ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0545.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: ephemeral snow; snowpack; seasonal snow; United States
Online: 20 November 2020 (12:33:03 CET)
Snowpack seasonality in the conterminous United States (U.S.) is explored using a daily,14 km horizontal resolution gridded snow water equivalent and snow depth reanalysis product. I2calculated seasonal snowpacks using two established methods: (1) the classic Sturm approach that3requires 60 days of snow cover with a peak depth >50 cm and (2) the snow seasonality metric (SSM)4that only requires 60 days of continuous snow cover. The latter approach yields continuous values5from -1 to +1, where -1 (+1) indicates an ephemeral (seasonal) snowpack. Both approaches identify6seasonal snowpacks in western mountains and the northernmost central and eastern U.S. By relaxing7the depth constraint and providing continuous values, the SSM identifies greater areas of seasonal8snowpacks compared to the Sturm method, particularly in the upper Midwest, New England, and the9Intermountain West. Ephemeral snowpacks are identified throughout lower elevation regions of the10western U.S. and across a broad swath centered near 35°N spanning the lee of the Rocky Mountains11to the Atlantic coast. Because it lacks a depth constraint, the SSM approach is sensitive to interannual12variability, indicating it may inform the location of shallow but long-duration snowpacks at risk13of transitioning to becoming ephemeral with climatic change. A case study in Oregon during an14extreme snow drought year highlights seasonal to ephemeral snowpack transitions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0768.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate; Contiguous United States; Deep Neural Network; Land Cover; Large Wildfire
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:46:12 CEST)
Over the last several decades, large wildfires are increasingly common across the United States causing disproportionate impact on forest health and function, human well-being, and economy. Here, we examine the severity of large wildfires across the Contiguous United States over the past decade (2011-2020) using a wide array of meteorological, vegetational, and topographical features in the Deep Neural Network model. A total of 4,538 wildfire incidents were used in the analysis covering 87,305 square miles of burned area. We observed the highest number of large wildfires in California, Texas, and Idaho, with lightning causing 43 % of these incidents. Importantly, results indicate that the severity of wildfire occurrences is highly correlated with the climatological forcings, land cover, location, and elevation of the ecosystem. Overall, results may serve useful guide in managing landscapes under changing climate and disturbance regimes.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: clinical trial; transparency; legislation; regulation; policy analysis; China; United States; publication bias
Online: 18 October 2023 (18:25:50 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Clinical trials are a critical step in the development of new medicines and medical devices, testing the efficacy and safety of new treatment regimens. However, if the results of clinical trials are not made public, the evidence base on interventions is incomplete and possibly distorted, which lead to suboptimal treatment choices and negatively affect public health. This study analyses and contrasts the laws and regulations governing clinical trial registration and reporting in China and the United States. Methods: We used desk research to compile, assess and compare current laws, regulations, compliance patterns, and enforcement mechanisms and actions in China and the United States (U.S.). Policy documents were downloaded from Chinese and U.S. government websites. A spreadsheet analysis was utilized for direct comparison. Results: Both China and the U.S. have laws and regulations governing clinical trial registration and reporting. Chinese legislation covers a broader range of trials. In the U.S. trial results must be disclosed to both the national regulator and the public, while Chinese law mandates disclosure to the regulator alone. Cross-country comparisons of regulatory compliance by trial sponsors are impossible due to the opacity of the Chinese data platform. Neither country effectively ensures that all clinical trial results are made public as required by the Declaration of Helsinki and recommended by the WHO. Interpretation: While neither country is perfect, both may be able to learn from each other. There is a major gap in the literature regarding the extent of non-publication of clinical trial results by sponsors operating in China.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0100.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS; glacial; lake; clay; mineral; United States; Canada; Finland; Vermont; New Hampshire; Maine; Ohio; Wisconsin; Indiana; Minnesota; North Dakota; Montana, Idaho; Washington; Oregon; Colorado; Iowa; Utah
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:21:51 CET)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease clusters are found in several countries worldwide. In the United States, ALS clusters are found in many states, largely within the northern United States. The cause of the increased rates of ALS in these areas remains indefinite. It is reported here that many ALS clusters are associated with sites of current or prior glacial lakes, or regions containing an abundance of silts and clay minerals. The potential significance of these findings in ALS is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; mass testing strategy; United Arab Emirates
Online: 19 January 2021 (08:59:34 CET)
Appropriate diagnostic testing to identify persons infected with SARS-COV-2 is a vital part of a health system’s ability to control the global pandemic of COVID-19 disease. The primary purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the mass testing strategy implemented throughout the UAE and the overall impact it has made on containing and controlling the spread of the disease. This study describes the mass testing strategy and capacity of the UAE during the pandemic of the new coronavirus SARS-COV-2. The UAE has conducted 15 million polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to SARS-COV-2, as of 15 November 2020. The number of tests per day varied from 10,000 by the end of March to 120,000 tests per day in November 2020. The mass testing initiative across the entire UAE forms an integral part of a bigger strategy focusing on testing, tracing contacts and isolating positive cases.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0323.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: rural health: urban health; health status; cancer survivors; United Kingdom
Online: 24 May 2022 (05:13:59 CEST)
Objective: To explore the effect of rural-urban residence on self-reported health status with UK cancer survivors. Design: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire that collected data on demographics, post-code and self-reported health status. Methods: Independent Samples t test was used to detect differences in health status between rural and urban respondents. Pearson’s χ2 was used to control for confounding variables and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stepwise linear regression. Setting: East Midlands of England. Participants: Adult cancer survivors who had undergone primary treatment in the last five years. Participants were excluded if they had recurrence or metastatic spread, started active oncology treatment in the last twelve months and were in receipt of palliative or end of life care. Main Outcome: Residence was measured using the UK ONS RUC2011 Rural-Urban Classifications and Health Status via the UK ONS self-reported health status measure. Results: 227 respondents returned a questionnaire. Forty-five per cent (N=103) were resident in a rural area and fifty-three per cent (N=120) in an urban area. Rural (4.11±0.85) respondents had significantly (p<0.001) higher self-reported health status compared to urban (3.65±0.93) respondents (MD 0.47; 95% CI 0.23, 0.70). Conclusion: Rural respondents had significantly higher self-reported health status compared to their urban counterparts. It is hoped that the results will stimulate further work in this area and that researchers will be encouraged to collect data on rural-urban residency where appropriate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: MMR; vaccine hesitancy; critical review; Wakefield; child immunisation; United Kingdom
Online: 2 April 2021 (12:19:07 CEST)
This review critically assesses the body of research about Measles-Mumps-and-Rubella (MMR) vaccine attitudes and uptake in the United Kingdom (UK) over the past 10 years. We searched PubMed and Scopus, with terms aimed at capturing relevant literature on attitudes, uptake, decision-making, and beliefs about the MMR vaccine. Two researchers screened for abstract eligibility and after de-duplication 934 studies were selected. After screening, 40 references were included for full-text review and thematic synthesis by three researchers. We were interested in the methodologies employed, and grouped findings by whether studies concerned: (1) Uptake and Demographics; (2) Beliefs and Attitudes; (3) Healthcare Worker Focus; (4) Experimental and Psychometric Intervention; (5) Mixed Methods. We identified group and individual level determinants for attitudes, operating directly and indirectly, that influence vaccine uptake. We found that access issues, often ignored within the public “anti-vax” debate, remain highly pertinent. Finally, a consistent theme was the effect of misinformation and lack of knowledge or trust in healthcare, often stemming from the Wakefield controversy. Future COVID-19 immunisation campaigns for children should consider both access and attitudinal aspects of vaccination, and incorporate a range of methodologies to assess progress, taking into account socio-economic variables and the needs of disadvantaged groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0267.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; intensive care; trends; United Kingdom; mortality; mechanical ventilation
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:28:49 CEST)
Rationale: Examining trends in patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes, across an epidemic, provides important opportunities for learning. Objectives: To report and explore changes in admission rates, patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes for all patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Methods: Population cohort of 10,287 patients with COVID-19 in the Case Mix Programme national clinical audit from 1 February to 2 July, 2020. Analyses were stratified by time period (pre-peak, peak, post-peak) and geographical region. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate differences in 28-day mortality, adjusting for patient characteristics over time. Main results: Admissions to ICU peaked simultaneously across regions on 1 April, with ongoing admissions peaking ten days later. Compared with pre- and post-peak periods, patients admitted during the peak were slightly younger but had greater respiratory and renal dysfunction. Use of invasive ventilation and renal replacement reduced over time. Twenty-eight-day mortality reduced from 43.5% (95% CI 41.6% to 45.5%) pre-peak to 34.3% (95% CI 32.3% to 36.2%) post-peak; a difference of −8.8% (95% CI: −5.2%, −12.3%) after adjusting for patient characteristics. London experienced the highest admission rate and had higher mortality during the peak period but a greater reduction in post-peak mortality. Conclusion: This study highlights changes in patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes, during the UK COVID-19 epidemic. After adjusting for the changes in patient characteristics and first 24-hour physiology, there was substantial improvement in 28-day mortality over the course of the epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education for sustainable development, postgraduate students, united kingdom, survey study
Online: 7 February 2019 (10:15:59 CET)
As reflected in the sustainable development goals (SDG), sustainable development is a multi-dimensional concept integrating political, ethical, economic and other factors. Reports from the UN decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD) suggest that universities are more engaged with sustainable development in higher education (HESD). Despite promising signals about student awareness of sustainable development, survey studies suggest student engagement and knowledge is limited in addressing social and economic factors. This study evaluated how UK students enrolled in postgraduate taught sustainability degrees responded to the multi-dimensional issues of sustainable development. Consolidating work by Baker on the multi-dimensional ladder of sustainable development, this study piloted a 39 question 7-point Likert scale survey with a cohort of UK taught postgraduate (MSc, MPhil) students (n=121, Cronbach Alpha 0.796, n=39 Questions). Subsequent removal of questions duplicating content and replacement of missing values produced better results (0.810 Cronbach Alpha, n=30 Questions). The study found this cohort able to recognize and respond to the multiple challenges of strong and weak sustainable development issues. Results also suggest that future studies could limit the number of questions Results and qualitative comments from the survey suggest, however, students resist the idea of strong interventions in social, political and economic life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0018.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: temperate forests; species richness; lineage diversity; phylogenetic diversity; United States; trees; TILD
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:15:50 CET)
Lineage diversity can refer to the number of genetic lineages within species or to the number of deeper evolutionary lineages, such as genera or families, within a community. Community lineage diversity (CLD) is of interest to ecologists, evolutionary biologists, biogeographers, and those setting conservation priorities. Despite its relevance, it is not clear how to best quantify CLD. With North American tree communities as an example, we test which taxonomic and phylogenetic metrics best measure CLD. We find that phylogenetic metrics outperform taxonomic metrics. Faith’s phylogenetic diversity performs well, but is skewed towards the number of lineages in recent time. The best metric is newly derived here, and termed time integrated lineage diversity (TILD). Mapping the lineage diversity of tree communities across the contiguous United States, we find a spatial pattern differing from that of species richness in key areas. The Pacific Northwest, Great Lakes Region, state of Maine, and south-eastern piedmont and coastal plain forests all emerge as areas high in lineage diversity, but relatively lower in species richness. We urge the consideration of lineage diversity, as well as species richness, when setting conservation priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: climate change adaptation; adaptation plan; small municipality; France, United States; climate services; information
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:10:35 CET)
There is a growing consensus that to effectively adapt to climate change, cities need user-friendly tools and reliable high-resolution biophysical and socio-economic data for analysis, mapping, modeling, and visualization. This study examines availability of various types of information used in climate adaptation plans of 40 municipalities with population less than 300,000 people in the United and in France, probing into the choice and usage of relevant information by small municipalities. We argue that non-climatic spatial data, such as population demographic and socio-economic patterns, urban infrastructure, and environmental data must be integrated with climate tools and datasets to inform effective vulnerability assessment and equitable climate adaptation planning goals. Climate adaptation plans frequently fail to address the existing structural inequalities and environmental injustices in urban infrastructure and land use. Adaptation methodological approaches should be reassessed in the context of much needed societal transformation. Lessons learned from our studies offer valuable insights for potential development of the national and state-level climate adaptation information services for cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0189.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: British politics; Christianity; David Cameron; religion; identity; United Kingdom; doing god; British Muslims
Online: 31 October 2017 (03:22:05 CET)
In the British setting, the deployment of the phrase ‘doing god’ has become increasingly common to refer to an emerging trend whereby religion has acquired an increasingly prominent role in political spaces and discourses. This was particularly prominent while David Cameron was Prime Minister and leader of the Conservative Party. While historically, religion has not had a prominent place in either the former Prime Minister David Cameron. Here, the findings from critical analyzing a series of Cameron’s public pronouncements about religion—and Christianity in particular—is set out to try and better understand his own adherence to Christianity (the personal) how this intersected with his politics and role as Prime Minister (the political), and more importantly how this shaped his views about Britain being a Christian country (the national). Contextualised within the embryonic scholarly literature relating to the phenomenon of ‘doing god’ in the contemporary British setting, this article concludes by considering alternative and analogous frames through which greater elucidation of the true motivations of his pronouncements might be understood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; healthcare workers; United Kingdom; mental health; burnout; resilience; insomnia; depression; anxiety; lifestyle
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:24:40 CEST)
The burden of COVID-19 pandemic on health systems and the physical and mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) has been substantial. This cross-sectional study aims to assess the effects of Covid-19 on the psychological wellbeing of mental health workers who provide care to a vulnerable patient population that have been particularly affected during this crisis. A total of 387 HCWs from across a large urban mental health service completed a self-administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, lifestyle and work-based information and validated psychometric scales. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) respectively, sleep problems with the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), burnout with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and resilience with the Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine potential mediating factors. Prevalence of burnout was notable, with 52% recording moderate/severe in Emotional Exhaustion, 19.5% moderate/severe in Depersonalisation and 55.5% low/moderate Personal Accomplishment. Over half of all respondents (52%) experienced sleep problems; the presence of depressive symptoms was a significant predictor of insomnia. An increase in potentially harmful lifestyle changes, such as smoking, alcohol consumption and over-eating was also observed. However, high Resilience was reported by 70% of the sample and the importance of this is highlighted. Female gender was associated with increased levels of depression and emotional exhaustion while those with a history of mental health conditions were most at risk of affective symptoms, insomnia and burnout. Overall, our study revealed considerable levels of psychological distress and maladaptive coping strategies but also resilience and satisfaction with organizational support provided. Findings can inform tailored interventions in order to mitigate vulnerability and prevent long-term psychological sequelae.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: racial discrimination; employment; United Kingdom; The Netherlands; black and ethnic minorities; women; Islam; alienation
Online: 14 December 2016 (07:54:52 CET)
The measurement of discrimination in employment is a key variable in understanding dynamics in the nature of and change in ‘race relations’. Measuring such discrimination using ‘situation’ and ‘correspondence’ tests was influenced by John Rex’s sociological analyses, begun in in England in the 1960s, and replicated in Europe and America in later decades. This literature is reviewed, and the methodologies of testing for employment discrimination are discussed. Recent work in Britain and The Netherlands is considered in detail in the light of changing social structures, and the rise of Islamophobia. Manchester, apparently the city manifesting the most discrimination in Britain, is considered for a special case study, with a focus on one individual, a Muslim woman seeking intermediate level accountancy employment. Her vita was matched with that of a manifestly indigenous, white Briton. Submitted vitas (to 1,043 potential employers) indicated significant discrimination against the Muslim woman candidate. Results are discussed within the context of Manchester’s micro-sociology, and Muslim women’s employment progress in broader contexts, drawing on our work in Jordan and Palestine. We conclude with the critical realist comment that the “hidden racism” of employment discrimination shows that capitalist societies continue to be institutionally racist, and the failure to reward legitimate aspirations of minorities pushes ethnic minorities into a permanent precariat, with implications for social justice and social control, which denies minority efforts to “integrate” in society’s employment systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1437.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Life expectancy; Saudi Arabia; United Arab Emirates; Structural equation model; Macroeconomic; Sociodemographic; Health status resources
Online: 20 June 2023 (11:44:24 CEST)
Despite marked advancements, life expectancy (LE) growth in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has remained stagnant compared to other developed nations. This study aims to investigate the significant correlation between macroeconomic (ME), sociodemographic (SD), and health status-resources (HSR) factors and LE to formulate an explanatory model for Saudi Arabia and the UAE – a previously unexplored area. Utilizing an ecological, retrospective, time-series study design, we delved into secondary data on SD, ME, HSR, and LE of the UAE population spanning three decades (1980-2020). We employed the partial least squares-structural equation modeling for statistical analysis. Our analysis revealed significant direct impacts of HSR on LE for Saudi Arabia (Beta=0.958, p<0.001) and the UAE (Beta=0.716, p<0.001). Furthermore, we discerned a notable indirect influence of ME on LE, mediated through SD and HSR for Saudi Arabia (Beta=0.507, p<0.001) and UAE (Beta=0.509, p<0.001), along with a considerable indirect effect of SD on LE through HSR (Saudi Arabia: Beta=0.529, p<0.001; UAE: Beta=0.711, p<0.001). This study underscores the mediating role of a nexus of ME-SD-HSR factors on LE in Saudi Arabia and the UAE. Consequently, these findings signal an imperative need for holistically policy interventions addressing ME, SD, and HSR factors, aiming to alter health behaviors and improve LE projections for Saudi Arabia and the UAE in the long run.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Sustainability; Postdevelopment; Degrowth; Disaster Risk Reduction; United Nations; Permacrisis; Metadisaster.
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:48:45 CEST)
This transdisciplinary review of research about international cooperation on social and environmental change builds the case for replacing Sustainable Development as the dominant framework for an era of increasing crises and disasters. The review is the output of an intentional exploration of recent studies in multiple subject areas, based on the authors’ decades of work in related fields since the Rio Earth Summit 30 years ago (rather than a keyword search of databases). It summarizes the research which documents failure to progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the extensive scholarship critiquing the conceptual framework behind those ‘Global Goals’, and the economic ideology they arose from and support, is used to explain that failure. Although the pandemic set back the SDGs, it further revealed the inappropriate strategy behind those goals. This suggests the Global Goals constitute an ‘own-goal’ scored against people and nature. From this conclusion, alternative frameworks for organizing action on social and environmental issues become more important and are therefore briefly reviewed. It is argued that such a future framework must relate a new eco-social contract between citizen and state, and engage existing organizations and capabilities that are relevant to an increasingly disrupted world. Therefore, the case is made for considering an upgraded form of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) as an overarching framework. The proposed upgrades include detaching from economic ideologies, and recognizing that a wider metadisaster from climate chaos may reduce the future availability of external support. Therefore, self-reliant resilience and locally-led adaptation are identified as important to the future of DRM. Some options for professionals continuing to use the term sustainability, such as this journal, are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: pharmacists; hospital pharmacy; United Kingdom; discharge prescriptions; prescribing; consolidated framework for implementation research; implementation strategies
Online: 8 May 2017 (11:59:12 CEST)
The effective dissemination and implementation of health service interventions into practice requires a range of strategic and systematic approaches. This paper applies a conceptual implementation framework to the evaluation of a hospital-wide clinical pharmacy initiative, a redesign of the discharge medication prescription pathway. The influencing factors and strategies used to overcome potential negative influences are described and assessed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1799.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Carbon tax; Carbon tax and NDC; CGE Cobb-Douglas model; Carbon tax and the United States Government
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:39:12 CEST)
Our study shows how the United States government can achieve its goal of Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2025, 2030, and 2050 by reducing energy consumption through a pure carbon tax. To achieve its emissions reduction goals, it is necessary for the US to impose a long-term carbon tax that balances taxes on labour, capital, energy, and carbon. Therefore, in this study, through the two-layer CGE Cobb-Douglas model, the carbon tax rate is set while balancing the production and profit functions of government, businesses, and households. This study concludes that the carbon price will increase from US$ 0.4391/kg CO2 in 2020 to US$ 2.5671/kg CO2 in 2050 when the CO2 emissions reduction target is increased from 17% reduction in 2020 to 83% reduction in 2050 for the US.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Collaborative consumption; Data sharing and reuse; Data recycling; Digital assets; United nations SDGs; Sustainability; Sustainable Development; Sustainable scholarship
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:15:23 CEST)
In order to meet the needs of an increasingly complex research landscape, researchers engage in “collaborative prosumption” through open data sharing and reuse. Although significant gains have been achieved in this regards because of growing requirements from funding agencies, governments and journals, the question of how reuse of openly available data for new research contribute to sustainability is yet to be appropriately addressed in the literature. Therefore, relying on a three stage stratified clustered random sampling of the Journal of Applied Econometrics data archive (JAEDA), the present research provides a case study of the value of research data recycling for sustainable research and economic development. More specifically our analysis show that reformatting from wide to long format, openly shared equity price index data on eleven European countries’ extracted from JAEDA, and augmented with country level geospatial Meta data, provides a new basis for interesting descriptive analytics and spatio-temporal econometric modeling and inference. Given the ever-increasing volume of openly available research data, our study provides a first-hand insight on open data reuse, which should benefit all stakeholders in the research community, as they seek sustainable solutions for scientific productivity and progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Religion; migration; Political Economy; demographic economic policies; sanctuary movement; persecution; civil disobedience; The United States of America (USA/US).
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:27:59 CEST)
This is a study of Political Economy on religion and migration management in the United States of America (USA). This paper offers a review of migrants-citizens relations in the USA, with attention to the pendulum effect, moving from integration policies (open doors and melting pot agenda) to official persecution (raids and deportations), with a high social opportunity cost. There has been a split between the State and civil society, causing civil disobedience and sanctuary network across the country. Also, it is paid attention to the American post-modern paradox, as a result of culture wars and identity politics that imply a violation of American constitutional principles (i.e. religious liberty, freedom of movement, to pursuit the happiness). Special attention is paid to the development of the Sanctuary Movement, as an ongoing example of the sociocultural upheaval bringing grassroots society into confrontation with powerful elites by promoting resistance and offering help to the needy, even if this results in sanctions. This movement was revitalized after the values crisis of 2008, but it has also been polarized between those who follow the traditional approach to socio-religious action in the form of peaceful civil disobedience, and those who follow the ideological anti-system and communitarian approach, which causes greater tension for the immigrants themselves
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0554.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Biomass burning; Anthropogenic aerosols; West Africa; United Kingdom Floods; Iberian Drought; European winter temperatures; Last Millennium Ensemble; NASA MERRA-2
Online: 29 December 2021 (13:14:28 CET)
Three significant changes have occurred in the winter climate in Europe recently: increased UK flooding; Iberian drought; and warmer temperatures north of the Alps. The literature links all three to a persistent, significant increase in sea level pressure over Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, Iberia and the Eastern Atlantic (SEMIEA) which changes the atmospheric circulation system: forcing cold fronts to the north away from Iberia; and creating a south westerly flow around the northern perimeter of the high-pressure region bringing warmer, moist air from the subtropical Atlantic to the UK and Europe which increases precipitation in the UK and raises the temperature in Europe. I use the Last Millennium Ensemble, MERRA-2 and Terra-NCEP data to demonstrate that the extreme, anthropogenic, West African aerosol Plume (WAP) which only exists from December to April perturbs the northern, regional Hadley Circulation creating the high pressure in the SEMIEA. I also show that the anthropogenic WAP has only existed in its extreme form in recent decades as the two major sources of the WAP aerosols: biomass burning; and gas flaring have both increased significantly since 1950 due to: a four-fold increase in population; and gas flaring rising from zero to 7.4 billion m3/annum and note that this time span coincides with the changes in the three elements of the winter climate of Europe. I also suggest that it may be possible to eliminate the WAP and return the winter climate of Europe to its natural state after the crucial first step of recognising the cause of the changes is taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: Sustainable Heritage Tourism; Native American Heritage Places; United States National Parks; Arches National Park; Canyonlands National Park; Hovenweep National Park
Online: 23 October 2020 (11:08:48 CEST)
Abstract: Sustainable use of Native American heritage places is viewed in this analysis as serving to preserve their traditional purposes and sustain the cultural landscapes that give them heritage meaning. The research is about the potential impacts of heritage tourism to selected Native American places at Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, and Hovenweep National Monument. The impacts of tourists to a heritage place must be understood as having both potential effects on the place itself and on an integrated cultural landscape. Impacts to one place potentially change other places- functions in a Native American landscape and the integrity of the landscape itself. The analysis is based on 696 interviews with representatives from nine tribes and pueblos, who in addition to defining the cultural meaning of places, officially made 349 heritage management recommendations. The U.S. National Park Service interprets Natives American resources and then brings millions of tourists to these through museums, brochures, outdoor displays, and ranger-guided tours. Native American ethnographic study participants argued that tourist education and regulation can increase the sustainability of Native American places in a park and can help protect related places beyond the park.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0368.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: extended space-time; complex space-time; united theories; geometric unification; dark matter-energy; Cartan's principle of triality; extended general-special relativity
Online: 17 October 2019 (09:51:27 CEST)
We explore the possibility to form a physical theory in C4. We argue that the expansion of our usual 4-d real space-time to a 4-d complex space-time, can serve us to describe geometrically electromagnetism and unify it with gravity, in a different way that Kaluza-Klein theories do. Specially, the electromagnetic eld Aμ, is included in the free geodesic equation of C4. By embedding our usual 4-d real space-time in the symplectic 8-d real space-time (symplectic R8 is algebraically isomorphic to C4), we derive the usual geodesic equation of a charged particle in gravitational eld, plus new information which is interpreted. Afterwards, we explore the consequences of the formulation of a "special relativity" in the at R8.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1908.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: craft beer industry; brewing ingredient companies; regional differences; market analysis; Western Canada; Eastern Canada; United States; strategic recommendations; beer styles; local sourcing
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:27:11 CEST)
(1) As the craft beer industry continues to expand in Canada, understanding the regional differences between the Eastern and Western markets becomes pivotal for brewing ingredient companies seeking to penetrate or expand within these regions. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of these two distinctive markets, focusing on economic, logistical, ingredient, and cultural differences. (2) The study primarily relies on secondary data from government, industry reports, and scholarly publications, providing a holistic view of the Canadian craft beer landscape. It further highlights the need to consider market distinctions between Canada and the United States. (3) Findings reveal that Western Canadian breweries, unlike their Eastern counterparts, operate under constrained storage space, prefer locally-sourced ingredients, and offer a distinct variety of beer styles catering to local tastes. The study further uncovers the regulatory and financial complexities of the Canadian market compared to the United States. (4) Based on these findings, this study provides strategic recommendations for brewing ingredient companies, emphasizing domestic logistics, local sourcing, product adaptation, educational support, and regulatory navigation, fostering success in the Canadian craft beer landscape.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1770.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: user-inspired science; drought impacts; Canada; United States; Mexico; Pacific Islands; Caribbean Islands; user engagement; Kö ppen climate zones; climate change; drought in tropical climates; drought in polar climates
Online: 28 November 2023 (09:09:54 CET)
: Drought monitoring and early detection have improved greatly in recent decades through the development and refinement of numerous indices and indicators. However, a lack of guidance, based on user experience, exists as to which drought monitoring tools are most appropriate in a given location. This review paper summarizes the results of targeted user engagement and the published literature to improve the understanding of drought across North America, and to enhance the utility of drought monitoring tools. Workshops and surveys were used to assess and make general conclusions about the perceived performance of drought indicators, indices and impacts information used for monitoring drought in the five main Köppen climate types (Tropical, Temperate, Continental, Polar Tundra, Dry) found across Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In Tropical, humid Temperate, and southerly Continental climates, droughts are perceived to be more short-term (less than 6 months) in duration rather than long-term (more than 6 months). In Polar Tundra climates, Dry climates, Temperate climates with dry warm seasons, and northerly Continental climates, droughts are perceived to be more long-term than short-term. In general, agricultural and hydrological droughts were considered to be the most important drought types. Drought impacts related to agriculture, water supply, ecosystem, and human health were rated to be of greatest importance. Users identified the most effective indices and indicators for monitoring drought across North America to be the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) (or another measure of precipitation anomaly), followed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (or another satellite-observed vegetation index), temperature anomalies, crop status, soil moisture, streamflow, reservoir storage, water use (demand), and reported drought impacts. Users also noted the importance of indices that measure evapotranspiration, evaporative demand, and snow water content. Drought indices and indicators were generally thought to perform equally well across seasons in Tropical and the colder Continental climates, but their performance was perceived to vary seasonally in Dry, Temperate, Polar Tundra, and the warmer Continental climates, with improved performance during warm and wet times of the year. The drought indices and indicators, in general, were not perceived to perform equally well across geographies. This review paper provides guidance on when (time of year) and where (climate zone) the more popular drought indices and indicators should be used. The paper concludes by noting the importance of understanding how drought, its impacts, and indicators are changing over time as the climate warms, and by recommending ways to strengthen the use of indices and indicators in drought decision-making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1378.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD / CRPD); Social Work Practice; Mental Health Social Work Practice; Mental Health and Capacity Law reform; Human Rights; Supported Decision-Making; Social Model of Disability
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:20:41 CEST)
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereafter CRPD) has provided a radical imperative for the reform of mental health and capacity legislation around the world. The interpretation of the CRPD has been controversial, ranging from complete abolition of detention, forcible treatment and substitute decision making, to acceptance that elements of these measures need to be retained but based on non-discriminatory criteria, additional safe-guards and a comprehensive shift towards supported decision-making. While the potential ef-fects of the CRPD on mental health social work and social work generally are considerable given their shared commitment towards social justice, to date there has been no review of research evi-dence exploring their relationship. In addressing this knowledge gap, this study held a prelimi-nary discussion with practitioners and academics at the European Association of Social Work Mental Health Special Interest Group in Amsterdam 2022, followed by a scoping literature re-view on the question: What impact, if any, has the CRPD had on social work practice? The review produced four main findings: impact on legislation; positive impact on practice; limited impact on practice; and impact on social work education and research. In sum, while there were some positive indications of social work and mental health social work practice being influenced by the CRPD, these were scant. Barriers to change included tendencies among some social workers to practise substitute decision-making, in part related to resourcing and policy contexts, and under-standings of disability aligned to individualised/medical rather than social perspectives. The results indicate that legal reform on its own is insufficient to impact social work practice, and that realising the potential of the CRPD will necessitate good quality training, as well as improv-ing social workers’ knowledge of the human rights of people with mental impairment.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: augmented reality; literacy engagement; reading for pleasure; transformative education; emergent digital technologies; United Arab Emirates Ministry of Education; UAE; Storytime; interactive literacy experience; young learners; bilingual literacy; local and global contexts; 3D objects; interactive games; learner agency; family engagement; global community; curriculum integration; creativity; holistic learning experiences
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:43:21 CET)
This case study explores the transformative effects of emergent digital technologies, particularly augmented reality (AR), on literacy engagement and reading for pleasure. The United Arab Emirates Ministry of Education implemented the UAE Storytime programme, utilising AR to create an interactive literacy experience for young learners. The programme incorporated bilingual episodes, featuring stories based on local and global contexts, with 3D objects and interactive games to enhance understanding. The results indicate a positive correlation between the use of AR and literacy engagement. A high proportion of learners scanned the QR codes to access the AR objects, which enhanced their engagement and understanding of the stories. The programme fostered a learner agency, engaged family members in the learning process, and established a sense of global community. The study recommends the integration of similar initiatives into the curriculum to promote collaboration, creativity, and holistic learning experiences.