Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: InSAR; InSAR calibration/validation; atmosphere/troposphere variations
Online: 21 December 2020 (12:34:10 CET)
Atmospheric propagational phase variations are the dominant source of error for InSAR timeseries analysis, generally exceeding uncertainties from poor SNR or signal correlation. The spatial properties of these errors have been well studied, but their temporal dependence and correction have received much less attention to date. We present here an evaluation of the magnitude of tropospheric artifacts in derived time series after compensation using an algorithm that requires only the InSAR data themselves. The level of artifact reduction equals or exceeds that from many weather model based methods, while avoiding the need to access fine-scale atmosphere parameters globally at all times. Our method consists of identifying all points in an InSAR stack with consistently high correlation, and computing, then removing, a fit of the phase at each of these points with respect to elevation. Comparison with GPS truth yields a reduction of 3, from an rms misfit of 5-6 cm to ~2 cm over time. This algorithm can be readily incorporated into InSAR processing flows without need for outside information.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0097.v1
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:12:53 CEST)
InSAR and associated analytic methods can measure surface deformation from low earth orbit with a claimed accuracy of centimeters to millimeters. The realized accuracy depends on the area being measured and on the choice of analytic method, suggesting one choose a method in response to the area being measured. Here we consider a specific fixed analytic method and compare the results it produces to measurements gathered from other means in a variety of settings. In particular we compare Sentinel-1 InSAR with GPS at the Kilauea volcano around the 2018 eruption, with GPS in the city of Arica, Chile, and with public survey data at a decommissioned tailings mine. In addition, we compare two independent Sentinel-1 InSAR analyses for a railway station in Oslo, Norway. Our goal is estimate the accuracy of a fully automated Sentinel-1 InSAR pipeline in various settings. Our conclusions are that centimeter level accuracy is a reasonable claim in many, but not all settings, and that accuracy is typically not lost by using an automated pipeline, instead of hand-selecting and tuning parameters.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0252.v1
Online: 17 June 2022 (09:00:40 CEST)
We describe an efficient and cost effective data access mechanism for Sentinel-1 TOPS 1 mode bursts. Our data access mechanism enables burst-based data access and processing, thereby 2 eliminating ESA’s Sentinel-1 SLC data packaging conventions as a bottleneck to large scale processing. 3 Pipeline throughput is now determined by available compute resources and efficiency of the analysis 4 algorithms. For targeted infrastructure monitoring studies, we are able to generate coregistered, 5 geocoded stacks of SLCs for any AOI in the world in a few minutes. In addition, we describe our 6 global scale radar backscatter and interferometric products and associated pipeline design decisions 7 that ensure geolocation consistency across the suite of derived products from Sentinel-1 data. Finally, 8 we discuss the benefits and limitations of working with geocoded SAR SLC data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0188.v1
Online: 24 March 2017 (11:02:00 CET)
The InSAR technique measures the displacement of an indicator using SAR image interference. The technique of interfering two SAR images among InSAR techniques is called Differential InSAR (D-InSAR). In the process of D-InSAR, the filtering technique is used in the Unwrapped Mask, usually using the GoldStein method. However, since the Goldstein method removes the noise on the path, it is difficult to derive the displacement value in the agricultural area where the relative coherence is low. In Korea, more than 50% of the whole country consists of mountainous regions and agricultural regions, so it is difficult to use the Goldstein technique polysynthetically. In this study, we set the test-bed for the urban area and the agricultural area based on Coherence, and introduce Goldstein and Boxcar Filter, one of the Goldstein and LSM techniques. Through this process, we want to draw the conclusion which is displacement values in the agricultural area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0521.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: InSAR; time series; change detection; early warning
Online: 21 December 2020 (12:06:44 CET)
Traditional applications of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data involved inverting an interferogram stack to determine the average displacement velocity. While this approach has useful applications in continuously deforming regions, much information is lost by simply fitting a line through the time series. Thanks to regular acquisitions across most of the the world by the ESA Sentinel-1 satellite constellation, we are now in a position to explore opportunities for near-real time deformation monitoring. In this paper we present a simple statistical approach for detecting offsets and gradient changes in InSAR time series. Our key assumption is that 5 years of Sentinel-1 data is sufficient to calculate the population standard deviation of the detection variables. Our offset detector identifies statistically significant peaks in the first, second and third difference series. The gradient change detector identifies statistically significant movements in the second derivative series. We exploit the high spatial resolution of Sentinel-1 data and the spatial continuity of geophysical deformation signals to filter out false positive detections that arise due to signal noise. When combined with near-real time processing of InSAR data these detectors, particularly the gradient change, could be used to detect incipient ground deformation associated with geophysical phenomena, for example from landslides or volcanic eruptions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0082.v1
Online: 7 September 2019 (01:19:04 CEST)
This study presents an analysis of subsidence rates and their effects on Mexico City. Mexico City is well known for its subsidence as a result of excess water withdrawal for many years. This study focuses on this problem utilizing the integration of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Continuous Global Positioning Systems (CGPS), and optical remote sensing data. Fifty-two ENVISAT-ASAR, nine GPS stations, and one Landsat ETM+ image from Mexico City area have been analyzed to prepare a better understanding of the subsidence rates and its effects on Mexico City’s commune. This study has utilized InSAR methods. It includes differential interferometry and Persistent Scatter Interferometry (PSI) to monitor the existing subsidence in the Mexico City area. The InSAR data covers the temporal baseline between 2002 until June 2010, and the GPS data include temporal baseline from 1998 until 2012. Maximum of 352 mm annually change in Line Of Sight (LOS) direction is in agreement with the previous geodetic studies. InSAR data have been compared with CGPS data at the same time interval. The finding of this study reveals a high amount of correlation (up to 0.98) between two independent geodetic methods. We also implemented the Support Vector Machine (SVM) analysis method based on Landsat ETM+ image to classify Mexico City’s populated density area. This method performed comparing the subsidence rates with populated area buildings. This integrated study shows that the fastest subsidence zone (i.e., areas greater than 100 mm/yr) in the over mentioned temporal baseline occurs in the high and sparsely populated areas
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0545.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Irpinia; Seismic hazard; Earthquake; strain rate; GNSS, InSAR
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:16:25 CET)
The Apennine sector formed by Sannio and Irpinia is one of the most important seismic districts in Italy, representing a good case of study due to the plenty of recorded earthquakes that have therein occurred from Roman times up to nowadays. We have merged the historical record and the new satellite techniques that allow a precise determination of ground movements, and then derived physical dimensions like strain rate. In this way, we have verified that in Irpinia the hazard of new strong shocks forty years after one of the strongest known seismic events in the district is still high. This aspect must be considered very important from many points of view, particularly for Civil Protection plans, as well as civil engineering and urban planning development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0590.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: deformation; earthquake; InSAR; inversion; fault; convergence; Apulia; Epirus; Greece
Online: 27 August 2020 (04:06:29 CEST)
We identify the source of the Mw = 5.6 earthquake that hit west-central Epirus on March 21, 2020 00:49:52 UTC. We use synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to one permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station (GARD). We model the source by inverting the INSAR displacement data. The inversion model suggests a shallow source on a low-angle fault (39°) dipping towards east with a centroid depth of 8.5 km. The seismic moment deduced from our model agrees with those of the published seismic moment tensors. This geometry is compatible with the Margariti thrust fault within the collision zone between Apulia and Eurasia. We also processed new GNSS data and estimate a total convergence rate between Apulia and Eurasia of 8.9 mm yr-1 , of which shortening of the crust between the Epirus coastal GNSS stations and station PAXO in the Ionian Sea is equivalent to ~ 50% of it or 4.6 mm yr−1. A 60-km wide deformation zone takes up nearly most of the convergence between Apulia-Eurasia, trending N318°E. Its central axis runs along the southwest coast of Corfu, along the northeast coast of Paxos, heading toward the northern extremity of the Lefkada island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0251.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: InSAR; deformation; synthetic data; ensemble methods; uncertainty estimate; time series analysis
Online: 17 June 2022 (08:57:52 CEST)
InSAR and associated analytic methods enable relative surface deformation measurements from low Earth orbit with a potential accuracy of centimeters to millimeters. However, assessing the actual accuracy of individual points can be quite difficult. The analytic methods are complicated enough that na¨ıve analytic error propagation is infeasible, and, in many settings, InSAR practitioners lack sufficient ground truth to assess results. Phase noise due to partial decorrelation from changes in the scattering properties of the ground is a prominent source of accuracy loss. In this paper we present a method to assess the loss of precision due to this component of phase noise. The proposed method consists of generating synthetic data whose statistical properties match that of the actual input SAR data stacks, and then using the synthetic data for an ensemble calculation. The spread of the results of the ensemble calculation indicates the loss of precision. We show examples of the ensemble analysis at a mining operation in South Africa, and demonstrate the ability to assess the most reliable methods for particular points of interest using this ensemble analysis and the ability to filter out points based on the width of the spread of results
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0136.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Land subsidence; InSAR; Small baseline interferometry; Mann-Kendall mutation test; Fishnet
Online: 11 December 2018 (16:49:47 CET)
Since the 1970s, land subsidence has been developing rapidly in the Beijing Plain, the systematic study of its evolution mechanism is of great significance to the sustainable development of the regional economy. First, based on ENVISAT ASAT and RADARSAT2 data, the land subsidence data in Beijing Plain were obtained using permanent interferometer technology. Second, based on the GIS platform and using fishing net tools, vector data of ground settlement with different resolutions were obtained. Through a series of tests, a scale of 960 metres was selected as the research unit, and the subsidence rate of the grid was obtained from 2004 to 2015. Finally, based on the Mann-Kendall mutation test method, a trend analysis of land subsidence changes in various grids was carried out. The results showed that single-year mutation mainly distributed in the middle and lower parts of the Yongding River alluvial fan and the Chaobai River alluvial fan, mainly occurring in 2015, 2005 and 2013, respectively. The upper and middle alluvial fan of the Chaobai River, the vicinity of the emergency water source and the edge velocity of the groundwater funnel have undergone several sudden changes. Combined with hydrogeology, basic geological conditions and the impact of the South-to-North Water transfer project, we analysed the causes of the mutations in the grid. The research results can provide a basis for the study and prevention of land subsidence in this area and help to further explore the trend characteristics of land subsidence in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0013.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: SAR Interferometry (InSAR); Digital Elevation Models (DEM); Neural Networks; DEM Fusion; ICESat-2 spaceborne altimetry
Online: 1 June 2022 (10:11:48 CEST)
Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an advanced remote sensing technique for studying the earth's surface topography and deformations. It is used to generate high-quality Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEMs are a crucial and primary input to various topographical quantification and modelling applications. The quality of input DEMs can be further improved using fusion methods, which combine multi-sensor or multi-temporal datasets intelligently to retrieve the best information amongst the input data. This research study is based on developing a Neural Network based fusion approach for improving InSAR based DEMs in plain and hilly terrains. The study areas comprise of relatively plain terrain from Ghaziabad and hilly terrain of Dehradun and their surrounding regions. The training dataset consists of DEM elevations and derived topographic attributes like slope, aspect, topographic position index (TPI), terrain ruggedness index (TRI), and vector roughness measure (VRM) in different land use land cover classes of the study areas. The spaceborne altimetry ICESat-2 ATL08 photon data is used as a reference elevation. A Feed Forward Neural Network with backpropagation algorithm is trained based on the prepared training samples. The trained model produces fused DEMs by learning the relationship between the input and target samples. This is used to predict elevations in the test areas. The accuracy of results from the models are assessed with TanDEM-X 90 m DEM. The fused DEMs show significant improvement in terms of RMSE over the input DEMs with improvement factor of 94.65 % in plain area and 82.62 % in hilly area. The study concludes that the ANN with its universal approximation property is able to significantly improve the fused DEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0447.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Gaofen-3 (GF-3); Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR); DEM; baseline estimation; real-time orbit
Online: 27 June 2018 (14:38:19 CEST)
For Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), the normal baseline is one of the main factors that affect the accuracy of the ground elevation. For Gaofen-3 (GF-3) InSAR processing, the poor accuracy of the real-time orbit determination resulting in a large baseline error, leads to the modulation error in azimuth and the slope error in range for timely Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation. In order to address this problem, a baseline estimation method based on external DEM is proposed in this paper. Firstly, according to the characteristic of the real-time orbit of GF-3 images, orbit fitting is executed to remove the non-linear error factor. Secondly, the height errors are obtained in slant-range plane between Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM and the GF-3 generated DEM after orbit fitting. At the same time, the height errors are used to estimate the baseline error which has a linear variation. In this way, the orbit error can be calibrated by the estimated baseline error. Finally, DEM generation is performed by using the modified baseline and orbit. This procedure is implemented iteratively to achieve a higher accuracy DEM. Based on the results of GF-3 interferometric SAR data for Hebei, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified and the accuracy of GF-3 real-time DEM products can be improved extensively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0189.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: InSAR; TanDEM-X; forest degradation; biomass change; Synthetic Aperture Radar; SAR; Carbon cycle; Satellite data; Earth Observation; DLR; X-band
Online: 9 November 2021 (15:43:37 CET)
Current satellite remote sensing methods struggle to detect and map forest degradation, a critical issue as it is likely a major and growing source of carbon emissions and biodiveristy loss. TanDEM-X InSAR phase height (hϕ) is a promising variable for measuring forest disturbances, as it is closely related to mean canopy height, and thus should decrease if canopy trees are removed. However, previous research has focused on relatively flat terrain, despite the fact that much of the worlds’ remaining tropical forests are found in hilly areas, and this inevitably introduces artifacts in sideways imaging systems. In this paper, we find a relationship between hϕ and aboveground biomass change in four selectively logged plots in a hilly region of central Gabon. We show that minimising the level of multilooking in the interferometric processing chain strengthens this relationship, and that degradation estimates across steep slopes in the surrounding region are improved by selecting data from the most appropriate pass directions on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This shows that TanDEM-X InSAR can measure the magnitude of degradation, and that topographic effects can be mitigated if data from multiple SAR viewing geometries are available.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Horizontal East-west velocity; LOS; vertical velocity; InSAR time series; Big Data; PSDS; TomoSAR platform; Sentinel-1; Ho Chi Minh City
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:04:39 CEST)
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the most crowded city and economic hub of Viet Nam, has been experiencing land subsidence over the past decades. This effort aims to contribute the spatial distribution of subsidence in HCMC in its horizontal and vertical components using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) time series. To this purpose, an advanced Persistent Scatterers and Distributed Scatterers (PSDS) InSAR technique was applied to two European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 datasets consisting of 96 ascending and 202 descending images, acquired from 2014 to 2020 over the HCMC area. A time series of 33 COSMO-SkyMed ascending images was also used for comparison. The combination of ascending and descending satellite passes is used to decompose the light of sight velocities into horizontal east-west and vertical components. Taking into account the presence of east-west horizontal motion, our findings indicate that the accuracy of the decomposed vertical velocity can be improved by up to 3 mm/year for Sentinel-1 data. The obtained results revealed that subsidence is most pronounced in the areas along the Sai Gon River, in the northwest-southeast axis, and in the southwest of the city, with a maximum value of 80 mm/yr, which is in accordance with the findings of the literature. The amplitude of east-west horizontal velocities is relatively small and large-scale eastward movement can be observed in the west of the city at a rate of 3-5 mm/yr. This confirmed that the displacement in Ho Chi Minh City area is mainly vertical downward. Together, these results reinforced the remarkable suitability of ESA's SAR Sentinel-1 for subsidence applications, even for non-European countries such as Vietnam and Southeast Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0696.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR); Slope units; Active deformation slope units; Finite element method (FEM); Shear strength reduction (SSR); Slope stability; Abandoned mining areas.
Online: 26 April 2021 (21:05:50 CEST)
Slope failures pose a substantial threat to mining activity due to their destructive potential and high probability of occurrence on steep slopes close to limit equilibrium conditions, often found both in open pits and in waste and tailing disposal facilities. The development of slope monitoring and modeling programs usually entails the exploitation of in situ and remote sensing data together with the application of numerical modeling, and it plays an important role in the definition of prevention and mitigation measures aimed at minimizing the impact of slope failures in mining areas. Here we present a new methodology combining satellite radar interferometry and 2D finite element modeling for slope stability analysis at a regional scale, applied within slope unit polygons. We studied a former mining area in southeast Spain, and the method proved useful in detecting and characterizing a considerably large number of unstable slopes. Out of 1,959 slope units used for the spatial analysis of the radar interferometry data, 43 were unstable, with varying values of safety factor and landslide size. Out of the 43 active slope units, 21 exhibited line of sight velocities greater than the maximum error obtained through the validation analysis (2.5 cm/year). Eventually, this work discusses the possibility of using the results of the proposed approach to devise a proxy for landslide hazard. The proposed methodology can help to provide non-expert final users with intelligible, clear and easily comparable information to analyze slope instabilities in different settings, not limited to mining areas.