Preprint Article Version 6 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 14 January 2021 / Approved: 15 January 2021 / Online: 15 January 2021 (12:38:30 CET)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v6). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v6).


Many studies deal synthesis of carbon because of its versatility but lack the arresting of understanding at convincing and compelling levels. A binding energy shape-like parabola is linked to state of handing over electron to state of taking over at each opposite-side of the atom maintaining the equilibrium of resulting new state of the carbon atom. Through this mechanism of transferring electrons for the gas state carbon atom, it converts into graphitic state, nanotube state, fullerene state, diamond state, lonsdaleite state and graphene state carbon atom. Exerting forces to relevant poles of transferring electrons work neutral to attain specific state of their carbon atom. Structure evolutions in graphitic, nanotube and fullerene state carbon atoms are remained one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional, respectively, where energy shape-like parabola is involved along the relevant quadrant for transferring electron(s) where neutral behavior of exerting forces is engaged. A graphite structure when develops under attained dynamics of atoms and their binding is under a bit difference of involved opposite pole forces, it develops in two-dimensional also. Evolution of structure in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene state carbon atoms is under the involvement of potential energy of electrons as per their undertaking the infinitesimal displacements, thus, engaging their relevant poles exerting forces in the orientationally-controlled manner. Growth of diamond is south to ground, but binding of atoms is ground to south, so, it is a tetra-electrons ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite is a bi-electrons ground to just-south topological structure. Growth of graphene is just-north to ground but binding of atoms is ground to just-north, so, it is a tetra-electrons ground to just-north topological structure. Glassy carbon is related to a layered-topological structure where successive tri-layers of gas, graphitic and lonsdaleite state atoms bind in the repetitive manner. In glassy carbon, pair of orientated electrons of gas and lonsdaleite state carbon atoms undertake another clamping of pair of unfilled energy knots by entering from the rear-side and front-side, respectively, to bind to intermediate layers of graphitic state atoms. Different carbon atoms develop amorphous structures when they bind under frustrating amalgamation. Hardness of carbon-based materials is also sketched in the light of different force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.


carbon; atomic structure; force-energy; atomic binding; structure


MATERIALS SCIENCE, General Materials Science

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