Preprint Article Version 10 This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10).


Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of carbon element. These studies include different opinions for scientific problems and discuss various levels within the scope and application. Originally, a carbon atom exists in different allotropic forms depending on the conditions of processing its gaseous state. The electron transfer mechanism is responsible for converting the gaseous carbon atom into various states, such as graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The parabola shaped ‘energy trajectory’ enables transfer of electrons from both east and west sides of an atom. An ‘energy trajectory’ is linked to suitable states (filled and unfilled states), where forcing exertion to transferring electron is remained balance. So, the mechanism of originating different states of a gas state carbon atom is through involvement of energy first. This is not the case with atoms executing confined inter-state electron dynamics as the force of conservation is involved first. Carbon atoms when in graphite, nanotube or fullerene state, they ‘partially evolve and partially develop’ (form) their structure. Respectively, structure of their atoms is in the order of one dimension, two dimensions and four dimensions. In their structure formation, atoms involve ‘energy curve’ having a shape like parabola. Here, atoms deal with a balanced exertion of force engaged for the poles of suitable electrons. The graphite structure under attained dynamics of atoms only can also be formed but in the order of atoms having structure in two dimension. Here, binding energy between graphite atoms is due to a small difference of exerting forces to their opposite poles. Structure formation in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involves energy to gain required infinitesimal displacements of their electrons. Through involved energy for their atoms, exerting force along the relevant poles of suitable electrons in orientational manner is engaged. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to east-west (ground), where depositing atom binds to deposited atom ground to south (each electron of outer ring in depositing atom deals with orientating force to clamp by another energy knot of outer ring belonging to deposited atom). Thus, diamond atoms form a topological structure of tetra-electron ground to south. So, lonsdaleite atoms form a topological structure of bi-electron ground to a bit south. The formation of graphene structure should be in opposite direction to structure formation in diamond. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure, where tri-layers of gas, graphite and lonsdaleite state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. Structure of each state carbon atom explores its own science. Based on the structure, Mohs hardness of various carbon components is also sketched.

Subject Areas

carbon; atomic structure; electron dynamics; potential energy; forced exertion; atomic binding

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