ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0174.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Hindu Temples; Sacred landscape; Bhaishnavism; Conservation; Architectural Documentation
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:57:50 CET)
This article represents survey data of historical and architectural documentation of Sri Radha Binod Ashrama locally known as the Panishail temple. Temple architecture is a common feature of traditional religious architecture practice in Bangladesh. This article is a historical and architectural investigation of a less known and mixed type of Hindu temple style in the Bengal region. The Panishail temple complex has a collection of structures that include tomb, temples, and residences aged between fifty to two hundred years. Over the ages, these heritage buildings have displayed a unique architectural style of ancient Bengal and still serving as a living sacred landscape heritage. However, like most of the ancient monuments of Bangladesh, Panishail structures inside this complex stand against the threat of decay and anthropogenic destruction with no effort to conserve them. There is a need for immediate action of research, exploration and preservation to save this historic landmark. This research aims to investigate historic and physical features of the temple complex through a systematic survey and documentation effort. This research will lay a foundation for future conservation intervention on this site. Moreover, this work will significantly contribute to historic temple architecture study in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0071.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: history of architecture; architectural models; architectural media
Online: 12 December 2017 (07:05:09 CET)
Architecture is more than just buildings. Its associated production and reception processes take place through a variety of different media. Among those media, the model is of special significance: because architecture, like almost every science or art, works with models as representationally or theoretically simplified images mediating between the abstract and the reality. The properties that characterise models give them a special significance in architecture—both in the abstract, as well as in the concrete. The following article sketches out the history of the architectural model as a medium in a short tour d’horizon. A special focus is placed on showing the versatility of the model—for design and presentation and as an artefact, teaching resource and research medium. It transmits a specific form of knowledge which can be replaced by no other medium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Korean Heritage; Asian Architecture; Tadao Ando; Hypogeal Chambers; Architectural Proportions; Ashlar Construction; Innovative Architectural Projects.
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:23:12 CET)
The purpose of this article is to disclose the architectural proportions and nature of the Korean national treasure in Seokguram Grotto, Gyeongju. The authors compare its features with those of other ancient hypogeal or ashlar constructions and intend to rediscover its relevant hidden configuration and latent structural properties to show its uniqueness. The methods employed in the research belong initially to architectural design and composition to advance at a later stage, into the nuances of stone masonry, lighting effects or cohesive construction. In this discussion and thorough analysis, different philosophical and scientific subtleties come afloat. The results demonstrate a significant potential capable to be applied in part to recent architectural developments like Tadao Ando’s Buddha Hill in Hokkaido (2017) and the authors’ own project for a Buddhist monument.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0488.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Modern Architecture in East Asia; Architectural Design; Laszlo Hudec; Antonin Raymond; Innovative Architectural Projects. Space Syntax. Asian traditions.
Online: 30 December 2021 (13:07:36 CET)
The purpose of this article is to disclose the strenuous efforts of Laszlo Hudec in China and Antonin Raymond in Japan and India to create a modern architectural stance by heralding an incipient space syntax. In the turn of the 19th Century, for dynastic, politic and economic reasons, Eastern Asia had very little modern Architecture. It is a surprising fact that, out of happenstance, two European architects Antonin Raymond and Laszlo Hudec, had to intervene to remedy this situation, to the point of becoming 20th Century icons in Japan and China. Their fruitful careers spanned over thirty years and included locations, like Tamil Nadu or the Philippines. The Oriental territories were not an easy ground for the bold architectural achievements that they produced. Despite of faraway strangeness and uncountable personal losses, in revolutions and wars, which eventually forced them both to leave for the United States of America and never to return, they were successful in the manner of establishing a broad avenue for Modern Asian Architecture which is still recognisable today thanks to their systematic approach. However, theirs is an endangered heritage and the intention of this article is to be a just remembrance of in which way such actions could be performed, how they predated by many years a syntactic approach to architectural composition and why their legacy should be preserved.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: creativity; ideation; architectural design studio; education; systematic review
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:58:29 CET)
Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practice in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into 5 key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0010.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: color; polychrome, baroque architecture; 16th-18th century; entablature; architectural order.
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:46:41 CET)
The article is dedicated to the role of polychrome solutions of the architectonic order in the concept of the Baroque façade. The ancient principles of designing architectural structures, inherited from the Renaissance were subjected to reinterpretations in order to impart different expressive values. The arrangements of façades, initially balanced or even horizontal, were replaced by ambiguous bivalent compositions. Vertical layouts began to dominate in the Baroque. Appropriately selected polychrome of the elements of the order could emphasize the compositional expression. The relationship between the layout of the polychrome in a given architectural order and the expression of a work of art has been established for quite a long time. However, the generally available data on color schemes of architectural structures in baroque buildings are still not fully organized. The paper analyses examples of Baroque façades preserved in their original state and revalorized in recent years after thorough conservator’s research in the field of architecture and color. The examples are mainly designed in the so-called great order, i.e. pertaining largely to church façades. In the Baroque, the vertical direction of the composition was strongly emphasized by multiplying or applying perspective arrangements of supports, and finally by embattled entablatures. The decisive field of change became the shaping of the coloristic decoration of the entablature – decisions regarding the material and color separation of elements of the frieze above the supports. The uniform color of all vertical elements of the façade structure guaranteed an unambiguous verticality of the composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Walkability; Central Kolkata; Accessibility, Universal Mobility; Architectural Planning Research; Accessibility Audit
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:22:11 CET)
In this research, the accessibility in the footpath-level walkability condition of old core cities of India has been assessed, considering Central Kolkata, India as a case. Post-2015, after the implementation of Goal Number 11 of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (i.e. Sustainable Cities and Communities), the significance of universal mobility has globally manifolded in the walkability sector. This research has been done in theoretical, ideological, and methodological patterns using Architectural Planning Research for promoting Universal Mobility in old Indian cities. The variables (categorical) used in this research are related to pedestrian infrastructure. The categorical variables are: 1) Building Typology of Stretch, 2) Footpath Dimensions, 3) Temporary Encroachment, 4) Permanent Encroachment, 5) Bus Stop, 6) Metro Rail Entrance, 7) Railings, 8) Storm Water Drains, 9) Public Toilet, 10) Trash Bins, 11) Street Lights, 12) Flooring, 13) Manholes, 14) Kerb, 15) Pedestrian Crossing, 16) Street Furniture, 17) Safety and Security, and 18) Additional Inclusive Features like signage. This research shows that the footpath stretches in Central Kolkata, India are inadequate in terms of ideal accessibility. In addition to this, the result of this research portrays complexities in the adaptability of accessible walkability-related considerations; thereby suggesting a new accessibility audit format for old core Indian cities for achieving Universal Mobility standards in the future. The authors also propose quantitative methods to conduct future research in the same domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Universal Design; Mobility; Old Core Cities; Walkability; Central Kolkata; Architectural Planning
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:26:00 CET)
In this research, users’ perception towards Universal Mobility in old core cities of India has been critically analyzed. Despite Universal Design guidelines from the United Nations and Union Government of India, old cities in India are seldom having Universal Mobility, in effect endangering the lifestyle of senior citizens and differently-abled people. The core of Kolkata Municipal Corporation in Kolkata, India has been considered as a case example for this research. This research has considered three types of data sets for analysis. First, the authors interviewed 310 respondents from the Indian design fraternity, with the objective of understanding their opinion on the concept of Universal Design. In the next investigative study of 125 respondents from different wards of Kolkata Municipal Corporation, the purpose was to comprehend people’s perception about walkability and mobility in an old Indian city. In the last visual survey of a stretch in Central Kolkata, the focus was identifying the hindrance in Universal Mobility in an old city core of Indian origin. Significant dissatisfaction was found in walkability amongst all user groups; which is linked to poor infrastructural conditions. Furthermore, accessing public transportation is difficult due to improper waiting facilities. However, the design fraternity in India suggests the need of separate accessibility guidelines for old and new cities in India. The design fraternity also recommends a customized rating system for accessing Universal Design. The result of this study indicates a need of recognizing the difficulty in imparting Universal Mobility in old core cities in India. This information can be used for preparing an Access Audit Checklist through Architectural Planning, which is the first step in proposing a framework for Universal Mobility in old core cities in India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: interdisciplinary communication; early architectural design stage; procedural information; generative modeling; dashboard
Online: 14 June 2018 (10:33:18 CEST)
The purpose of interdisciplinary communication during the early architectural design stage is to achieve the early integration of knowledge in different professional fields, which can help architects to choose correct design development strategies during the early architectural design stage. However, because there is too little information at the early design stage, and design solutions are still rapidly changing and developing, the uncertainties at this stage make it difficult for consultants in other disciplines to provide their views and analysis. In spite of this situation, the emergence of generative modeling is changing design procedures and methods of communication and cooperation for architectural teams, and has brought about a shift in the way architects transmit design information from "what" (declarative information) to "how" (procedural information). Generative modeling is like an aircraft's dashboard: It can provide a basis for interdisciplinary communication, provide interdisciplinary knowledge packages, and bring about a shift in interdisciplinary communication that will reduce the architectural team's communication needs and cost. This study uses a real design case to show the feasibility of generative modeling. Employing generative modeling as a basis, architects can enhance the efficiency of design change and multi-disciplinary communication during the early design stage, integrate specialized knowledge in relevant fields, use this knowledge to formulate design criteria for the next stage, and effectively transmit design decisions. As a consequence, the changes to the cost structure of design revisions and communication between different disciplines has initiated a paradigm shift toward multi-disciplinary communication in architectural design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: protective structures; microclimatic monitoring; microbiological deterioration of architectural finds; Archaeological site 1a Imperial Palace Sirmium
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:24:50 CEST)
For the purpose of this paper, the actual air temperature and air humidity values were monitored in the Visitor Centre of the Archaeological site 1a Imperial Palace Sirmium, designated cultural heritage of exceptional importance. The contamination level of archaeological finds in the site was microbiologically analysed. The findings showed that during the phase of microclimatic monitoring (February–April 2021), air humidity was almost constantly above the levels set by standards and recommendations for museum collections (>60%). The highest levels of air humidity, amounting to 93%, were recorded in February, with daily oscillations of up to 30%; the lowest recorded temperature was 0.3°C, with the maximum daily oscillations of 6°C. Microbiological analysis revealed great diversity in the deterioration level of the finds, which can be attributed to the time lapse between the last conservation and the present. The comparative analysis of microclimatic monitoring and microbiological analysis results identified high levels of relative air humidity as the dominant factor in the increased microbiological contamination of the finds. The findings also pointed to the necessity of continuous microclimatic monitoring during the actual usage of the facility in order to provide the sustainable display and preservation of the finds on the premises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0557.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Conoid; Ellipse; Ramanujan; Calculus of surface areas; number Psi; number Pi; 3D-construction of complex Geometries; Engineering Design Objects; Architectural Forms.
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:04:18 CEST)
Unlike the volume, the expression for the lateral area of a regular conoid has not yet been obtained by means of direct integration or a differential geometry procedure. As this form is relatively used in engineering, the inability to determine its surface, represents a serious hindrance for several problems which arise in radiative transfer, lighting and construction, to cite just a few. Since this particular shape can be conceived as a set of linearly dwindling ellipses which remain parallel to a circular directrix, a typical problem appears when looking for the length of such ellipses. We conceived a new procedure which, in principle, consists in dividing the surface into infinitesimal elliptic strips to which we have subsequently applied Ramanujan’s second approximation. In this fashion, we can obtain the perimeter of any ellipse pertaining to the said form as a function of the radius of the directrix and the position of the ellipse’s center on the X-axis. Integrating the so-found perimeters of the differential strips for the whole span of the conoid, an unexpected solution emerges through the newly found number psi (ψ). As the strips are slanted in the symmetry axis, their width is not uniform and we need to perform some adjustments in order to complete the problem with sufficient precision. Relevant implications for technology, building science, radiation and structure are derived in the ensuing discussion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: 3D printing (3DP), Construction processes, Architectural design, Concrete Engineering, Numerical Modelling, Arch-Roof, High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Additive manufacturing (AM), Computer-aided design (CAD), Manufacture, Design, Sustainability
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:39:43 CET)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are transforming the design and manufacture of components and products across a variety of disciplines, however their application in the construction industry is still limited. Material deposition processes can achieve infinite geometries and have advanced from rapid prototyping and model-scale markets to their application in fabricating functional products, large objects and the construction of full-scale buildings. Many international projects have recently been realized and the construction industry is beginning to utilise these dynamic technologies. The potential advantages for integrating 3D printing into house construction are significant, these include the capacity for mass customization of designs and parameters for functional and aesthetic purposes, reduction in construction waste from highly precise material placement, and the use of recycled waste products in layer deposition materials. With the ultimate goal of improving construction efficiency and decreasing building costs, applying Strand7 Finite Element Analysis software, a numerical model was designed specifically for 3D printing in a cement mix incorporated with recycled waste product High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and found that construction of an arched truss-like roof was structurally feasible without the need for steel reinforcements. The lab sizes prototypes were manufactured based on the destined numerical model by using a 3D printing technology. Currently available 3D printing technologies can be adopted for building construction and this paper discusses the applications, advantages, limitations and future directions of 3D printing as an innovative and viable solution for affordable house construction.