Preprint Article Version 10 This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10).


Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of carbon element. These studies include different opinions for scientific problems and discuss various levels within the scope and application. Originally, a carbon atom converts for various states depending on the conditions of processing its precursors or compounds. The electron transfer mechanism is responsible for converting the gas carbon atom into various states, such as graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The parabola shaped of ‘energy trajectory’ enables transfer of electrons from the left and right sides of an atom. That ‘energy trajectory’ is linked to states (suitable filled and unfilled states), where forcing exertion along the poles of transferring electrons is remained balance or impartial. So, the mechanism of originating different states of a gas state carbon atom is under the involvement of energy first. This is not the case with atoms executing confined inter-state electron dynamics as the force in conserved manner is involved first. Graphite, nanotube and fullerene state atoms partially evolve partially develop (form) structures. These possess one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional ordering of atoms respectively. Atoms of their structural formation involves ‘energy curve’ having a shape like parabola while transferring of suitable filled state electron to suitable nearby unfilled state. Their structural formation deal with a balanced exertion of force engaged for the poles of relevant electrons. The graphite structure under attained dynamics of atoms only can also be formed but in a two-dimensional order. Here, binding energy between graphite atoms is due to a small difference of exerting forces to their opposite poles. Structural formation in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involves energy to gain required infinitesimal displacements of electrons. Through the involved energy, orientationally exerting forces along the dedicated poles of relevant electrons in their atoms are engaged. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to east-west (ground), where atoms bind ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge from a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge from a bi-electron ground to a bit south topological structure. The growth of graphene is found to be from north to ground, where atoms bind from ground to north. Thus, graphene atoms merge from a tetra-electron ground to north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure, where tri-layers of gas, graphite and lonsdaleite state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. Structure of each state carbon atom explores own science. Based on the carbon structure, hardness (at Mohs scale) of nanoscale components is also sketched.

Subject Areas

carbon; atomic structure; electron dynamics; potential energy; forced exertion; atomic binding

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