Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Review Of Monkeypox: The New Global Health Emergency

Version 1 : Received: 9 August 2022 / Approved: 11 August 2022 / Online: 11 August 2022 (11:46:12 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Rajsri, K.S.; Rao, M. A Review of Monkeypox: The New Global Health Emergency. Venereology 2022, 1, 199-211. Rajsri, K.S.; Rao, M. A Review of Monkeypox: The New Global Health Emergency. Venereology 2022, 1, 199-211.


Monkeypox, once a rare zoonotic disease, was endemic to some African countries since its original identification among humans in 1970. Since then, cases in non endemic regions were linked to returning travelers or those who had contact with transported animals. The causative agent, Monkeypox virus, belongs to Orthopoxviruses, the same family as Variola; the causative organism for smallpox. Although most Monkeypox outbreaks until recently were linked to zoonotic transmission, secondary human-human transmission in smallpox unvaccinated individuals was observed in a small proportion of overall cases. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980 and since its eradication, monkeypox virus is the most significant poxvirus to cause human disease. The 2022 monkeypox outbreak marks a significant paradigm shift in the human and poxvirus association, with new modes of transmission, concerns of viral evolution and entrenchment as a sexually transmitted disease. Monkeypox clinically resembles smallpox but is far milder. At this time there are no approved therapies for monkeypox and antiviral agents effective against smallpox are being utilized. Additionally, preventive strategies being utilized include smallpox vaccination like JYNNEOS and ACAM2000. In this narrative review, we discuss the virology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management and prevention strategies associated with monkeypox.


Public Health Emergency; Sexual Health; Monkeypox; Smallpox; JYNNEOS; ACAM2000; Tecovirimat; Brincidofovir


Medicine and Pharmacology, Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases

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