The efficacy of the ACE inhibitors is well established in humans, while the knowledge specific to AD remains to be open for further research. We provide an overview of ACE and inhibitors that link a wide variety of age-related comorbidities from hypertension to Alzheimer’s disease to aging. ACE also serves as an example of the middle-life crisis theory that assumes deleterious events during the midlife, leading to age-related later events.