Preprint Article Version 10 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 14 January 2021 / Approved: 15 January 2021 / Online: 15 January 2021 (12:38:30 CET)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10).


Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of carbon. These studies include different ideas for the scientific problems and discuss them within the scope and application. Depending on the processing conditions of a gaseous carbon, it exists in various allotropic forms. The electron transfer mechanism is responsible for converting the gaseous carbon atom into various states – graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene states. A typical energy shaped like parabola trajectory enables transfer of the electron in carbon atom by preserving its equilibrium state. In the conversion of carbon atom from one state to other state, the energy trajectory links to suitable filled state and unfilled state of the east side and the other energy trajectory links to suitable filled state and unfilled state of the west side. In this way, filled state electrons simultaneously transfer to nearby unfilled states through the paths provided by the involved trajectories of typical energy. Here, involved typical energy remains partially conserved. So, the force exerted to the electrons is also partially conserved. Carbon atoms when in graphite, nanotube and fullerene states, they ‘partially evolve and partially develop’ the structures. Atoms form structures of one dimension, two dimensions and four dimensions, respectively. Binding atoms in such structural formations involve the typical energy shaped like parabola, where partially conserved forces also engage at the electron level. The graphite structure under only attained dynamics of atoms is also formed, but in the order of two dimensions and amorphous carbon. Here, a binding energy among graphite atoms is due to the small difference between their east force and west force. Structural formations in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve a different shaped typical energy to control the orientation of electrons undertaking one more clamp of the unfilled energy knot. Here, an involved typical energy has shape like golf-stick, which is half of the trajectory shaped like parabola. To undertake double clamping of energy knot, all four targeted electrons of the outer ring (of depositing diamond atom) aligned along the south pole and all four unfilled energy knots of the outer ring (of deposited diamond atom) positioned along the east-west poles. So, a growth of diamond is found to be south to ground. Here, depositing diamond atom binds to deposited diamond atom ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms form a topological structure of tetra-electron. Graphene atoms can form structure oppositely when compared to structural formation in diamond atoms. Binding of lonsdaleite atoms can be from ground to a bit south. To nucleate the structure of glassy carbon, three layers of carbon atoms having different state for each layer (gaseous, graphite and lonsdaleite) bind in the successive manner. Mohs hardness of nanostructures and microstructures of different carbon materials is also sketched.


carbon; atomic structure; electron dynamics; potential energy; forced exertion; atomic binding



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