Preprint Article Version 10 This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10).

Abstract

Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of its element. They include different opinions for scientific problems and discuss fairly convincingly various levels within the scope and application. A gas state carbon atom converts into various states depending on its conditions of processing. The electron transfer mechanism in the gas state carbon atom is responsible to convert it into various states, such as graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The shape of ‘energy trajectory’ enables transferring electrons from the left and right sides of an atom are like a parabola. That ‘energy trajectory’ is linked to states (filled state and suitable unfilled state), where forced exertion along the poles of transferring electrons remained balanced. So, the mechanism of originating different states of a gas state carbon atom is under the involvement of energy first. This is not the case for atoms executing confined inter-state electron dynamics as the force is involved first. Graphite, nanotube and fullerene state atoms ‘partially evolve partially develop’ (form) their structures. These possess one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional ordering of atoms respectively. Their structural formation also comprises ‘energy curve’ having a shape like parabola. Transferring suitable filled state electron to suitable nearby unfilled state is under a balanced force, exerting along the poles. The graphite structure under only attained dynamics of atoms can also be formed but in two-dimension. Here, binding energy between graphite state carbon atoms is for a small difference of exerting forces along their opposite poles. Structural formation in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve energy to gain required infinitesimal displacements of electrons through which they maintain orientationally-controlled exerting forces along the dedicated poles. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to east-west (ground), where atoms bind ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge for a bi-electron ground to a bit south topological structure. The growth of graphene is found to be north to ground, where atoms bind to ground to north. Thus, graphene atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure, where tri-layers of gas, graphite and lonsdaleite state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. Nanoscale hardness is also sketched based on different force and energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, the structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.

Subject Areas

carbon; atomic structure; electron dynamics; potential energy; forced exertion; atomic binding

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