Preprint Article Version 5 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 14 January 2021 / Approved: 15 January 2021 / Online: 15 January 2021 (12:38:30 CET)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v5). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v5).


Many studies deal synthesis of carbon because of its versatility but lack the arresting of understanding at convincing and compelling levels. A binding energy shape-like parabola is linked to state of handing over electron to state of taking over electron at each opposite side of the atom maintaining the equilibrium of resulting new state of the carbon atom. Through this mechanism of transferring electrons for the gas state carbon atom, it converts into graphitic state, nanotube state, fullerene state, diamond state, lonsdaleite state and graphene state carbon atom. Forces of relevant poles remain neutral at instant of transferring electrons to attain specific state of their carbon atom. Structure evolutions in graphitic, nanotube and fullerene state carbon atoms are remained one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional, respectively, where energy shape-like parabola is also involved along the relevant quadrant executing electron-dynamics to engage neutral behavior of exerting relevant poles forces. A graphite structure when develops under attained dynamics of atoms and their binding is under a bit difference of involved opposite pole forces, it develops in two-dimensional also. Evolution of structure in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene state carbon atoms is under involving potential energy of electrons dealing double clamping of energy knot where relevant poles forces exerted in the orientationally controlled manner. Growth of diamond is south to ground, but binding of atoms is ground to south, so, it is a tetra-electrons ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite is a bi-electrons ground to just-south topological structure. Growth of graphene is just-north to ground, but binding of atoms is ground to just-north, so, it is a tetra-electrons ground to just-north topological structure. Glassy carbon is related to a layered-topological structure where successive tri-layers of gas, graphitic and lonsdaleite state atoms bind in the repetition manner. In glassy carbon, pairs of orientated electrons of gas and lonsdaleite state carbon atoms deal double clamping of energy knot by entering from the rear-side and front-side, respectively, to bind to intermediate layers of graphitic state atoms. Different carbon atoms develop amorphous structures when they bind under frustrating amalgamation. Hardness of carbon-based materials is also sketched in the light of different force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.


carbon; atomic structure; force-energy behaviors; atomic binding; structure evolution; glassy carbon


MATERIALS SCIENCE, General Materials Science

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