Preprint Article Version 11 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 14 January 2021 / Approved: 15 January 2021 / Online: 15 January 2021 (12:38:30 CET)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v11). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v11).


Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of carbon element. These studies deal with different ideas and discuss them within the scientific scope and application. Depending on the processing conditions of carbon precursor, carbon exists in its various allotropic forms. The electron transfer mechanism is responsible for converting the gaseous carbon atom into various states, i.e., graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. In the conversion of carbon atom from existing state to new state, two typical energies of dash shapes involve transferring filled state electrons to nearby unfilled states. In the electron transfer mechanism, a carbon atom preserves its equilibrium state. Through the involved typical energies, filled state electrons instantaneously and simultaneously transfer to unfilled states. The involved typical energy has its conserved behavior that is partial. The force exerted to the transferring electron also behaves conservatively in a partial way. Carbon atoms in graphite, nanotube and fullerene evolve and develop the structures partially. The structures of one dimension, two dimensions and four dimensions are formed respectively. In the formation of such structures, atoms bind by the same involved dash-shaped typical energies. (The graphite structure under attained dynamics of atoms only is also formed though in the order of two dimensions and amorphous carbon.) The structural formations in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve a different shaped typical energy controlling the orientation of electron while undertaking one additional clamp of energy knot. The involved typical energy has a form like golf-stick. To undertake double clamping of energy knot, all four electrons (of the outer ring) in depositing diamond atom get aligned along the south pole and all four unfilled energy knots (of the outer ring) in deposited diamond atom get positioned along the east-west poles. In this way, a depositing diamond atom binds to deposited diamond atom from ground to south. Thus, the growth of diamond should be south to ground. Thus, diamond atoms form the tetra-electron topological structure. Binding of lonsdaleite atoms can be from ground to a bit south. To nucleate the structure of glassy carbon, carbon atoms deal with different states of each layer to bind in successive manner, i.e., gaseous, graphite and lonsdaleite atoms. Mohs hardness of nanostructured and microstructured carbon-based materials is also sketched.


carbon; atomic structure; electron dynamics; potential energy; forced exertion; atomic binding



Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 15 January 2021
Commenter: Mubarak Ali
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Figure 2b is modified and figure 2b is new.  Section 3.2 splitted into the sub-sections 3.2.1, 3.2.2 and 3.2.3
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