Preprint Article Version 8 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 12 July 2018 / Online: 12 July 2018 (09:24:51 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 29 July 2018 / Approved: 30 July 2018 / Online: 30 July 2018 (08:46:38 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 25 September 2018 / Approved: 25 September 2018 / Online: 25 September 2018 (06:22:46 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 December 2018 / Approved: 14 December 2018 / Online: 14 December 2018 (08:58:10 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 14 January 2019 / Approved: 15 January 2019 / Online: 15 January 2019 (07:01:56 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 16 May 2019 / Approved: 17 May 2019 / Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 2 June 2019 / Approved: 4 June 2019 / Online: 4 June 2019 (10:15:58 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 14 January 2021 / Approved: 15 January 2021 / Online: 15 January 2021 (12:38:30 CET)
Version 12 : Received: 24 April 2022 / Approved: 25 April 2022 / Online: 25 April 2022 (06:14:04 CEST)
Version 13 : Received: 28 July 2022 / Approved: 29 July 2022 / Online: 29 July 2022 (02:57:38 CEST)
Version 14 : Received: 21 September 2022 / Approved: 22 September 2022 / Online: 22 September 2022 (07:21:18 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v8). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v8).


Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of the carbon element. They present different sorts of understandings fairly at convincing and compelling levels. A gas-state carbon atom converts into its various states depending on the conditions of processing. The electron transfer mechanism in the gas-state carbon atom is responsible for its conversion to various states, namely, graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The shape of energy responsible to transfer electron from the sides (east- and west-poles) of its atom is like parabola. That energy is linked to states (from filled state to nearby unfilled state) where exerted force to relevant poles of transferring electron is remained neutral. So, the mechanism of originating different states from a gaseous carbon atom is under the involvement of energy at first, which is not the case for atoms executing their confined inter-state electron-dynamics where force is involved at first. Structure evolved in graphite-, nanotubes- and fullerene-states have respectively one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional atoms. Moreover, the associated energy curve is a parabola, indicating the transfer of electrons under neutral exertion of forces to their relevant poles. The graphite structure under only attained-dynamics of atoms is also developed but in two-dimension. Here, binding energy between graphitic carbon atoms is engaged under the influence of a small difference available between their involved forces along opposite poles. Structural evolution in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve potential energy of electrons required to undertake infinitesimal displacements under orientationally-controlled exerting forces to their relevant poles. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to ground where atoms bound ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge for a bi-electron ground to just-south topological structure. The growth of graphene was just-north to ground; however, the binding of atoms was ground to just-north showing tetra-electrons ground to just-north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure which successively binds tri-layers of gas-, graphite- and lonsdaleite-state atoms in repetitive manner. Orientating pair of electrons of each atom of below gas layer and above lonsdaleite layer enter from the rear side and front side respectively to undertake another clamping of unfilled energy knots belonging to each atom of intermediate graphitic layer. Different carbon atoms develop amorphous structures when they bind under frustrating amalgamation. Hardness of carbon-based materials was also sketched in the light of force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.


carbon atomic structure; allotropes; electron-dynamics; energy; neutral force; non-conservative force; atomic binding


MATERIALS SCIENCE, General Materials Science

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