Preprint Article Version 11 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 14 January 2021 / Approved: 15 January 2021 / Online: 15 January 2021 (12:38:30 CET)
Version 12 : Received: 24 April 2022 / Approved: 25 April 2022 / Online: 25 April 2022 (06:14:04 CEST)
Version 13 : Received: 28 July 2022 / Approved: 29 July 2022 / Online: 29 July 2022 (02:57:38 CEST)
Version 14 : Received: 21 September 2022 / Approved: 22 September 2022 / Online: 22 September 2022 (07:21:18 CEST)
Version 15 : Received: 24 October 2022 / Approved: 24 October 2022 / Online: 24 October 2022 (04:52:17 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v11). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v11).

Abstract

Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of carbon element. These studies deal with different ideas and discuss them within the scientific scope and application. Depending on the processing conditions of carbon precursor, carbon exists in its various allotropic forms. Electron transfer mechanism is responsible for converting the gaseous carbon atom into the various carbon states named graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. To convert the carbon atom from existing state to a new state, two pieces of dash-shaped typical energy involve transferring filled state electrons to nearby unfilled states. In an electron transfer mechanism, the carbon atom preserves its equilibrium state. Through the involved typical energy, filled state electrons instantaneously and simultaneously transfer to the unfilled states. The involved dash-shaped typical energy has its conserved behavior that is partial. A transferring electron is also under the partially conserved forces. Carbon atoms in graphite, nanotube and fullerene states evolve and develop the structures partially. The structures of one dimension, two dimensions and four dimensions are formed respectively. In the formation of such structures, atoms bind by the pieces of same involved dash-shaped typical energy. The graphite structure under the attained dynamics of atoms only is also formed, but in two dimensions or in amorphous carbon. Here, force and energy, chemical in nature, together contribute. The structural formations in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene state atoms involve a different shaped typical energy. Such typical energy controls the orientation of electron while undertaking its one additional clamp of energy knot. The involved typical energy has a form like golf-stick. To undertake one additional clamp of energy knot, all four electrons (of the outer ring) in depositing diamond state atom get aligned along the south pole and all four unfilled energy knots (of the outer ring) in deposited diamond state atom get stretched along the east-west poles. In this way, a depositing diamond state atom binds to the deposited diamond state atom from ground to south. Growth is from south to ground, so the structure of diamond is ‘tetra-electron topological structure’. Binding of lonsdaleite state atoms is from ground to a bit south. To nucleate glassy carbon, layers of gaseous, graphite and lonsdaleite state atoms bind simultaneously. To grow glassy carbon, these layers repeat in the binding process. Mohs hardness of the nanostructured and microstructured carbon is also sketched.

Keywords

carbon; atomic structure; electron dynamics; potential energy; forced exertion; atomic binding

Subject

MATERIALS SCIENCE, Surfaces, Coatings & Films

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 15 January 2021
Commenter: Mubarak Ali
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Figure 2b is modified and figure 2b is new.  Section 3.2 splitted into the sub-sections 3.2.1, 3.2.2 and 3.2.3
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