BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0544.v1
Online: 31 August 2022 (10:20:23 CEST)
We performed an epi and molecular characterization of two healthcare workers MPXV occupational infection. Five days after the sampling collection, nurses developed typical MPXV infection symptoms. Infection was confirmed by qPCR and whole genome sequencing. The most likely transmission route was through contact with fomites in the patient belonging/house.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0232.v1
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:12:58 CEST)
(1) Background: The monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family, Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, and Or-thopoxvirus genu. It was called monkeypox because it was first discovered in monkeys, in a Danish laboratory, in 1958. However, the actual reservoir for MPV is still unknown. (2) Methods & Results: We have reviewed the existing literature on the options for Monkeypox virus. There are three available vaccines for orthopoxviruses: ACAM2000, JYNNEOS, and LC16, with the first being a replicating vaccine and the latter being non or minimally replicating. (3) Conclusions: Smallpox vaccinations previously provided coincidental im-munity to MPV. ACAM2000(a live‐attenuated replicating vaccine) and JYNNEOS (a live‐attenuated, non-replicating vaccine) are two US FDA‐approved vaccines that can prevent monkeypox. However, ACAM2000 may cause serious side effects, including cardiac problems, whereas JYNNEOS is associated with fewer com-plications. The recent outbreaks across the globe have once again highlighted the need for constant monitoring and the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Based on available data, there is still a need to develop an effective and safe new generation of vaccines specific for monkeypox that are killed or mRNA before monkeypox is declared a pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0128.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: monkeypox, transmission, outbreak, atypical presentation
Online: 8 August 2022 (03:57:03 CEST)
An ongoing monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries has resulted in the declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). Though monkeypox has long been endemic in regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, relatively little is known about its ecology, epidemiology, and transmission. Here, we consider the relevant research on both monkeypox and smallpox, a close relative, to make inferences about the current outbreak. Undetected circulation, combined with atypical transmission and case presentation, including mild and asymptomatic disease, have led to the spread of monkeypox in non-endemic regions. Broader availability of diagnostics, enhanced surveillance, and targeted education, combined with a better understanding of the routes of transmission, are critical to identify at-risk populations and design science-based countermeasures to control the current outbreak.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Monkeypox; prevention; treatment; endemic; transmission
Online: 2 June 2022 (16:18:05 CEST)
Monkeypox virus was named so because of its detection in monkeys in 1958. It belongs to the same family as smallpox and chickenpox viruses. There had been numerous outbreaks of this malady initially in the African continent and other parts of the world. The simultaneous spread in nineteen countries in 2022 has raised some serious concerns.Monkeypox is no more a rare disease and has the potential for bioweapon use. We discuss the various ways to prevent its spread, treatment options available, diagnosis, and differentiation from other closely related diseases. We also discuss if the present outbreak could be a bioattack or if this disease is here to stay.The literature suggests that we can effectively manage Monkeypox because of the availability of drugs and vaccination against smallpox. There is also a need for active surveillance against the new resistant recombinant viral strains. The possibility of this outbreak being a bioattack seems remote, although there are questions about the transmission which still need to be answered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0314.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: sexual transmission; monkeypox; emerging; global; epidemic
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:08:40 CEST)
Monkeypox is a rare disease which is rising nowadays in different countries since the first case in the UK was diagnosed on May 6, 2022, by the United Kingdom (UK) Health Security Agency. Then more than 12,500 cases were identified in over 68 countries up to July 18, 2022. In endemic areas, the monkeypox virus (MPXV) is commonly transmitted through zoonosis, while in non-endemic regions, it is spread through human-to-human transmission. Symptoms can include flu-like symptoms, rash, or sores in hands, feet, genitalia, or anus. In addition, people who did not take the smallpox vaccine were more liable to be affected than others. The exact pathogenesis and mechanisms are still unclear; however, most identified cases are reported in men who have sex with other men (MSM). According to the CDC, transmission can happen with any sexual or non-sexual contact with the infected person. However, a recent pooled meta-analysis reported that sexual contact is involved in more than 91% of the cases. Also, it is the first time that semen analysis for many patients has shown positive monkeypox virus DNA. Therefore, in this review, we will describe transmission methods for MPXV while focusing mainly on potential sexual transmission and associated sexually transmitted infections. We will also highlight the preventive measures that can limit the spread of the diseases in this regard.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0075.v1
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:43:09 CEST)
The global vaccination programme against smallpox (SPX) led to its successful eradication and averted millions of deaths. Monkeypox (MPX) is a close relative of SPX. Due to their antigenic similarity, SPX vaccines cross-protect against MPX. However, over 70% of people living today were never vaccinated. Symptoms of MPX infection include fever, head and muscle ache, lymphadenopathy and a characteristic rash that develops into papules, vesicles and pustules which eventually scab over and heal. MPX is less often fatal (case fatality rates range from less than 1% to up to 11%) than SPX (up to 30%). MPX is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, infecting wild animals and causing zoonotic outbreaks. Exotic animal trade and international travel combined with the increasing susceptibility of the human population due to halted vaccination facilitated the spread of MPX to new areas. The ongoing outbreak with over 6500 confirmed cases in >50 countries between May and July 2022 shows that MPX can significantly spread between people, and may thus become a serious threat to public health with global consequences. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about this re-emerging virus, discuss available strategies to limit its spread and pathogenicity and evaluate its risk to the human population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: poxviruses; Variola; smallpox; Monkeypox; Vaccinia; Orf; Molluscum; Tanapox
Online: 20 July 2022 (10:05:05 CEST)
Poxviridae have been successful pathogens throughout recorded history, infecting humans among a variety of other hosts. Although eradication of the notorious smallpox has been a globally successful healthcare phenomenon, the recent emergence of Monkeypox virus, also belonging to the Orthopoxvirus genus and causing human disease, albeit milder than smallpox, is a cause of significant public health concern. The ongoing outbreak of monkeypox, demonstrating human-human transmission, in previously non-endemic countries, calls for critical need into further research in the areas of viral biology, ecology and epidemiology to better understand, prevent and treat human infections. In the wake of these recent events, it becomes important to revisit poxviral infections, their pathogenesis and ability to cause infection across multiple non-human hosts and leap to a human host. The poxviruses that cause human diseases include Monkeypox virus, Molluscum contagiosum virus and Orf virus. In this review we summarize the current understanding of various poxviruses causing human diseases, provide insights into their replication and pathogenicity, disease progression and symptoms, preventive and treatment options and their importance in shaping modern medicine through application in gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapies for human cancers or as poxvirus vectors for vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Public Health Emergency; Sexual Health; Monkeypox; Smallpox; JYNNEOS; ACAM2000; Tecovirimat; Brincidofovir
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:46:12 CEST)
Monkeypox, once a rare zoonotic disease, was endemic to some African countries since its original identification among humans in 1970. Since then, cases in non endemic regions were linked to returning travelers or those who had contact with transported animals. The causative agent, Monkeypox virus, belongs to Orthopoxviruses, the same family as Variola; the causative organism for smallpox. Although most Monkeypox outbreaks until recently were linked to zoonotic transmission, secondary human-human transmission in smallpox unvaccinated individuals was observed in a small proportion of overall cases. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980 and since its eradication, monkeypox virus is the most significant poxvirus to cause human disease. The 2022 monkeypox outbreak marks a significant paradigm shift in the human and poxvirus association, with new modes of transmission, concerns of viral evolution and entrenchment as a sexually transmitted disease. Monkeypox clinically resembles smallpox but is far milder. At this time there are no approved therapies for monkeypox and antiviral agents effective against smallpox are being utilized. Additionally, preventive strategies being utilized include smallpox vaccination like JYNNEOS and ACAM2000. In this narrative review, we discuss the virology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management and prevention strategies associated with monkeypox.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0392.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Multi Epitope; monkeypox virus (MPXV); Vaccine; Immunoinformatics; In silico; Molecular docking
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:43:30 CEST)
Background: While mankind is still dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, on May 7, 2022, a case of monkeypox virus (MPXV) has been reported to the WHO. Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease with characteristics comparable to those seen in smallpox cases in the past. It has been a public health threat, particularly in Africa, but recently have been circulating the world, consequently, may become a global public health threat in a very short period. Thus, the current work was planned and then constructed a multi-epitope vaccine that can evoke an immunological response against MPXV utilizing cell surface-binding protein as a target in order to develop a novel vaccine that is both safe and almost free of side effects. Results: The proposed vaccine composed of 304 amino acids and was shown to be antigenic in Vaxijen server (0. 5311) and nonallergenic in AllerTop server. The 3D structure of the designed vaccine is predicted, refined and validated by various in silico tools to assess the stability of the vaccine. Moreover, solubility of the vaccine construct was found greater than the average solubility provided by protein-Sol server indicating the solubility of the vaccine construct. Moreover, the most promising epitopes bound to MHC I and MHC II alleles were found having good binding affinities with low energies ranging between ₋7.0 - ₋8.1kcal/mol. Conclusion: We conclude from our research that the cell surface-binding protein is one of the primary proteins involved in MPXV pathogenesis. The most promising epitopes were selected using a rigorous procedure and used for vaccine design. As a result, our study will aid in the development of appropriate therapeutics and prompt the development of future vaccines against MPXV, which could serve as an important milestone in the production of an antiviral vaccine against MPXV.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0172.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Monkeypox; monkey pox; Twitter; Dataset; Tweets; Social Media; Big Data; Data Mining; Data Science
Online: 25 July 2022 (09:41:19 CEST)