Preprint Article Version 3 This version is not peer-reviewed

Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms

Version 1 : Received: 5 January 2018 / Approved: 7 January 2018 / Online: 7 January 2018 (10:42:10 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2018 / Approved: 2 March 2018 / Online: 2 March 2018 (14:37:34 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 April 2018 / Approved: 16 April 2018 / Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:12 CEST)

How to cite: Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v3). Ali, M. Atomic Structure and Binding of Carbon Atoms. Preprints 2018, 2018010036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201801.0036.v3).

Abstract

Many studies deal synthesis of carbon-based materials because of the versatility of carbon element where lack the arresting of understanding at convincing and compelling levels. A non-conservative energy is required to transfer occupied state electron to nearby unfilled state along both left and right sides of the gas state carbon atom to convert it into its graphitic state where exerting forces of relevant poles of transferring electrons remain neutral at the instant of tracking the arc-like trajectory to go into unfilled state. Changing the position of two electrons in each state carbon atom results into originate its new physical behavior. Different state carbon atoms were obtained under confined inter-state electron-dynamics under the involvement of non-conservative energies where engaging the non-conservative forces instead of conservative were engaged. Structure evolution for graphitic, nanotube, and fullerene states atoms mainly engages the surface format forces where involved arc-shape energies enable execution of confined inter-state electron-dynamics binding to amalgamating atoms in one quadrant, two quadrants and four quadrants to develop structure of one-dimension, two-dimension and four-dimension, respectively. However, a graphite structure is evolved under the application of electron-dynamics of attaining graphitic state atoms as well as under their attained dynamics, only. Evolution of structure in diamond and lonsdaleite state atoms are under the joint application of surface format force and grounded format force where electrons of binding atom deal another clamping of energy knots belonging to unfilled states of deposited atoms while visualizing the force of south to their bottom tips through them. Structural evolution of graphene engages both surface format and space format forces to work neutral at the instant of binding atom through its four electrons dealing another clamping of energy knots belonging to unfilled states of deposited atoms while visualizing the force of north to their top-sides through them. Growth of diamond is south to ground but binding of atoms is ground to south, so it is tetra-double-clamped energy knot ground to south topological structure. Same is the case for lonsdaleite state atoms except it is bi-double-clamped energy knot ground to south topological structure. Growth of graphene is north to ground but binding of atoms is ground to north, so it is tetra-double-clamped energy knot ground to north structure. Glassy carbon is related to a wholly layered-topological structure where tri-layers of gas carbon atoms, graphitic state atoms and lonsdaleite state atoms order in repetition manner. In glassy carbon, forces of space format, surface format and grounded format work as neutral while binding atoms of successive tri-layers. Due to maintenance of electrons at above ground surface in gas state carbon atoms, they do not attain the favorable point for binding. Hardness of carbon-based materials as per identified in literature is sketched under the exploration of different force-energy behaviors exerting at electron level is described. A carbon atom is a best model to explain binding mechanism in atoms of various elements and in fullerene state, it is a best model to understand the working forces at ground surface.

Subject Areas

: carbon; atomic structure; atomic behavior; atomic binding; force-energy behaviors; glassy carbon

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Comment 1
Received: 26 April 2018
Commenter: Catherine Tregurtha
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