Preprint Article Version 10 This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v10).


Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of carbon. These studies include different ideas for scientific problems and discuss them within the scope and application. Depending on the processing conditions of gaseous carbon, it exists in various allotropic forms. The electron transfer mechanism is responsible for converting the gaseous carbon atom into various states – graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite, and graphene state. A typical energy shape like parabola trajectory enables transfer of electron in carbon atom by preserving the equilibrium state. In the conversion of carbon atom from one state to another, an energy trajectory links to suitable filled state and unfilled state of east side and another energy trajectory links to its suitable filled state and unfilled state of west side. In this way, filled state electrons simultaneously transfer to nearby unfilled states through the paths provided by the energy trajectories. Here, a partially conserved force is exerted to electrons. So, the involvement of typical energy is also partially conserved. Carbon atoms when in graphite, nanotube and fullerene state, they ‘partially evolve and partially develop’ their structures. Respectively, their atoms form structures of one dimension, two dimensions and four dimensions. In their structural formation, atoms also involve ‘energy curve’ having shape like parabola, so also engage a partially conserved force exerting along the transferring electrons. The graphite structure under only attained dynamics of atoms can also be formed, but in the order of two dimensions and amorphous carbon. Here, a binding energy between graphite atoms is due to a small difference between east force and west force. Structural formations in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve heat energy to attain required infinitesimal displacements of electrons, where exerting force along the relevant poles of targeted electrons engages in an orientational manner. To undertake double clamping of energy knot, all four targeted electrons of outer ring in depositing diamond atom aligned along the south-pole and all four unfilled energy knots of outer ring in deposited diamond atom positioned along the east-west poles. So, a growth of diamond is found to be south to ground, where a depositing atom binds to deposited atom, i.e., ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms form a topological structure of tetra-electron by the application of non-conservative energy and force. Graphene atoms can form structure in opposite manner to diamond atoms. Binding of lonsdaleite atoms can be from ground to a bit south. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure, where tri-layers of gaseous, graphite and lonsdaleite state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. In the structural formations of diamond, lonsdaleite, graphene and glassy carbon, an involved typical energy is in non-conservative behavior. So, typical energy shape like golf-stick (half of parabola shaped energy) is involved for each electron to undertake another clamping of energy knot. Mohs hardness in nano-structured carbons is also sketched.

Subject Areas

carbon; atomic structure; electron dynamics; potential energy; forced exertion; atomic binding

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