ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0441.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: emotion recognition; MLP; SVM; RAVDESS
Online: 19 May 2021 (12:53:55 CEST)
herein, we have compared the performance of SVM and MLP in emotion recognition using speech and song channels of the RAVDESS dataset. We have undertaken a journey to extract various audio features, identify optimal scaling strategy and hyperparameter for our models. To increase sample size, we have performed audio data augmentation and addressed data imbalance using SMOTE. Our data indicate that optimised SVM outperforms MLP with an accuracy of 82 compared to 75%. Following data augmentation, the performance of both algorithms was identical at ~79%, however, overfitting was evident for the SVM. Our final exploration indicated that the performance of both SVM and MLP were similar in which both resulted in lower accuracy for the speech channel compared to the song channel. Our findings suggest that both SVM and MLP are powerful classifiers for emotion recognition in a vocal-dependent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0415.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Drought tolerance index; Stress tolerance index; MLP; SVM; MLP-GA; SVM-GA; Genetic Algorithm
Online: 27 January 2022 (11:21:14 CET)
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) is the staple food crop in the world. In this study, multi-layer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), genetic algorithm-based multi-layer perceptron (MLP-GA), and genetic algorithm-based support vector machine (SVM-GA) hybrid artificial intelligence algorithms were used for the prediction of drought tolerance and stress tolerance indices in teosinte maize lines. Correspondingly, the gamma test technique was applied to determine efficient input and output vectors. The potential of developed models was evaluated based on statistical indices and graphical representation. Results of gamma test based on the least value of gamma and standard error indices show that day of anthesis (DOA), day of silking (DOS), yield index (YI), and gross yield per plant (GYP) information vector arrangements were determined as efficient information vector combination for drought-tolerant index (DTI) as well as the stress-tolerant index (STI). The results of MLP, SVM, MLP-GA, and SVM-GA algorithms were compared based on statistical indices and visual interpretation that have satisfactory for prediction of the drought-tolerant index and stress-tolerant index in maize crop. It has also seemed that genetic algorithm-based hybrid models (MLP-GA and SVM-GA) were found a better prediction of the drought-tolerant index and stress-tolerant index in maize crop. Similarly, the SVM-GA model has the highest potential to forecast the DTI and STI in maize crops as compared to MLP, SVM, MLP-GA models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0115.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; ANFIS; MLP-NN; aeolian dust
Online: 7 July 2022 (07:52:44 CEST)
Accurately predicting ambient dust plays a crucial role in air quality management and hazard mitigation. This study explores the accuracy of Artificial Intelligence (AI) models: adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multi-layered perceptron artificial neural network (mlp-NN) over the southwestern United States (SWUS) based on the observed dust data from IMPROVE stations. The ambient fine dust (PM2.5) and coarse dust (PM10) concentrations at monthly and seasonal timescale from 1990-2020 are modeled using average daily maximum wind speed (W), average precipitation (P), and average air temperature (T) available from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The model’s performance is measured using correlation (r), root mean square error (RMSE), and percentage bias (% BISA). ANFIS model generally performs better than mlp-NN model in predicting regional dustiness over the SWUS region with r of 0.77 and 0.83 for monthly and seasonal fine dust respectively. AI models perform better in predicting regional dustiness at a seasonal timescale than the monthly timescale for both fine dust and coarse dust. AI models better predict fine dust than coarse dust at both monthly and seasonal timescales. Compared to precipitation, the near-surface average temperature is the more important predictor of the regional dustiness at both monthly and seasonal timescale. However, compared to the monthly timescale, air temperature is less more important predictor than precipitation at the seasonal timescale for PM2.5 and vice versa for PM10. The findings of this study demonstrate that the AI models have a good potential to predict monthly and seasonal fine and coarse dust at acceptable accuracy based on basic climatic data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Iran; Pan Evaporation; Genetic Algorithm; MLP Neural Network; Experimental Relationship
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:20:33 CEST)
Evaporation from surface water plays a key role in water accounting of basins, water resources management, and irrigation systems management, so simulating evaporation with high accuracy is very important. In this study, two methods for simulating pan evaporation under different climatic conditions in Iran were developed. In the first method, six experimental relationships (linear, quadratic, and cubic, with two input combinations) were determined for Iran’s six climate types, inspired by a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP-NN) neuron and optimized with the genetic algorithm. The best relationship of the six was selected for each climate type, and the results were presented in a three-dimensional graph. In the second method, the best overall relationship obtained in the first method was used as the basic relationship, and climatic correction coefficients were determined for other climate types using the genetic algorithm optimization model. Finally, the accuracy of the two methods was validated using data from 32 synoptic weather stations throughout Iran. For the first method, error tolerance diagrams and statistical coefficients showed that a quadratic experimental relationship performed best under all climatic conditions. To simplify the method, two graphs were created based on the quadratic relationship for the different climate types, with the axes of the graphs showing relative humidity and temperature, and with pan evaporation was drawn as contours. For the second method, the quadratic relationship for semi-dry conditions was selected as the basic relationship. The estimated climatic correction coefficients for other climate types lay between 0.8 and 1 for dry, semi-dry, semi-humid, Mediterranean climates, and between 0.4 and 0.6 for humid and very humid climates, indicating that one single relationship cannot be used to simulate pan evaporation for all climatic conditions in Iran. The validation results confirmed the accuracy of the two methods in simulating pan evaporation under different climatic conditions in Iran.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0101.v1
Subject: Keywords: Term deposit subscription; Neural network; GRU; Convolutional layers; DT; MLP; k-NN
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:13:34 CEST)
Banks are normally offered two kinds of deposit accounts. It consists of deposits like current/saving account and term deposits like fixed or recurring deposits. For enhancing the maximized profit from bank as well as customer perspective, term deposit can accelerate uplifting of finance fields. This paper focuses on likelihood of term deposit subscription taken by the customers. Bank campaign efforts and customer detail analysis can influence term deposit subscription chances. An automated system is approached in this paper that works towards prediction of term deposit investment possibilities in advance. This paper proposes deep learning based hybrid model that stacks Convolutional layers and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) layers as predictive model. For RNN, Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) is employed. The proposed predictive model is later compared with other benchmark classifiers such as k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Decision tree classifier (DT), and Multi-layer perceptron classifier (MLP). Experimental study concludes that proposed model attains an accuracy of 89.59% and MSE of 0.1041 which outperform well other baseline models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0360.v1
Subject: Keywords: Term deposit subscription; 10-fold stratified cross-validation; Neural network; DT; MLP; k-NN
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:22:58 CEST)
For enhancing the maximized profit from bank as well as customer perspective, term deposit can accelerate finance fields. This paper focuses on likelihood of term deposit subscription taken by the customers. Bank campaign efforts and customer details are influential while considering possibilities of taking term deposit subscription. An automated system is provided in this paper that approaches towards prediction of term deposit investment possibilities in advance. Neural network(NN) along with stratified 10-fold cross-validation methodology is proposed as predictive model which is later compared with other benchmark classifiers such as k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Decision tree classifier (DT), and Multi-layer perceptron classifier (MLP). Experimental study concluded that proposed model provides significant prediction results over other baseline models with an accuracy of 88.32% and Mean Squared Error (MSE) of 0.1168.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0534.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: fruit occlusion; deep learning; machine vision; yield estimation; fruit count; neural network; CNN; tree crop; Mangifera indica; MLP; canopy
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:29:49 CET)
Imaging systems mounted to ground vehicles are used to image fruit tree canopies for estimation of fruit load, but frequently need correction for fruit occluded by branches, foliage or other fruits. This can be achieved using an orchard ‘occlusion factor’, estimated from a manual count of fruit load on a sample of trees (referred to as the reference method). It was hypothesised that canopy images could hold information related to the number of occluded fruit. Five approaches to correct for occluded fruit based on canopy images were compared using data of three mango orchards in two seasons. However, no attribute correlates to the number of hidden fruit were identified. Several image features obtained through segmentation of fruit and canopy areas, such as the proportion of fruit that were partly occluded, were used in training Random forest and multi-layered perceptron (MLP) models for estimation of a correction factor per tree. In another approach, deep learning convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were directly trained against harvest fruit count on trees. The supervised machine learning methods for direct estimation of fruit load per tree delivered an improved prediction outcome over the reference method for data of the season/orchard from which training data was acquired. For a set of 2017 season tree images (n=98 trees), a R2 of 0.98 was achieved for the correlation of the number of fruits predicted by a Random forest model and the ground truth fruit count on the trees, compared to a R2 of 0.68 for the reference method. The best prediction of whole orchard (n = 880 trees) fruit load, in the season of the training data, was achieved by the MLP model, with an error to packhouse count of 1.6% compared to the reference method error of 13.6%. However, the performance of these models on new season data (test set images) was at best equivalent and generally poorer than the reference method. This result indicates that training on one season of data was insufficient for the development of a robust model. This outcome was attributed to variability in tree architecture and foliage density between seasons and between orchards, such that the characters of the canopy visible from the interrow that relate to the proportion of hidden fruit are not consistent. Training of these models across several seasons and orchards is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0325.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Multi-granularity encoding neural networks (MGNNE); feature extraction; multilayer perceptron (MLP); Principal component analysis (PCA); Remote Sensing image classification,LCLU.
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:28:21 CEST)
Deep learning classification is the state-of-the-art of machine learning approach. Earlier work proves that the deep convolutional neural network has successfully and brilliantly in different applications such as images or video data. Recognizing and clarifying the remote sensing aspect of the earth's surface and exploit land cover and land use (LCLU). First, this article summarized the remote sensing emerging application and challenges for deep learning methods. Second, we propose four approaches to learn efficient and effective CNNs to transfer image representation on the ImageNet dataset to recognize LCLU datasets. We use VGG16, Inception-ResNet-V2, Inception-V3, and DenseNet201 models to extract features from the EACC dataset. We use pre-trained CNNs on ImageNet to extract features. For feature selection we proposed principal component analysis (PCA) to improve accuracy and speed up the model. We train our model by multi-layer perceptron (MLP) as a classifier. Lastly, we apply the multi-granularity encoding ensemble model. We achieve an overall accuracy of 92.3% for the nine-class classification problem. This work will help remote sensing scientists understand deep learning tools and apply them in large-scale remote sensing challenges
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: static synchronous compensator (STATCOM); discrete wavelet transform (DWT); multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLP); Bayes and Naive Bayes (NB) classifier
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:22:41 CEST)
This paper presents the methodology to detect and identify the type of fault that occurs in shunt connected static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) transmission line using a combination of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Naive Bayes classifier. To study this, the network model is designed using Mat-lab/Simulink. The different faults such as Line to Ground (LG), Line to Line (LL), Double Line to Ground (LLG) and three-phase (LLLG) fault are applied at different zones of system with and without STATCOM considering the effect of varying fault resistance. The three-phase fault current waveforms obtained are decomposed into several levels using daubechies mother wavelet of db4 to extract the features such as standard deviation and Energy values. The extracted features are used to train the classifiers such as Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP), Bayes and Naive Bayes (NB) classifier to classify the type of fault that occurs in the system. The results reveal that the proposed NB classifier outperforms in terms of accuracy rate, misclassification rate, kappa statistics, mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), relative absolute error (RAE) and root-relative square error (RRSE) than MLP and Bayes classifier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0141.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation engineering; flexible pavement; pavement condition index prediction; falling weight deflectometer; mlp neural network; rbf neural network; intelligent machine system committee
Online: 12 October 2019 (06:08:32 CEST)
The conventional method used for calculating pavement condition index (PCI) has two major drawbacks: safety problems during pavement inspection, and human error. This paper proposes a method for removing these problems. The proposed method uses surface deflection data in falling weight Deflectometer test to estimate PCI. The data used in this study were derived from 236 pavement segments taken from Tehran-Qom freeway in Iran. The data set was analyzed using multi layers perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. These neural networks were optimized by levenberg-marquardt (MLP-LM), scaled conjugate gradient (MLP-SCG), imperialist competitive (RBF-ICA), and genetic (RBF-GA) algorithms. After initial modeling with four neural networks mentioned, the committee machine intelligent systems (CMIS) method was adopted to combine the results and improve the accuracy of the modeling. The results of analysis have been verified by the four criteria of average percent relative error (APRE), average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE), root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SD). The best reported results belonged to CMIS, including APRE=2.3303, AAPRE=11.6768, RMSE=12.0056, and SD=0.0210.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0125.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Parkinson’s disease (PD); Biomedical voice measurements; Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP); Biogeography-based Optimization (BBO); Medical diagnosis. Bio-inspired computation
Online: 10 May 2019 (13:56:59 CEST)
In recent years, Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a progressive syndrome of the nervous system has become highly prevalent worldwide. In this study, a novel hybrid technique established by integrating a Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP) with the Biogeography-based Optimization (BBO) to classify PD based on a series of biomedical voice measurements. BBO is employed to determine the optimal MLP parameters and boost prediction accuracy. The inputs comprised of 22 biomedical voice measurements. The proposed approach detects two PD statuses: 0– disease status and 1– reasonable control status. The performance of proposed methods compared with PSO, GA, ACO and ES method. The outcomes affirm that the MLP-BBO model exhibits higher precision and suitability for PD detection. The proposed diagnosis system as a type of speech algorithm detects early Parkinson’s symptoms, and consequently, it served as a promising new robust tool with excellent PD diagnosis performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: CVD rehabilitation; Local muscular endurance exercises; Exercise-based rehabilitation; Deep Learning; AlexNet; CNN; SVM; kNN; RF; MLP; PCA; multi-class classification; INSIGHT-LME dataset
Online: 26 July 2020 (15:21:08 CEST)
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation requires patients to perform a set of certain prescribed exercises a specific number of times. Local muscular endurance (LME) exercises are an important part of the rehabilitation program. Automatic exercise recognition and repetition counting, from wearable sensor data is an important technology to enable patients to perform exercises independently in remote settings, e.g. their own home. In this paper we first report on a comparison of traditional approaches to exercise recognition and repetition counting, corresponding to supervised machine learning and peak detection from inertial sensing signals respectively, with more recent machine learning approaches, specifically Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). We investigated two different types of CNN: one using the AlexNet architecture, the other using time-series array. We found that the performance of CNN based approaches were better than the traditional approaches. For exercise recognition task, we found that the AlexNet based single CNN model outperformed other methods with an overall 97.18% F1-score measure. For exercise repetition counting , again the AlexNet architecture based single CNN model outperformed other methods by correctly counting repetitions in 90% of the performed exercise sets within an error of ±1. To the best of our knowledge, our approach of using a single CNN method for both recognition and repetition counting is novel. In addition to reporting our findings, we also make the dataset we created, the INSIGHT-LME dataset, publicly available to encourage further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0201.v1
Subject: Keywords: agricultural production; environmental parameters; mushroom growth pre-diction; machine learning; artificial neural networks (ANN); food produc-tion; food security; multi-layered perceptron (MLP); radial basis function (RBF)
Online: 20 August 2019 (06:20:32 CEST)
Recent advancements of computer and electronic systems have motivated the extensive use of intelligent systems for automation of agricultural industries. In this study, the temperature variation of the mushroom growing room is modeled through using a multi-layered perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function networks. Modeling has been done based on the independent parameters including ambient temperature, water temperature, fresh air and circulation air dampers, and water tap. According to the obtained results from the networks, the best network for MLP is found to be the second repetition with 12 neurons in the hidden layer and 20 neurons in the hidden layer for radial basis function networks. The obtained results from comparative parameters for two networks showed the highest correlation coefficient (0.966), the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.787) and the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) (0.02746) for radial basis function. Therefore, the neural networks with radial basis function was selected as the optimal predictor for the behavior of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0055.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide; machine learning modeling; acid; artificial intelligence; solubility; artificial neural networks (ANN); adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); least-squares support-vector machine (LSSVM); multi-layer perceptron (MLP); engineering applications of artificial intelligence
Online: 31 July 2019 (04:35:26 CEST)
In the present work, a novel and the robust computational investigation is carried out to estimate solubility of different acids in supercritical carbon dioxide. Four different algorithms such as radial basis function artificial neural network, Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN), Least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are developed to predict the solubility of different acids in carbon dioxide based on the temperature, pressure, hydrogen number, carbon number, molecular weight, and acid dissociation constant of acid. In the purpose of best evaluation of proposed models, different graphical and statistical analyses and also a novel sensitivity analysis are carried out. The present study proposed the great manners for best acid solubility estimation in supercritical carbon dioxide, which can be helpful for engineers and chemists to predict operational conditions in industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0033.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: PV/T collector; electrical efficiency; renewable energy; intelligent models; optimization; machine learning; multilayer perceptron (MLP), artificial neural network (ANN); adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); least squares support vector machine (LSSVM); photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T)
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:10:59 CEST)
Solar energy is a renewable resources of energy which is broadly utilized and have the least pollution impact between the available alternatives of fossil fuels. In this investigation, machine leaening approaches of neural networks (NN), neuro-fuzzy and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) are used to build the models for prediction of the thermal performance of a photovoltaic-thermal solar collector (PV/T) by estimating its efficiency as an output of the model while inlet temperature, flow rate, heat, solar radiation, and heat of sun are input of the designed model. Experimental measurements was prepared by designing a solar collector system and 100 data extracted. Different analyses are also performed to examine the credibility of the introduced approaches revealing great performance. The suggested LSSVM model represented the best performance regarding the mean squared error (MSE) of 0.003 and correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.99, respectively.