ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0615.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: non-coding RNA; deep learning; Gene expression
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:36:00 CEST)
This paper presents ConF, a novel deep learning model designed for accurate and efficient prediction of non-coding RNA families. NcRNAs are essential functional RNA molecules involved in various cellular processes, including replication, transcription, and gene expression. Identifying ncRNA families is crucial for comprehensive RNA research, as ncRNAs within the same family often exhibit similar functionalities. Traditional experimental methods for identifying ncRNA fam-ilies are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Computational approaches relying on annotated secondary structure data face limitations in handling complex structures like pseudoknots and have restricted applicability, resulting in suboptimal prediction performance. To overcome these chal-lenges, ConF integrates mainstream techniques such as residual networks with dilated convolutions and cross multi-head attention mechanisms. By employing a combination of dual-layer convolu-tional networks and BiLSTM, ConF effectively captures intricate features embedded within RNA sequences. This feature extraction process leads to significantly improved prediction accuracy compared to existing methods. Experimental evaluations conducted on a ten-fold publicly available dataset demonstrate the superiority of ConF in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and other perfor-mance metrics. Overall, ConF represents a promising solution for accurate and efficient ncRNA family prediction, addressing the limitations of traditional experimental and computational methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ditching plow; Furrow; Differential geometry; EDEM simulation; Drag resistance
Online: 5 July 2023 (13:46:08 CEST)
Ditching-rotary tiller was widely used in tillage and ditching furrow during rapeseed sowing. As its ditching furrow system (consist of four identical ditching plows) would bear great drag resistance from the soil during operation, the ditching plow was optimized based on differential geometry analysis and EDEM simulation. Resistance-velocity simulation indicated the plow with parabolic type guide curve had better reduce-drag characteristics. Differential geometry analysis indicated decay rate of E and growth rate of G could represent the variable regularity of drag resistance with the increase of velocity. The L value could represent the magnitude of drag resistance. The smaller L value, decay rate of E and growth rate of G, the better drag-reduce characteristics. Quadratic rotation orthogonal combination design shown the optimal structural parameter values were: Δθ=15°, θmin=45°, h=250mm, l=100mm. The minimum average drag resistance was 230.1N. The differential geometry analysis of optimal ditching plow shown |dE/dκ| and |dG/dκ| could obtain minimum value, indicating growth rate of drag resistance for optimal plow was the lowest within the experimental level. Field experiment indicated the operation effect of optimized ditching furrow system could met the requirements of rapeseed sowing. The research provided in-depth theoretical guidance for Drag-reduce design of plow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0011.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: forced fold; elastic; inelastic; saucer-shaped sill; wireline data; seismic cube; velocity pull up; Tarim flood basalt
Online: 1 December 2020 (10:12:23 CET)
Disparities between fold amplitude (A) and intrusion thickness (Hsill) are critical in identifying elastic or inelastic deformation in a forced fold. However, accurate measurement of these two parameters is challenging because of the limit in separability and detectability for the seismic data. In the TZ-47 exploring area from the Tarim Basin, Northwest China, we combined wireline data and 3-D seismic data, to accurately constrain the fold amplitude and total thickness of sills that inducing the roof uplift. The measurement results show that the forced fold amplitude is 155 m and the total sill thickness is 148.4 m. When using a magma density of 2.7 g/cm3, and solid rock density of 3 g/cm3, the molten magma thickness at the time of intrusion would be 153.8 m, which is almost no difference from the forced fold amplitude. Therefore, the TZ-47 fold is a pure elastic forced fold induced by emplacement of multiple sills. Measurement solely based on seismic data may not be able to detect some thin interlayers and may result in large errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Methane; adsorption; shale gas; coalbed methane; slit pore; carbon dioxide; modelling; Grand Canonical Monte Carlo; Molecular Dynamics.
Online: 3 November 2022 (03:38:20 CET)
Shale gas and coalbed methane are energy sources that partly or even mainly consist of methane stored in an adsorbed state in the pores of the organic-rich rock and coal seams. In this study, the graphene nanoslit model is employed to model the nanometer slit pores in shale and coal. The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) modelling methods are used to investigate the mechanisms of adsorption and displacement of methane in the slit pore. It was found that the CVFF forcefield resulted in the largest adsorption amount, while the PCFF forcefield resulted in the least. The COMPASS and COMPASS II force fields led to similar results. As the width of the slit pore increases, the adsorption amount of gas molecules increases, and the number density profile of adsorbed methane molecules alters from a single adsorption layer to multi-adsorption layers. The minimum slit pore width at which methane molecules can penetrate the slit pore was found to be 0.7 nm. Moreover, it is demonstrated that by lowering the temperature, the adsorption rate of the methane increases since the adsorption is an exothermic process. Enhancing methane recovery was investigated by the injection of gases such as CO2 and N2 to displace the adsorbed methane. The comparison of adsorption isotherms of gas molecules provided the following order in terms of the amount of adsorption: CO2>CH4>N2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0320.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: Electrocardiography Analysis; Persistence Landscape; Signal Analysis; Machine Learning; Topological Data Analysis; Topological Signal Signature; Classification; Time Series Analysis; Biomedical Signal Analysis; Persistence Homology
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:33:09 CEST)
Data can be illustrated in shapes, and the shapes could provide insight for data modeling and information extraction. Topological data analysis provides an alternative insight in biomedical data analysis and knowledge discovery with the algebra topology tools. In present work, we study the application of topological data analysis for personalized electrocardiographic signal classification toward arrhythmia analysis. Using phase space reconstruction technique, the signal samples are converted into point clouds for topological analysis facility. With topological techniques the persistence landscapes from the point clouds are extracted as features to perform the arrhythmia classification task. We find that the proposed method is robust to the training set size, with only a training set size of 20% percents, the normal heartbeat class are 100% recognized, ventricular beats for 97.13%, supra-ventricular beats for 94.27% and fusion beats for 94.27% within the corresponding experiments. The property of keeping high performance when using smaller training sample proves that the proposed method is especially applicable to personalized analysis. With the present study, we show that the topological data analysis technique could be a useful tool in biomedical signal analysis, and provide powerful ability in personalized analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0571.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Inductive power transfer (IPT); Mutual inductance parameter identification; Load parameter identification; Rectifier equivalent load.
Online: 8 August 2023 (10:58:54 CEST)
The variation of mutual inductance and load parameters will affect the transmission power and efficiency of the inductive power transfer (IPT) system. The identification of mutual inductance and load parameters is an essential part of establishing a stable and reliable IPT system. This paper presents a joint identification method of load and mutual inductance for LCC-S IPT system, which does not require the establishment of primary and secondary communication and related control. Firstly, the resistance-inductance characteristics of the equivalent load of the rectifier are analyzed by simulation, and then the rectifier and system load are equivalent to the circuit model of resistance and inductance in series. Secondly, the characteristics of the reflected impedance are analyzed, and the functional relationship between the transmitter impedance and the rectifier impedance is established by using the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the reflected impedance, which realizes the decoupling of the load and the mutual inductance. Thirdly, the functional relationship between the equivalent impedance of the rectifier and the load resistance of the system is obtained by data fitting. Then, the equations of the above two functional relationships are combined. By measuring the voltage of the parallel compensation capacitor at the transmitting side, the current of the transmitting coil and the phase difference between the two, the battery load can be solved first, and then the mutual inductance can be calculated, so that the high-precision identification of the load and mutual inductance can be realized. Finally, an experimental platform of LCC-S IPT system is built for experimental verification. The experimental results show that the maximum identification errors of mutual inductance and load are 5.20 % and 5.53 %, respectively, which proves that the proposed identification method can achieve high precision identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0353.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: chlorothalonil; dissipation; enzyme activity; microbial community
Online: 28 March 2022 (03:46:35 CEST)
To get a better knowledge of the effects of residual chlorothalonil on soil characteristics and soil microbial communities, we evaluated the dissipation of chlorothalonil and the effects of different chlorothalonil concentrations on soil respiration, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure in yellow-brown loam soils. Bacterial and fungal soil communities were examined using traditional plate counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE) methods. Soil properties and the results of DGGE band analysis were both used to estimate the status of the soil microbial ecosystem. The results show that residual chlorothalonil has considerable effects on soil respiration, enzymatic activities, and microbial community structure. In particular, soil respiration and phosphatase activities were increased, while saccharase activity, microbial biomass, and microbial community diversity were decreased by increasing levels of chlorothalonil treatment. Correlation analyses revealed that the application of chlorothalonil was significantly correlated with the change of the soil respiration, urease activity, sucrase activity, soil culturable bacteria and culturable fungi biomass. We conclude that residual chlorothalonil is directly related to soil respiration, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0213.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Noctuidae; transposable elements; genomic diversity; phylogeny; horizontal transfer TE (HTT) events
Online: 4 May 2023 (07:37:23 CEST)
Noctuidae is known to have high species diversity, although the genomic diversity of Noctuidae species have not been studied extensively. Investigation of transposable elements (TEs) in this family can improve our understanding on the genomic diversity of Noctuidae. In this study, we annotated and characterized genome-wide TEs in ten noctuid species belonging to seven genera. With multiple annotation pipelines, we constructed a consensus sequence library containing 1,038 –2,826 TE consensus. The genome content of TEs showed high variation in the ten Noctuidae genomes, ranging from 11.3% to 45.0%. The relatedness analysis indicated that the TE content, especially the content of LINEs and DNA transposons, are positively correlated with the genome size (r=0.86, p-value=0.001). We identified SINE/B2 as a lineage-specific subfamily in Trichoplusia ni, a species-specific expansion of LTR/Gypsy subfamily in Spodoptera exigua, and a recent expansion of SINE/5S subfamily in Busseola fusca. We further revealed that of the four TE classes, only LINEs showed phylogenetic signal with high confidence. We also examined how the expansion of TEs contributed to the evolution of noctuid genomes. Moreover, we identified a total of 56 horizontal transfer TE (HTT) events among the ten noctuid species and at least three HTT events between the nine Noctuidae species and 11 non-noctuid arthropods. One of HTT events caused by a Gypsy transposon might have caused the recent expansion of Gypsy subfamily in the S.exigua genome. By determining the TE content, dynamics, and HTT events in the Noctuidae genomes, our study emphasized that TE activities and HTT events had substantial impacts on the Noctuidae genome evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cable modeling; motor drives; filter design; DM overvoltage; CM current; PWM
Online: 11 December 2020 (15:45:16 CET)
Aiming for the problems emerging in the PWM drive system with long cables, accurate modeling of power cables is the premise to predict and analyze the relevant phenomenon, and a proper filter design is the key solution to these problems. This paper proposes high-frequency cable models to represent the frequency-dependent characteristics, especially for the high-frequency resistance of the cable that is an easily overlooked factor but determines the damping of overvoltage. The proposed models can be used for accurately representing the cable parameters in a wide frequency range, and correctly simulating the differential mode (DM) overvoltage and common mode (CM) current, including the peak value, oscillation frequency and damping of the transient waveform. In addition, improved filter networks are proposed to suppress the DM voltage and CM current, with the merit of low losses, small volume and an excellent ability of suppressing overvoltage. The proposed cable models and the filter design have been validated in a 750W PWM drive system with 200m power cables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0358.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: depression filling; digital elevation models; hydrological analysis; level-set method; LiDAR; surface depressions
Online: 20 August 2018 (14:13:34 CEST)
In terrain analysis and hydrological modeling, surface depressions (or sinks) in a digital elevation model (DEM) are commonly treated as artifacts and thus filled and removed to create a depressionless DEM. Various algorithms have been developed to identify and fill depressions in DEMs during the past decades. However, few studies have attempted to delineate and quantify the nested hierarchy of actual depressions, which can provide crucial information for characterizing surface hydrologic connectivity and simulating the fill-merge-spill hydrological process. In this paper, we present an innovative and efficient algorithm for delineating and quantifying nested depressions in DEMs using the level-set method based on graph theory. The proposed level-set method emulates water level decreasing from the spill point along the depression boundary to the lowest point at the bottom of a depression. By tracing the dynamic topological changes (i.e., depression splitting/merging) within a compound depression, the level-set method can construct topological graphs and derive geometric properties of the nested depressions. The experimental results of two fine-resolution LiDAR-derived DEMs show that the raster-based level-set algorithm is much more efficient (~150 times faster) than the vector-based contour tree method. The proposed level-set algorithm has great potential for being applied to large-scale ecohydrological analysis and watershed modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1480.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Remaining useful life; Empirical mode decomposition; Bayesian optimization algorithm; Multi-kernel relevance vector machine; PEMFC
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:55:25 CEST)
To predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in advance, a prediction method based on the voltage recovery model and Bayesian optimization of a multi-kernel relevance vector machine (MK-RVM) is proposed in this paper. First, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method was used to preprocess the data, and then the MK-RVM was used to train the model. Then, the Bayesian optimization algorithm was used to optimize the weight coefficient of the kernel function to complete the parameter update of the prediction model, and the voltage recovery model was added to the prediction model to realize the rapid and accurate prediction of the RUL of PEMFC. Finally, the method proposed in this paper was applied to the open data set of PEMFC provided by FCLAB, and the prediction accuracy of the RUL of PEMFC was obtained by 95.35%, which showed that the method had good gen-eralization ability and verified the accuracy of the prediction for the RUL of PEMFC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1455.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: near-earth remote sensing; network intrusion; temporal features; spatio-temporal graph attention network
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:27:46 CEST)
With the rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT)-based near-earth remote sensing technology, the problem of network intrusion for near-earth remote sensing systems has become more complex and large-scale. Therefore, it is essential to seek an intelligent, automated, and robust network intrusion detection method. In recent years, network intrusion detection methods based on graph neural networks (GNNs) have been proposed. However, there are still some practical issues with these methods. For example, they have not taken into consideration the characteristics of near-earth remote sensing systems, the state of the nodes, and the temporal features. Therefore, this article analyzes the characteristics of existing near-earth remote sensing systems and proposes a spatio-temporal graph attention network (N-STGAT) that considers the state of nodes. The proposed network applies spatiotemporal graph neural networks to the network intrusion detection of near-earth remote sensing systems and validates the effectiveness of the proposed method on the latest flow-based dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0998.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: burned areas; restoration; two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN); detrended correspondence analysis (DCA); detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA)
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:58:41 CEST)
Fire is a common natural disturbance in forest ecosystems and plays an important role in subsequent vegetation patterns. Based on the spatial sequence method instead of the time successional sequence method, this study selected burned areas in different locations in the Anning River Basin, which contains typical dry valleys. Quadrat surveys and quantitative classification were used to identify the vegetation classification, distribution pattern, and environmental interpretation during the natural restoration process after forest fire. The results showed that: (1) the vegetation community in the early stage of natural recovery after forest fire disturbance could be divided into seven community types, and Quercus guyavaefolia H. Leveille (Qg) was the dominant species in the community; (2) vegetation samples could be divided into five ecological types, and the classification and distribution pattern of community types in this region changed most obviously with altitude; and (3) detrended correspondence analysis could clearly classify vegetation community types, and detrended canonical correspondence analysis could well reveal the relationships between species and environmental factors. This study provides a scientific basis guiding the restoration of ecosystem structural stability and biodiversity in burned areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0223.v4
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Gaofen-3; SAR; Wave Mode; calibration constants; cross-pol; noise floor; polarization
Online: 9 May 2018 (13:48:16 CEST)
In this paper, we analyze the measurements of the normalized radar cross-section(NRCS) in Wave Mode for Chinese C-band Gaofen-3(GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Based on 2779 images from GF-3 quad-polarization SAR in Wave Mode and collocated wind vectors from ERA-Interim, we verify the feasibility of using ocean surface wind fields and VV-polarized NRCS to perform normalized calibration. The method uses well-validated empirical C-band geophysical model function (CMOD4) to estimate the calibration constant for each beam. The Amazon rainforest experiment results show that the accuracy of obtained calibration constant meets the requirements. In addition, the relationship between cross-pol NRCS and wind vectors is discussed. The cross-pol NRCS increases linearly with wind speed and it has an approximate cosine modulation with the wind direction when the wind speed is greater than 8m/s. The cross-polarized system noise floor is low enough to ignore it in wind retrieval. Furthermore, we also investigate the properties of the polarization ratio, denoted PR, and show that it is dependent on incidence angle and azimuth angle. Two empirical models of the PR are fitted, one as a function of incidence angle only, the other with additional dependence on azimuth angle. Assessments show that the σ_VV^0 retrieved from new PR models as well as σ_HH^0 is in good agreement with σ_VV^0 extracted from SAR images directly. And it is also shown that considering the azimuth angle can improve polarization conversion accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0445.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: perovskite; crystal structure; electrochemical performance; LaMnO3
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:31:22 CET)
In this paper, the sol−gel method was used to synthesize powders of LaMnO3 (LMO), La0.85Ca0.15MnO3 (LCM), and La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 (LSM). We investigated the impact of substituting Ca and Sr at the A−site on the perovskite crystal structure and electrochemical capabilities of LMO. LCM retained its orthogonal structure in comparison to the parent LMO components, whereas LSM transitioned to a rhombic structure. At 0.5 A/g, the specific capacitance of LCM and LSM electrodes is 185.5 F/g and 248 F/g, respectively.The specific capacitance of LCM was more three times than that of the LMO electrode. Among the three samples (LMO, 22.25 m2 g−1; LSM, 31.56 m2 g−1), the LCM sample exhibited the highest specific surface area of 38.79 m2 g−1. The charge transfer resistances of the LMO, LCM, and LSM are 0.48 Ω, 0.36 Ω, and 0.38 Ω, correspondingly. The LCM electrode exhibits the greatest capacitance performance due to its more refined morphology, increased concentration of oxygen vacancy, and more complete utilization of the perovskite bulk structure. The above results demonstrate that Ca or Sr substitution of A−site compounds has great potential for supercapacitor applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0427.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high energy milling; bicuseo; thermoelectric performance; microstructure; double doping
Online: 7 November 2023 (09:41:03 CET)
The layered oxyselenide BiCuSeO has garnered significant interest because of its ability to exhibit low thermal conductivity and a high Seebeck coefficient. This study involved the preparation of Bi1−xNaxCuSeO1−xFx(x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) ceramics through the processes of high energy ball milling and cold isostatic pressing. A systematic study was conducted to investigate the impact of co−doping Na/F on the thermoelectric performance of BiCuSeO ceramics. Replacing Bi3+ with Na+ results in the introduction of a considerable amount of holes, leading to a notable enhancement in the electrical conductivity and power factor. The conductivity was significantly increased from 9.10 S cm−1 in the pure BiCuSeO to 94.5 S cm−1 in Bi0.85Na0.15CuSeO0.85F0.15 at 323 K. At 823 K, the power factor of the Bi0.85Na0.15CuSeO0.85F0.15 sample achieved 44.8×10−5 W/ m K2. Moreover, the Bi1−xNaxCuSeO1−xFx ceramics exhibit a minimum thermal conductivity of 0.43 W m−1 K−1. As a result, the Bi0.85Na0.15CuSeO0.85F0.15 sample achieves a maximum ZT value of 0.78, which is 7.09 times greater than that of the pure BiCuSeO sample (0.11) .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0259.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: External electric field; reaction selectivity; explosive sensitivity; intermolecular hydrogen exchange concerted reaction; surface electrostatic potential
Online: 16 February 2023 (02:07:32 CET)
Controlling the selectivity of detonation initiation reaction of explosive is a Holy Grail, and it seems to be an “idiot's daydream”, by strengthening external electric field, to reduce the explosive sensitivity. The effects of external electric fields on the initiation reactions in NH2NO2∙∙∙NH3, a model system of the nitroamine explosive with alkaline additive, were investigated at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) and CCSD/6-311++G(2d,p) level. The concerted effect in the intermolecular hydrogen exchange is characterized by an index of the imaginary vibrations. Due to the weakened concerted effects by the electric field along the −x-direction opposite to the “reaction axis”, the dominant reaction changes from the hydrogen exchange to 1,3-intramolecular hydrogen transference with the increase of the field strengths. Furthermore, the stronger the field strengths, the higher the barrier heights become, indicating the lower sensitivities. Therefore, by strengthening the field strength and adjusting the orientation between the field and “reaction axis”, not only can the reaction selectivity be controlled, but also the sensitivity can be reduced, in particular under a super-strong field. Thus, a traditional concept, which the explosive is dangerous under the super-strong external electric field, is broken theoretically. Compared to the neutral medium, the low sensitivity of the explosive with alkaline can be achieved under the stronger field. Employing atoms in molecules, reduced density gradient and surface electrostatic potentials, the origin of the reaction selectivity and sensitivity change is revealed. This work provides a new idea to the technical improvement for adding the external electric field into the explosive system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: hereditary deafness; carrier screening; reproductive decision making
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:30:09 CEST)
Preconception or prenatal carrier screening for hereditary deafness is an effective early intervention strategy to reduce the incidence of newborn deafness, but current research is limited. This study aimed to investigate the carrier frequencies of common deafness genes in the Chinese population and to follow up on pregnancy outcomes in high-risk couples. Carrier screening for common deafness genes in the Chinese population, including the GJB2 and SLC26A4 genes, was performed using next-generation sequencing technology. Of the 9,993 subjects screened, the carrier rate was 2.86% for the GJB2 gene and 2.63% for the SLC26A4 gene. Of the six high-risk couples, four made alternative reproductive decisions (three with prenatal diagnosis and one with preimplantation genetic testing), with consequent successful termination of the birth of two affected fetuses. The frequencies of preconception or prenatal carrier screening for the deafness genes GJB2 and SLC26A4 in 9,993 subjects from China in this study were 2.86% and 2.63%, respectively. In addition, four out of six high-risk couples made alternative reproductive decisions, followed by the successful prevention of the birth of two affected fetuses. These findings confirmed the clinical utility of preconception or prenatal carrier screening for hereditary deafness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: trilactic glyceride; intestinal function; gut microbiota; weaned piglet
Online: 18 September 2019 (07:28:51 CEST)
Both lactic acid and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) play important roles in maintenance of intestinal epithelial structure and function. Trilactic glyceride (TLG) obtains both excellences of lactic acid and SCFA. This study was to investigate the effects of trilactic glyceride on growth performance, blood parameters, liver function, intestinal morphology and intestine function of piglets. Twelve weaned piglets (21±2 d) were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: 1) control group, piglets fed the basal diet; 2) TLG group, piglets fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5 % TLG. On day 21 of the trial, D-xylose (0.1 g/kg·BW) was orally administrated to all piglets and blood samples were collected 1 h thereafter. Then, all the piglets were sacrificed to examine intestinal mucosal morphology and collect fatty tissue, liver and intestinal mucosa for further analysis. The results showed that: compared with the control group, TLG group decreased blood ALB and GGT on day 10 and 20, TLG group decreased blood TP and increased blood TG on day 20 of the trail (p < 0.05); TLG group decreased blood D-xylose and LDL, increased blood HDL (p < 0.05). These data suggested that supplementing trilactic glyceride had beneficial impacts on promoting nutrients’ metabolism, maintaining intestinal integrity, and alleviating oxidative stress and diarrhoea. Further research of molecular mechanisms showed changing expression levels of related proteins and genes, suggesting that these could be involved in the regulation of the impact. The community composition of the gut microbiota was also found to be altered in several operational taxonomic units within the genus, Prevotella (order Bacteroidales), and the order, Clostridiales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0769.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Bispecific radiotracers; PSMA; FAP; PET/CT; Gallium-68; prostate cancer
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:55:55 CET)
Some bispecific radiotracers have been developed to overcome the limitations of monospecific tracers and improve detection sensitivity for heterogeneous tumor lesions. Here we aim to synthesize two bispecific tracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and fibroblast activation protein (FAP), which are key markers expressed in prostate cancer. A pyridine-based FAP-targeted ligand was synthesized through multi-step organic synthesis, and then connected to the 2-Nal-containing PSMA-targeted motif. Ki(PSMA) values of Ga-complexed bispecific ligands, Ga-AV01084 and Ga-AV01088, were 11.6 ± 3.25 and 28.7 ± 6.05 nM, respectively, and the IC50(FAP) values of Ga-AV01084 and Ga-AV01088 were 10.9 ± 0.67 and 16.7 ± 1.53 nM, respectively. The uptake values for PSMA-expressing LNCaP tumor xenografts were 9.05 ± 1.54 and 8.85 ± 1.25 %ID/g for [68Ga]Ga-AV010184 and [68Ga]Ga-AV01088, respectively, which were lower than the monospecific PSMA-targeted tracer [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-617 (16.7 ± 2.30 %ID/g). The uptake values for FAP-expressing HEK293T:hFAP tumor xenografts were 1.90 ± 0.41 and 1.20 ± 0.25 %ID/g for [68Ga]Ga-AV01084 and [68Ga]Ga-AV01088, respectively, which were also lower than the monospecific FAP-targeted tracer, [68Ga]Ga-AV02070 (7.93 ± 1.88 %ID/g). Further investigations are needed to optimize the selection of linkers and targeted pharmacophores to improve the tumor uptake of PSMA/FAP bispecific tracers for prostate cancer imaging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0988.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Electrochemical biosensor; animal virus; detection; diagnostic assay, nucleic acid; antigen; antibody; aptamer
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:19:15 CEST)
Animal viruses are a significant threat to animal health and are easily spread across the globe with the rise of globalization. The limitations in diagnosing and treating animal virus infections have made the transmission of diseases and animal deaths unpredictable. Therefore, early diagnosis of animal virus infections is crucial to prevent the spread of diseases and reduce economic losses. To address the need for rapid diagnosis, electrochemical sensors have emerged as a promising tool. Electrochemical methods present numerous benefits, including heightened sensitivity and selectivity, affordability, ease of use, portability, and rapid analysis, making them suitable for real-time virus detection. This paper focuses on the construction of electrochemical biosensor, as well as promising biosensor models, and expounds its advantages in virus detection, which is a promising research direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0727.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; dermaseptin; molecular cloning; analogue design
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:45:09 CEST)
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria has severely increased the burden on the global health system, and such pathogen infections are considered a great threat to human well-being. Antimicrobial peptides, due to their potent antimicrobial activity and low possibility of inducing resistance, are increasingly becoming the focus of much interest. Herein, a novel dermaseptin peptide, named Dermaseptin-SS1 (SS1), was identified from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of the South/Central American tarsier leaf frog, Phyllomedusa tarsius, using a ‘shotgun’ cloning strategy. Chemically-synthesised peptide SS1 was found to be broadly effective against Gram-negative bacteria with low haemolytic activity in vitro. A designed synthetic analogue of SS1, named peptide 14V5K, showed a lower salt sensitivity with more rapid bacteria-killing compared to SS1. Both peptides employed the membrane-targeting mechanism to kill Escherichia coli. The antiproliferative activity of SS1 and its analogues, against lung cancer cell lines, was found to be significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0448.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: IR; laser printing; ITO; solid resist
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:27:46 CEST)
Deposition/printing of materials with sub-1 μm precision and size (cross sections) is required for optical and electrical micro-devices. Crystalline c-ITO (Indium tin oxide) nanostructures were patterned on glass with a precision that formed gaps of 20-50 nm between individual disks or lines of ∼ 250 nm diameter or width. The absorbed energy density [J/cm3] followed the second order dependence on pulse energy. This facilitated high resolution and precision for nanoscale laser writing at the 515 nm laser wavelength. Patterns for optical elements such as circular gratings and micro-disks were laser printed using ITO as a resist. Unexposed amorphous a-ITO was chemically removed in aqueous 1% vol. HF solution. This use of a-ITO as solid-resist is promising for metamaterial and micro-optical applications.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: femtosecond laser; birefringence; stress; sapphire
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:49:21 CEST)
Birefringence of 3 × 10-3 is demonstrated inside cross-sectional regions of 100 µm, inscribed by axially stretched Bessel-beam-like fs-laser pulses along the c-axis inside sapphire. A high birefringence and retardance of λ/4 at mid-visible spectral range (green) can be achieved utilizing stretched beams with an axial extension of 30-40 µm. Conditions of laser writing chosen ensure that there are no formations of self-organised nano-gratings. This method can be adopted for the creation of polarisation optical elements and fabrication of spatially varying birefringent patterns for optical vortex generation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: untargeted approach; metabolites; drought stress; mulberry, LC-MS
Online: 6 July 2021 (17:23:32 CEST)
Mulberry is an economically significant crop for the sericulture industry worldwide. Stresses such as drought exposure have a significant influence on plant survival. Metabolome directly reflects plant physiological status; thus, a way to assess this impact is to perform a global metabolomic analysis. This study investigated the effect of drought stress on mulberry Yu-711 metabolic balance using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based on an untargeted metabolomic approach. For this objective, Yu-711 leaves were subjected to two weeks of drought stress treatment and control without drought stress. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses highlighted numerous differentially-accumulated metabolic elements as a function of time and treatment. Drought stress led to a more differentiated metabolites response than the control. We found that the levels of total lipids and galactolipids, and phospholipids (PC, PA, PE) were significantly altered, producing 48% of the total differentially expressed metabolites. Fatty acyls were the most abundant lipids expressed and decreased considerably by 73.6%. Prenol lipids class of lipids increased in drought leaves. Other classes of metabolites, including polyphenols( flavonoids and cinnamic acid), organic acid (amino acids), carbohydrates, benzenoids, and organoheterocyclic, all had a dynamic trend in response to the drought stress. However, their levels under drought stress generally decreased significantly compared to the control. These results provide an overview of the metabolic profile of the mulberry plant through differentially-accumulated compounds and provide a better understanding of global plant metabolic changes in defense mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bacillus coagulans; intestinal function; gut microbiota; weaned piglet
Online: 4 May 2018 (05:31:44 CEST)
This research was to investigate beneficial impact and molecular mechanism of B. coagulans on piglets intestine. Twenty-four 21 days old weaned piglets were allotted to three treatments: control group (basal diet), B6 group (basal diet + 2×106 CFU/g B. coagulans), B7 group (basal diet + 2×107 CFU/g B. coagulans). The results showed that compared with control group, B6 and B7 group significantly decreased diarrhea rate and the concent of CHOL, GGT and DAO in plasma; decreased villus height and increase crypt depth in jejunum and ileum; increased the activities of SOD and CAT and decreased the concent of MDA and H2O2 in intestine. These data suggested that supplementing B. coagulans had beneficial impacts on promoting nutrients metabolism, maintaining intestinal integrity and alleviating oxidative stress and diarrhea. Futher research of molecular mechanisms showed that, these beneficial impacts were regulated by changing expression levels of related proteins (including HSP70, Caspase-3, Bax, Villin and Occludin), and genes (including RPL4, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, MX1, MX2, OAS1, IL-1β, IL-4, CXCL-9, CCL-2, AQP3, SGLT-1, LPL, INSR and b0,+AT), and altering community composition of gut microbiota (particularly family Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Veillonellaceae and genus Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus).