Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Practice of Online Differentiated Instruction and Its Impact on Motivation and Academic Performance in the Wake of Covid-19

Version 1 : Received: 31 May 2021 / Approved: 1 June 2021 / Online: 1 June 2021 (11:39:11 CEST)

How to cite: Kamarulzaman, M.H.; Azman, H.; Mohd Zahidi, A.; Md Yunus, M. The Practice of Online Differentiated Instruction and Its Impact on Motivation and Academic Performance in the Wake of Covid-19. Preprints 2021, 2021060028 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0028.v1). Kamarulzaman, M.H.; Azman, H.; Mohd Zahidi, A.; Md Yunus, M. The Practice of Online Differentiated Instruction and Its Impact on Motivation and Academic Performance in the Wake of Covid-19. Preprints 2021, 2021060028 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0028.v1).

Abstract

Differentiated instruction has been implemented in classrooms where students who come from various backgrounds require appropriate lessons that are tailored to their varied learning preferences. As the spread of coronavirus 19 (Covid-19) is becoming more rampant, online learning has been lifted up as the main platform of teaching and learning, forcing the need to shift from the conventional face-to-face classroom to online, or virtual, mode of knowledge transfer. Having such global phenomenon affecting education, how does it affect the implementation of differentiated instruction that has been practised regularly by teachers before the wake of Covid-19? Previous studies have shown how it is done in the normal classroom setting, and that the practice of differentiated instruction contributes to students’ motivation as well as academic performance. However, there is a need to explore how do teachers go about with online differentiated instruction and how does it affect the students, since online learning poses various threads to both teachers and students; and thus, one might argue the effectiveness of not only the teaching approach but also the overall teaching and learning outcomes. Borg’s framework of teacher cognition, which has been extensively used in exploring how teachers teach, can be utilized to document the practice of online differentiated instruction. This study aimed to explore the practice of online differentiated instruction by teachers and examined its impact on students’ motivation and academic performance during the Covid-19 outbreak. The participants of this study consists of 247 gifted students from a public school in Malaysia. To meet these aims, this study employed a mixed method research design, utilizing the framework of teacher cognition to explore the teachers’ practice of online differentiated through interviews; and, utilizing a survey design using a questionnaire to determine the impact of online differentiated instruction towards students’ motivation and academic performance. The findings revealed that although online differentiated instruction is feasible, however, appropriate combination of differentiation constructs need to be applied in order to achieve higher motivation and better academic performance among the students.

Subject Areas

online teaching and learning; differentiated instruction; gifted students; motivation; achievement; English language teaching

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