ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0389.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: English Medium Instruction; Translanguaging; Chinese academics; Language transfer; higher education
Online: 26 February 2020 (11:04:39 CET)
Teaching through English Medium Instruction (EMI) has been a strategic move in some European and Asian countries as part of their educational internationalisation. A large number of studies on EMI teaching have appeared in the last decade. The majority of these report on issues and concerns at macro-level including: the lack of structured policy guidance, EMI lecturers and students’ low level of English proficiency, and a shortfall of research informed training programs for EMI lecturers. Up to date, there is little research into EMI in-class teaching and learning. Lived experience in EMI in-class practice has been largely ignored. To fill this gap, this research explored a group of academics’ in-class EMI practice in a Chinese university. Their teaching process through EMI was observed and recorded, with data analysed through a multiple theoretical lens. Data reveal that EMI teaching is a complicated issue and can be neither standardised nor prescribed. It needs to be addressed as a pedagogy responding to and influenced by local context, driven by language, culture and education systems. This research is expected to provide insight for the development of localised institutional guidelines for EMI teaching and lecturers’ professional development in EMI teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0274.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Bilingual program; Academic performance; Learning competence; English proficiency; Student workload
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:51:07 CEST)
Despite the rapid adoption of bilingual programs (English-Chinese) in China's higher education institutions (HEIs), concerns have been raised on perceived language hindrance to students’ academic comprehension and then performance. In response to this, this paper investigates the effects of bilingual instruction on content-based learning and provides empirical evidence after testing related influential factors in bilingual environment. Analyzing a sample of 498 undergraduate students enrolling in a fundamental business course in a sample university in China, we find insignificant statistical difference in students' academic performance between bilingual and L1 classes. We attribute this to the English language support provided by the university and show that learning competence can help students to minimize language barrier and furthermore solve the common learning problems confronted by both bilingual and L1 students. Overall, our paper aims to identify key determinants of students' academic performance in bilingual instruction and provide policy implication for developing desirable bilingual programs in HEIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: online teaching and learning; differentiated instruction; gifted students; motivation; achievement; English language teaching
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:39:11 CEST)
Differentiated instruction has been implemented in classrooms where students who come from various backgrounds require appropriate lessons that are tailored to their varied learning preferences. As the spread of coronavirus 19 (Covid-19) is becoming more rampant, online learning has been lifted up as the main platform of teaching and learning, forcing the need to shift from the conventional face-to-face classroom to online, or virtual, mode of knowledge transfer. Having such global phenomenon affecting education, how does it affect the implementation of differentiated instruction that has been practised regularly by teachers before the wake of Covid-19? Previous studies have shown how it is done in the normal classroom setting, and that the practice of differentiated instruction contributes to students’ motivation as well as academic performance. However, there is a need to explore how do teachers go about with online differentiated instruction and how does it affect the students, since online learning poses various threads to both teachers and students; and thus, one might argue the effectiveness of not only the teaching approach but also the overall teaching and learning outcomes. Borg’s framework of teacher cognition, which has been extensively used in exploring how teachers teach, can be utilized to document the practice of online differentiated instruction. This study aimed to explore the practice of online differentiated instruction by teachers and examined its impact on students’ motivation and academic performance during the Covid-19 outbreak. The participants of this study consists of 247 gifted students from a public school in Malaysia. To meet these aims, this study employed a mixed method research design, utilizing the framework of teacher cognition to explore the teachers’ practice of online differentiated through interviews; and, utilizing a survey design using a questionnaire to determine the impact of online differentiated instruction towards students’ motivation and academic performance. The findings revealed that although online differentiated instruction is feasible, however, appropriate combination of differentiation constructs need to be applied in order to achieve higher motivation and better academic performance among the students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: English proficiency, Earnings, Immigrants, MCMC, Medical Care Spending
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:37:52 CEST)
This paper investigates the role of English language proficiency (ELP) as a measure of cultural integration on U.S. immigrant families’ economic integration, as measured by annual earnings, and health care market integration, as captured by annual medical care spending. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation of a mixed bivariate ordered probit (MBOP) model of annual earnings and medical care spending is conducted using a nationally representative pooled cross-sectional sample data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). The results reveal that limited English proficiency is associated with lower marginal earnings propensities (-$44.83, -$50.66, and -$56.97), and higher marginal medical care spending propensities ($8.09, $6.09, and $4.32) for each of the three decreasing levels of ELP. Furthermore, we find a small yet statistically significant positive 7.2% correlation between immigrant families’ annual earnings and medical care spending propensities. Therefore investing to raise immigrants’ families ELP in the U.S. would not only contribute to more effective socio-economic integration, but also strengthen the U.S. workforce and economy for decades to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0117.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: post-editing; machine translation; Portuguese; English; translationese; post-editese
Online: 8 December 2021 (09:43:11 CET)
In the present study, we investigate the post-editese phenomenon, i.e., the unique features that set machine translated post-edited texts apart from human-translated texts. We use two literary texts, namely, the English children's novel by Lewis Carroll Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (AW) and Paula Hawkins' popular book The Girl on the Train (TGOTT) translated from English into Brazilian-Portuguese to investigate whether the post-editese features can be found on the surface of the post-edited (PE) texts. In addition, we examine how the features found in the PE texts differ from the features encountered in the human-translated (HT) and machine translation (MT) versions of the same source text. Results revealed evidence for post-editese for TGOTT only with PE versions being more similar to the MT output than to the HT texts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0380.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: TESOL; English teaching; ESL; EFL; teaching methodology research interests
Online: 30 November 2019 (04:41:57 CET)
This paper provides a systematic review of the research around teaching English as a second or foreign language over the last ten years. The review aims to help second and foreign language researchers to recognize the trends that have impacted English teaching and learning research. More than 400 articles from four leading journals (TESOL Journal, TESOL Quarterly, ELT Journal, and Second Language Research) were reviewed to examine the trends and method that were used. The findings suggested that the research interests in the TESOL field have changed as many topics and trends have risen based on students’ academic and social needs. Topics such as teaching methodology, digital literacy, and using technology to teach English have dominated the research during the last decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: English language; motivational intensity; survey; trends; challenges in Malaysia
Online: 1 November 2017 (10:58:01 CET)
The aim of this study is to explore the extent of English language teaching in Higher Institutions of Malaysia and investigate the current changes, trends and challenges in this niche. A sample of 100 English learners from public and private institutions participated in this study. Analysis of the responses indicated that English language is remaining to be difficult to master, due to speaking environment, proficiency of the teachers and other factors. However, the Government is on the right direction to improve this situation by following Common European Framework of Reference of Languages. As any other system, it takes time to put into realization and start up the mechanism. This observation carries a pedagogical perspective and includes the overview of the general picture based on Private, Public and Stand Alone English educational institutions. This study has highlighted the practical importance of British Framework of English learning and suggests to focus on emphasis of the learning process instead of a result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Internet-assisted; English reading teaching; innovative designs; impact; constructivism theory
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:55:44 CEST)
With the development of Internet technology, teachers are constantly seeking innovative teaching methods to match the potential of enhanced technology. Although many studies have been performed before , they aren’t enough in this field. The purpose of this paper is to explore innovative teaching designs and examine the impact of Internet-assisted English teaching of reading based on constructivism. The case is carried out in NO.9 middle school of Bengbu, a underdeveloped area of China, most of students aren’t interested in learning English .We compared Internet-assisted with traditional textbook literature methods to improve the reading proficiency of students, using a questionnaire survey,pre-test and post-tests comparisons. The result showed Internet-assisted English reading teaching is better than textbook. It can arouse students' interest and motivation,reading proficiency and exam result of students have been improved significantly, created a positive learning situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0213.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Clustering; Pattern Discovery; Time series; Multi-Level Spectral Clustering; English Channel
Online: 8 August 2020 (18:00:26 CEST)
Many clustering approaches succeed in pattern segmentation in many applications. This unsupervised segmentation should be effective to reduce an expert labelling time: i.e, they must be able to detect the number of patterns and identify them in a sequence or map with the right cuts. Several direct and hierarchical clustering approaches are compared for this task. A divisive spectral clustering architecture with a no-cut criteria is also proposed. This new algorithm achieves promise segmentation of spatial UCI databases and marine time series compared to other approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0219.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: STEM for sustainability; early childhood education; English picture books, Chinese toddlers
Online: 27 February 2019 (08:42:09 CET)
Changes in curricula, publication policy and information technology, notably in China have led to concentrations in the role of STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education in early childhood and applauded to proliferations of imported up-to-date reading materials and mobile apps in English. This paper proposes a longitude study of a Chinese toddler learning STEM by reading picture books and playing with tablet and suggests new horizons in parenting and in STEM education during children's early years. The present study carried out from 2016, when the participant reached one year old, eligible to learn to speak and to concentrate on the picture books read by parents who had filled a language background questionnaire with information on themselves and the participant. Tablet playing brought about for the two-year-old toddler and collections of STEM books in English was added for the second year. Data collection lasted for two years with an iLab video camera, capturing utterances and motions for five minutes per week transcribed by VoiceScript software. Tests were given quarterly at private home by tapping in mobile app "Bilingual Child Learning" which consists of 20 basic STEM themes before scores were collected. Findings indicate that (1) it is accessible for children of very early years to be engaged in English STEM resources, (2) kids' limited English dominance does not impede learning STEM, (3) and to think in English in early STEM contributes to children's English.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0046.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: English vocabulary learning; Incidental vocabulary acquisition,; Context-aware ubiquitous learning,; Ubiquitous Computing; Open-source software
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:24:35 CEST)
Language learners often face communication problems when they need to express themselves and do not have this ability. On the other hand, continuous advances in technology create new opportunities to improve second language (L2) acquisition through context-aware ubiquitous learning (CAUL) technology. Since vocabulary is the foundation of all language acquisition, this article presents the ULearnEnglish, an open-source system to allow ubiquitous English learning focused on incidental vocabulary acquisition. To evaluate the proposal, 15 learners used the system developed, and 10 answered a survey based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Results indicate a favorable response to the use of the learner context to assist them in their learning. The ULearnEnglish achieved an acceptance of 78.66% for the perception of the utility, 96% for the perception of ease of use, 86% for user context assessment, and 88% for ubiquity. This study presented a positive response in using the location of users to assist their learning. Among the main contributions, this study demonstrates an opportunity for ubiquity use in future research in language learning. Also, furthers studies can use the source available to evolve the model and system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0047.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Bottom-up Parser; Context-Free-Grammar; English Grammar; Python; Parse Table; Semantic Parser; Top-downParser
Online: 6 April 2022 (12:42:37 CEST)
The objective of parsing is to transform a natural language sentence it in to a standard order. and in a same way a sentence is tokenized with an appropriate format. There are certain English grammar evaluation rules and the parsing approach which is to be followed for the proper formation of a particular sentence syntactically and semantically using the parsing approach. A sentence in English language is the main element in the semantic parser, which creates a parse tree with the help of applying semantic dating technique to a number of phrases. A parser divides a token into smaller components by applying sets of guidelines that characterize and a series of the tokens to determine its structure of the language, which specified by grammar. The illustration provides easy records on grammatical connections, which can simply know and put into practice with those who have no prior knowledge of the language, such as those who need to obtain textual family members. The semantic family members represent the relationships of a number of the words in the sentence. We advocate utilizing our parser to acquire the tagged sets as well as a context-free layout grammatical representation for the source form. All pronouns, adverbs, singular, plural, nouns, verbs, people, adjectives, tenses and other words are kept in a database.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: radionuclide; tracer; data collection; antimony 125 (125Sb), tritium (3H), dispersion; modelling; English Channel; North Sea; Biscay Bay
Online: 24 January 2020 (16:03:50 CET)
Significant amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides were introduced in ocean waters following nuclear atmospheric tests and development of the nuclear industry. Dispersion of artificial dissolved radionuclides has been extensively measured for decades over the European continental shelf. The radionuclide measurement and release fluxes databases provided here represent an exceptional opportunity to validate dispersion hydrodynamic models. MARS hydrodynamic model have been applied at different scales to reproduce in realistic conditions the measured dispersion. Specific methods have been developed to obtain qualitative and quantitative results and perform model/measurement comparisons. Model validation concerns short to large scales with dedicated surveys following the dispersion: it was performed within two and three dimensions framework and from minutes and hours following a release up to several years. Results are presented concerning the dispersion of radionuclides in marine systems deduced from standalone measurements, or according to model comparisons. It allows characterising dispersion over the continental shelf, pathways, transit times, budgets and source terms. This review exhibits the main features retained from the point of view of radiotracers, hydrodynamic models and model/measurement methods with perspectives of applications in other areas or oceanographic domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0512.v1
Subject: Keywords: musical intelligence; grammar; prepositions; L2 acquisition; training; Emirati English; Emirati Dialect; Arabic Dialects; MSA; multiple intelligences; Howard Gardner
Online: 23 February 2021 (11:20:32 CET)
The bonds of England and the UAE date back to over 220 years ago. This article explores the interference of Arabic prepositions in the English used in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and their occurrences in light of gender and level of education, two important social variables related to linguistic behavior. To do so, participants will translate 20 sentences in Arabic into English as well as fill in 30 gaps in sentences in English with the missing prepositions. We will also experiment how musical intelligence may improve Emiratis’ performance regarding preposition. A study will be carried out to verify if participants from the experimental group, who will receive training on prepositions through music, obtains better results compared to the control group, who will receive training through a more traditional way (by listening to the instructor and repeating).