Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Reemergence of Monkeypox in Nigeria—A Mini‐Review

Version 1 : Received: 15 March 2023 / Approved: 16 March 2023 / Online: 16 March 2023 (10:43:53 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Ekpunobi, N.; Akinsuyi, O.; Ariri, T.; Ogunmola, T. The Reemergence of Monkeypox in Nigeria. Challenges 2023, 14, 22. Ekpunobi, N.; Akinsuyi, O.; Ariri, T.; Ogunmola, T. The Reemergence of Monkeypox in Nigeria. Challenges 2023, 14, 22.


The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by viruses continue to be a major public health concern globally, affecting both humans and animals. One such disease is monkeypox, a zoonotic infection caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV) that has recurred in sub-Saharan Africa over several decades. Notably, the 2022 outbreak of monkeypox in Nigeria follows a deadly outbreak in 2017, which was preceded by the disease's first recorded outbreak in 1978. Epidemiological investigations in 2017 showed no apparent link between human monkeypox cases and the outbreak that year, indicating the potential existence of multiple sources of the virus and limited human-to-human transmission. This underscores the presence of an alternative ecological niche in humans. Furthermore, in some communities in Nigeria, monkeys are regarded as sacred and not hunted or consumed, leading to their proliferation and increased likelihood of MPXV transmission. This mini-review focuses on the occurrence, epidemiological distribution, geographical distribution, endemicity, and possible solutions to reduce the spread of human monkeypox in Nigeria. The implications of this reemergence and the need for effective public health measures to prevent and control outbreaks of monkeypox are also discussed.


Monkeypox; Nigeria; MPXV; Epidemiology; Spillover


Biology and Life Sciences, Virology

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