Preprint Article Version 4 This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v4). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v4).

Abstract

Many studies deal synthesis of carbon because of its versatility but lack the arresting of understanding at convincing and compelling levels. Each carbon state atom explores its own science and application. To convert gas state carbon atom into graphitic state carbon atom, a non-conserved energy is required to transfer filled state electron to nearby unfilled state, on left-side and right-side. Forces of relevant poles at instant of transferring electrons behave neutral enabling each electron to obey arc-like trajectory formed by typical energy to go into nearby unfilled state. Changing the position of two electrons results into originate a new physical behavior of each established state carbon atom. Different state of the carbon atom is obtained under confined inter-state electron-dynamics where involved non-conserved energy engaged the non-conservative force. Involved energies in one-dimensional structure evolution of graphite engage neutral behavior of forces exerting in space format and surface format along the single axis. Involved energies in two-dimensional structure evolution of nanotube engage neutral behavior of forces exerting in space format-surface format and grounded format-surface format (and vice versa) along the two axes. Involved energies in four-dimensional structure evolution of fullerene engage neutral behavior of forces exerting in all four quadrants of binding each fullerene state atom. A graphite structure does evolve under attained dynamics of graphitic state atoms, only where opposite pole forces under a slight difference keep adhering the structure. Evolution of structure in diamond and lonsdaleite state atoms is under the joint application of surface format and grounded format where electrons of binding atom deal double clamping of energy knots belonging to unfilled states of deposited atom under their neutral behavior of exerting forces. Structural evolution of graphene is under the joint application of surface format and space format where four electrons of binding atom deal double clamping of energy knots belonging to unfilled states of deposited atoms under their neutral behavior of exerting forces. Growth of diamond is south to ground, but binding of diamond state atoms is ground to south, so, it is tetra-double-clamped energy knot ground to south topological structure. Same is the case for lonsdaleite state atoms except it is bi-double-clamped energy knot ground to south topological structure. Growth of graphene is north to ground, but binding of atoms is ground to north, so, it is tetra-double-clamped energy knot ground to north structure. Glassy carbon is related to a wholly layered-topological structure where tri-layers of gas carbon atoms, graphitic state atoms and lonsdaleite state atoms order in the repetition manner. In glassy carbon, forces of all formats (space, surface and grounded) work neutral while binding atoms under their successive tri-layers. Gas state carbon atoms do not evolve structure due to maintenance of electrons at above ground. Different states carbon atoms also evolve different amorphous structures when bind under their frustrating amalgamation. Hardness of carbon-based materials identified in literature is sketched in the light of different force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. A carbon atom is the best model to explain binding mechanism in atoms.

Subject Areas

carbon; atomic structure; force-energy behaviors; atomic binding; structure evolution; glassy carbon

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