ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0327.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydropower, renewable energy, electrification
Online: 24 May 2018 (05:03:18 CEST)
All hydropower project type requires an ample availability of stream flow data. Unfortunately most of the hydropower projects especially small hydropower projects are conducted on ungauged river and consequently hydrologists have for a longtime used stream flow estimation methods using the mean annual flows to gauge rivers. Unfortunately flow estimation methods which include the runoff data method, area ratio method and the correlation flow methods employ a lot of assumptions which affect their uncertainty. Although hydropower energy is one of most promising clean energy technologies available, it has potential drawbacks as compared with various other forms of renewable energy, such as biomass, solar and wind energy, due in particular to it high capital investment costs. For most of the rural population in Mozambique, access to conversional energy in the form of electricity is limited. The aim of the present investigation was to analyze the functions of the Chua micro-hydropower plant in the Manica district in Mozambique and to examine the possibility of increasing energy production there. The total power generation capacity currently installed in Mozambique is about 939 MW. Hydropower accounts for 561 MW or 61% of this, oil and natural gas in turn, for 27% and 12% of it, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0302.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: hydropower scheduling; stochastic programming; integer programming
Online: 13 November 2018 (07:59:25 CET)
We propose a model for medium-term hydropower scheduling (MTHS) with variable head and uncertainty in inflow, reserve capacity, and energy price. With an increase of intermittent energy sources in the generation mix, it is expected that a flexible hydropower producer can obtain added profits by participating in other markets than just the energy market. To capture this added potential the hydropower system should be modeled with a higher level of details. In this context, we apply an algorithm based on stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) to solve the nonconvex MTHS problem, and show that the use of Strengthened Benders (SB) cuts to represent the expected future profit (EFP) function provide accurate scheduling results for slightly nonconvex problems. A method to visualize the EFP function in a dynamic programming setting is provided, serving as a useful tool for a priori inspection of the EFP shape and its nonconvexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0116.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hydropower; climate change; renewable energy; dams
Online: 19 November 2017 (05:29:52 CET)
A large-scale, high-resolution, fully coupled hydrological/reservoir/hydroelectricity model is used to investigate the impacts of climate change on hydroelectricity generation and hydropower potential of non-powered dams across the Northeast United States megaregion with 11,037 dams and 375 hydroelectric power plants. The model is calibrated and validated using the U.S. Department of Energy records. Annual hydroelectricity generation in the region is 41 Terawatt-hours (Twh). Our estimate of the hydropower potential of non-powered dams adds up to 350 Twh. West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York have significant potential for generating more hydroelectricity from already existing dams. On the other hand, this potential virtually does not exist for Rhode Island and Delaware and is small for New Jersey and Vermont. Climate change may reduce annual hydropower potential from non-powered dams by up to 13% and reduce current annual hydroelectricity generation by up to 8% annually. Increased rainfall in winters and earlier snowmelt in springs result in an increase in regional water availability in December through March. In other months, reduced precipitation and increased potential evapotranspiration rates combined with reduced recharge from the shift in spring snowmelt and smaller snowpack result in a decrease in availability of water and thus hydroelectricity generation. This changes call for the recalibration of dam operations and may raise conflict of interests in multipurpose dams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Climate Change Scenario; Generation Potential; Hydropower; Renewable Energy
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:08:37 CET)
The interest in renewable energy to replace fossil fuel is increasing as the problem caused by climate change become more severe. Small hydropower (SHP) is evaluated as a resource with high development value because of its high energy density compared to other renewable energy sources. SHP may be an attractive and sustainable power generation environmental perspective because of its potential to be found in small rivers and streams. The power generation potential could be estimated based on the discharge in the river basin. Since the river discharge depends on the climate conditions, the hydropower generation potential changes sensitively according to climate variability. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the SHP potential in consideration of future climate change. In this study, the future prospect of SHP potential is simulated for the period of 2021 to 2100 considering the climate change in three hydropower plants of Deoksong, Hanseok, and Socheon stations, Korea. As the results, SHP potential for the near future (2021 to 2040) shows a tendency to be increased and the highest increase is 23.4% at the Deoksong SPH plant. Through the result of future prospect, we have shown that hydroelectric power generation capacity or SHP potential will be increased in the future. Therefore, we believe that it is necessary to revitalize the development of SHP in order to expand the use of renewable energy. Also, a methodology presented in this study could be used for the future prospect of the small hydropower potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0428.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: small hydropower plant; river flow; seasonal forecast; energy production
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:15:43 CET)
The operation feasibility of small hydropower plants in mountainous sites is subjected to the run-of-river flow which is also depending on a high variability in precipitation and snow cover. Moreover, the management of this kind of systems has to be performed with some particular operation conditions of the plant (e.g. turbine minimum and maximum discharge) but also some environmental flow requirements. In this context, a technological climate service is conceived in tight connection with end users, perfectly answering the needs of the management of small hydropower systems in a pilot area, and providing forecast of river streamflow together with other operation data. This paper presents an overview of the service but also a set of lessons learnt related to features, requirements and considerations to bear in mind from the point of view of climate services developers. In addition, the outcomes give insight into how this kind of services could change the traditional management (normally based on the past experience), providing a probability range of future river flow based on future weather scenarios according to the range of future weather possibilities. This highlights the utility of the co-generation process to implement climate services for water and energy fields but also that seasonal climate forecast could improve the business as usual of this kind of facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydropower; errors; multi-step ahead forecasting; recursive method; simulations
Online: 19 October 2017 (02:34:27 CEST)
Multi-step ahead streamflow forecasting is of practical interest for the operation of hydropower reservoirs. We provide generalized results on the error evolution in multi-step ahead forecasting by conducting several large-scale experiments based on simulations. We also present a multiple-case study using monthly time series of streamflow. Our findings suggest that some forecasting methods are more useful than others. However, the errors computed at each time step of a forecast horizon within a specific case study strongly depend on the case examined and can be either small or large, regardless of the forecasting method used and the time step of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: hydropower; political ecology; social and environmental impacts; Cambodia; China
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:47:15 CEST)
Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia, the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of large dams to ensure that the dams’ benefits are shared more equally.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: pressure control; micro-hydropower; energy recovery; Water distribution network; Banki turbine; energy harvesting
Online: 20 May 2019 (09:43:43 CEST)
Although many devices have recently been proposed for pressure regulation and energy harvesting in water distribution and transport networks, very few applications are still documented in the scientific literature. A new in-line Banki turbine with positive outflow pressure and a mobile regulating flap, named PRS, was installed and tested in a real water transport network for pressure and discharge regulation. The PRS turbine was directly connected to a 55 kW asynchronous generator with variable rotational velocity, coupled to an inverter. The start-up tests showed how automatic adjustment of the flap position and the impeller velocity variation are able to change the characteristic curve of the PRS according to the flow delivered by the water manager or to the pressure set-point assigned downstream or upstream of the system, still keeping good efficiency values in hydropower production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: convex programming; wind power, hydropower; risk mitigation; CVaR; short-run marginal cost curve
Online: 23 April 2018 (17:35:32 CEST)
This study analyses the short-run hydro generation scheduling for the wind power differences from the contracted schedule. The approach for construction of the joint short-run marginal cost curve for the hydro-wind coordinated generation is proposed and applied on the real example. This joint short-run marginal cost (SRMC) curve is important for its participation in the energy markets and for economic feasibility assessment of such coordination. The approach credibly describes the short-run marginal costs which this coordination bears in “real life”. The approach is based on the duality framework of a convex programming and as a novelty combines the shadow price of risk mitigation capability and the water shadow price. The proposed approach is formulated as a stochastic linear program and tested on the case of the Vinodol hydropower system and the wind farm Vrataruša in Croatia. The result of the case study is a family of 24 joint short-run marginal cost curves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: small scale hydroelectric power; neumann-mortenstern utility theory; environmental effects of hydro power; hydropower and risk
Online: 5 May 2017 (05:32:02 CEST)
The development of small scale hydroelectric power plants in Norway is determined by natural conditions, policies, attitudes and property rights. The owner of the river is the central decision maker. It is he who decides whether he will develop the power plant himself, Whether he wants to enter into a contract with an external investor and let him develop the power plant, whether he will sell his property rights or postpone the decisions. All available choices will involve risk. In order for him to make the best choice he must find the certainty equivalent to each of the choices and choose the one with the highest certainty equivalent. This is the first time the utility theory of John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern has been applied to decision makers in the hydro power industry in Norway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Hydropower; Wind, Solar; Geothermal; Firewood; Nuclear; Petroleum; Peat; Non-solid biomass; Solid biomass; Energy systems; Human energy; Animal energy
Online: 28 February 2022 (12:25:14 CET)
We live in the world that is completely entangled on energy and thus, Humankind can no longer do without it, power. With electricity being the main form of energy today, this has increased the complexity of our life today. In Uganda, electricity generation is mainly through hydropower which put the country in the bottleneck of over dependence on one source of energy. Yet, there are many energy systems out there that country can diversify its electricity generation. Therefore, the need to understand, the level of development and utilization of various energy systems has been the underlying question for this present study. Comprehensive literature survey was conducted from the electronic databases including ScienceDirect, Wiley, Sage, Scopus, Taylor & Francis, and Google Scholar. The publications in form of reports, conference papers, working papers, discussion papers, journal articles, book sections and textbooks were considered in this study. In total, 11 energy systems including human and animal energy, solid biomass (firewood), hydropower, wind, geothermal, solar, nuclear, peat, coal, petroleum, and non-solid biomass (methanol, hydrogen, ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas) are described. The current and the future development and utilization of these energy systems has been described. The challenges with their development and utilization were elaborated and the solution the challenges were presented. The hydropower with River Nile being the main river for large hydropower plant construction is the dominance energy system in Uganda. Nuclear energy will be the salvation for the country’s electric energy supply in the near future. Therefore, Uganda needs to bet big on nuclear energy.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydropower plants, optimization, hydro resource price, incremental water rate characteristic, electricity market, complex criteria of ecological-and-economic efficiency.
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:35:48 CEST)
The In this paper, a universal method has been developed, which is a combination of an optimization method and a method for assessing the marginal utility. At present, the problem of optimal load distribution in the power system between a hydropower plant (HPP) and thermal power plants (TPP) is solved using the equality of the differential incremental rate characteristics of fuel consumption at TPP and water consumption at HPP by the Lagrangian multiplier method. In this case, the number of iterations can be five or more. The proposed approach is based, first of all, on the correct representation of the differential characteristics and calculation of a hydro resource price for the operational control of the HPP. Based on the comparison of water volume at a HPP and fuel amount at combined heat and power plants (CHPP) used for generation of 1 kW power, it is possible to determine a water price for a HPP. As a result of implementing the developed method for the HPP, a price of sold electricity in the flexible energy market will be comparable with the price for sold electricity produced at CHPPs, being equal to approximately 120 rubles/MW∙h.